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Respiratory distress

MedGen UID:
96907
Concept ID:
C0476273
Sign or Symptom
Synonyms: Breathing difficulties; Distressed breathing; Labored breathing; Laboured breathing; Respiratory difficulties; Respiratory Distress
SNOMED CT: Respiratory distress (271825005); Distressed breathing (271825005)
 
HPO: HP:0002098

Definition

Respiratory distress is objectively observable as the physical or emotional consequences from the experience of dyspnea. The physical presentation of respiratory distress is generally referred to as labored breathing, while the sensation of respiratory distress is called shortness of breath or dyspnea. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Achondroplasia
MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis.
Cleidocranial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
3486
Concept ID:
C0008928
Disease or Syndrome
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) spectrum disorder is a skeletal dysplasia that represents a clinical continuum ranging from classic CCD (triad of delayed closure of the cranial sutures, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, and dental abnormalities) to mild CCD to isolated dental anomalies without the skeletal features. Most individuals come to diagnosis because they have classic features. At birth, affected individuals typically have abnormally large, wide-open fontanelles that may remain open throughout life. Clavicular hypoplasia can result in narrow, sloping shoulders that can be opposed at the midline. Moderate short stature may be observed, with most affected individuals being shorter than their unaffected sibs. Dental anomalies may include supernumerary teeth, eruption failure of the permanent teeth, and presence of the second permanent molar with the primary dentition. Individuals with CCD spectrum disorder are at increased risk of developing recurrent sinus infections, recurrent ear infections leading to conductive hearing loss, and upper-airway obstruction. Intelligence is typically normal.
Hypohidrotic X-linked ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
57890
Concept ID:
C0162359
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum
MedGen UID:
66357
Concept ID:
C0221060
Disease or Syndrome
The most basic description of Moebius syndrome is a congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction. The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and abducens nerve (CN VI) are most frequently involved, but other cranial nerves may be involved as well. Other variable features include orofacial dysmorphism and limb malformations. Mental retardation has been reported in a subset of patients. Most cases of Moebius syndrome are sporadic, but familial occurrence has been reported (Verzijl et al., 2003). The definition of and diagnostic criteria for Moebius syndrome have been controversial and problematic. The syndrome has most frequently been confused with hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP; see 601471), which is restricted to involvement of the facial nerve and no other abnormalities. Verzijl et al. (2003) and Verzijl et al. (2005) concluded that HCFP and Moebius syndrome are distinct disorders, and that Moebius syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of the brainstem. Moebius syndrome was defined at the Moebius Syndrome Foundation Research Conference in 2007 as congenital, nonprogressive facial weakness with limited abduction of one or both eyes. Additional features can include hearing loss and other cranial nerve dysfunction, as well as motor, orofacial, musculoskeletal, neurodevelopmental, and social problems (summary by Webb et al., 2012). Kumar (1990) provided a review of Moebius syndrome, which was critiqued by Lipson et al. (1990). Briegel (2006) provided a review of Moebius sequence with special emphasis on neuropsychiatric findings.
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia
MedGen UID:
65962
Concept ID:
C0238378
Disease or Syndrome
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or pneumonitis, is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized pathologically by expansion of the interstitial compartment of the lung by inflammatory cells. Fibrosis occurs in many cases (Visscher and Myers, 2006). See also interstitial lung disease-1 (ILD1; 619611). Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP) was originally described as a pathologic entity by Liebow et al. (1965). Lung biopsy shows diffuse and uniform filling of alveoli by clusters of cells which Liebow et al. (1965) speculated to be 'desquamated pneumocytes.' Since then, these cells have been shown primarily to be pigmented alveolar macrophages. Other features include thickened alveolar septa with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells and plump, cuboidal type II pneumocytes. Mild collagen deposition without architectural distortion or honeycombing may be present. Different forms of ILD represent pathologic classifications based on histologic patterns rather than clinical diagnoses and may occur in a variety of clinical contexts (Visscher and Myers, 2006). Although DIP occurs most often as a sporadic disorder in adults during the third to fifth decade of life and is highly associated with smoking (Carrington et al., 1978), reports of a familial form with onset in infancy and early death suggest a genetic basis (Sharief et al., 1994). Cases of DIP reported in infants are often more severe and refractory to treatment than those reported in adults (Nogee et al., 2001).
Congenital laryngomalacia
MedGen UID:
120500
Concept ID:
C0264303
Anatomical Abnormality
Laryngomalacia is a congenital abnormality of the laryngeal cartilage in which the cartilage is floppy and prolapses over the larynx during inspiration.
Agnathia-otocephaly complex
MedGen UID:
78541
Concept ID:
C0265242
Congenital Abnormality
Agnathia-otocephaly (AGOTC) is a rare condition characterized by mandibular hypoplasia or agnathia, ventromedial auricular malposition (melotia) and/or auricular fusion (synotia), and microstomia with oroglossal hypoplasia or aglossia. Holoprosencephaly is the most commonly identified association, but skeletal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular anomalies, and situs inversus have been reported. The disorder is almost always lethal (review by Faye-Petersen et al., 2006).
Kniest dysplasia
MedGen UID:
75559
Concept ID:
C0265279
Disease or Syndrome
Kniest dysplasia is characterized by skeletal and craniofacial anomalies. Skeletal anomalies include disproportionate dwarfism, a short trunk and small pelvis, kyphoscoliosis, short limbs, and prominent joints and premature osteoarthritis that restrict movement. Craniofacial manifestations include midface hypoplasia, cleft palate, early-onset myopia, retinal detachment, and hearing loss. The phenotype is severe in some patients and mild in others. There are distinct radiographic changes including coronal clefts of vertebrae and dumbbell-shaped femora. The chondrooseous morphology is pathognomonic with perilacunar 'foaminess' and sparse, aggregated collagen fibrils resulting in an interterritorial matrix with a 'Swiss-cheese' appearance (summary by Wilkin et al., 1999).
Congenital lobar emphysema
MedGen UID:
120557
Concept ID:
C0265797
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital malformation characterized by an overdistended segment of lung, affecting an party of a lobe or the entire one. It results in progressive overinflation of one or more lobes.
Hyperammonemia, type III
MedGen UID:
120649
Concept ID:
C0268543
Disease or Syndrome
N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. The clinical and biochemical features of the disorder are indistinguishable from carbamoyl phosphate synthase I deficiency (237300), since the CPS1 enzyme (608307) has an absolute requirement for NAGS (Caldovic et al., 2007).
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75696
Concept ID:
C0268596
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) represents a clinical spectrum in which presentations can be divided into type I (neonatal onset with congenital anomalies), type II (neonatal onset without congenital anomalies), and type III (late onset). Individuals with type I or II MADD typically become symptomatic in the neonatal period with severe metabolic acidosis, which may be accompanied by profound hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia. Many affected individuals die in the newborn period despite metabolic treatment. In those who survive the neonatal period, recurrent metabolic decompensation resembling Reye syndrome and the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can occur. Congenital anomalies may include dysmorphic facial features, large cystic kidneys, hypospadias and chordee in males, and neuronal migration defects (heterotopias) on brain MRI. Individuals with type III MADD, the most common presentation, can present from infancy to adulthood. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and/or muscle pain, although metabolic decompensation with episodes of rhabdomyolysis can also be seen. Rarely, individuals with late-onset MADD (type III) may develop severe sensory neuropathy in addition to proximal myopathy.
Renal carnitine transport defect
MedGen UID:
90999
Concept ID:
C0342788
Disease or Syndrome
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is a disorder of the carnitine cycle that results in defective fatty acid oxidation. It encompasses a broad clinical spectrum including the following: Metabolic decompensation in infancy typically presenting between age three months and two years with episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, poor feeding, irritability, lethargy, hepatomegaly, elevated liver transaminases, and hyperammonemia triggered by fasting or common illnesses such as upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis. Childhood myopathy involving heart and skeletal muscle with onset between age two and four years. Pregnancy-related decreased stamina or exacerbation of cardiac arrhythmia. Fatigability in adulthood. Absence of symptoms. The latter two categories often include mothers diagnosed with CDSP after newborn screening has identified low carnitine levels in their infants.
Familial infantile myasthenia
MedGen UID:
140751
Concept ID:
C0393929
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. CMS6 is an autosomal recessive CMS resulting from a presynaptic defect; patients have onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood and tend to have sudden apneic episodes. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may be beneficial (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Osteoglophonic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
96592
Concept ID:
C0432283
Congenital Abnormality
Osteoglophonic dysplasia (OGD) is characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism, nonossifying bone lesions, craniosynostosis, prominent supraorbital ridge, and depressed nasal bridge (summary by White et al., 2005).
Toriello-Carey syndrome
MedGen UID:
163225
Concept ID:
C0796184
Disease or Syndrome
Toriello-Carey syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable systemic manifestations, most commonly including mental retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, postnatal growth delay, cardiac defects, usually septal defects, distal limb defects, and urogenital anomalies in affected males. Patients have facial dysmorphic features, micrognathia, including full cheeks, hypertelorism, flattened nasal bridge, anteverted nares, and short neck. Not all features are found in all patients and some patients may have additional features such as anal anomalies or hernias (summary by Toriello et al., 2003). In a review of the Toriello-Carey syndrome, Toriello et al. (2016) stated that while corpus callosum abnormalities and micrognathia with highly arched or cleft palate are seen in most patients, other manifestations are widely variable. They noted that etiologic heterogeneity has been observed in reported patients, with at least 20% of patients having chromosome anomalies, and that no good candidate genes have been identified by exome sequencing. The authors commented that this condition might not be a unitary diagnostic entity. They recommended chromosome microarray for any child suspected of having the condition, followed by standard of care by genetic testing.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
Upshaw-Schulman syndrome
MedGen UID:
224783
Concept ID:
C1268935
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), also known as Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS), is a rare autosomal recessive thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Clinically, acute phases of TTP are defined by microangiopathic mechanical hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and visceral ischemia. Hereditary TTP makes up 5% of TTP cases and is caused mostly by biallelic mutation in the ADAMTS13 gene, or in very rare cases, by monoallelic ADAMTS13 mutation associated with a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); most cases of all TTP (95%) are acquired via an autoimmune mechanism (see 188030). Hereditary TTP is more frequent among child-onset TTP compared with adult-onset TTP, and its clinical presentation is significantly different as a function of its age of onset. Child-onset TTP usually starts in the neonatal period with hematological features and severe jaundice. In contrast, almost all cases of adult-onset hereditary TTP are unmasked during the first pregnancy of a woman whose disease was silent during childhood (summary by Joly et al., 2018).
Hyperparathyroidism, transient neonatal
MedGen UID:
722059
Concept ID:
C1300287
Disease or Syndrome
Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism is characterized by interference with placental maternal-fetal calcium transport, causing fetal calcium deficiency resulting in hyperparathyroidism and metabolic bone disease. Because 80% of calcium is transferred during the third trimester, abnormalities may not be detected on second-trimester ultrasounds. Affected infants present at birth with prenatal fractures, shortened ribs, and bowing of long bones, as well as respiratory and feeding difficulties. Postnatal recovery or improvement is observed once calcium is provided orally, with most patients showing complete resolution of skeletal abnormalities by 2 years of age (Suzuki et al., 2018).
Platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type
MedGen UID:
331974
Concept ID:
C1835437
Disease or Syndrome
The Torrance type of platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia (PLSDT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by varying platyspondyly, short ribs with anterior cupping, hypoplasia of the lower ilia with broad ischial and pubic bones, and shortening of the tubular bones with splayed and cupped metaphyses. Histology of the growth plate typically shows focal hypercellularity with slightly enlarged chondrocytes in the resting cartilage and relatively well-preserved columnar formation and ossification at the chondroosseous junction. Though generally lethal in the perinatal period, longer survival has been reported (summary by Zankl et al., 2005).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1E
MedGen UID:
324784
Concept ID:
C1837396
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG Ia (212065) and CDG Ib (602579).
Succinic acidemia
MedGen UID:
373921
Concept ID:
C1838243
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphanospondylodysostosis
MedGen UID:
374993
Concept ID:
C1842691
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphanospondylodysostosis is a rare, recessively inherited, perinatal lethal skeletal disorder. The primary skeletal characteristics include small chest, abnormal vertebral segmentation, and posterior rib gaps containing incompletely differentiated mesenchymal tissue. Consistent craniofacial features include ocular hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge with short nose, and low-set ears. The most commonly described extraskeletal finding is nephroblastomatosis with cystic kidneys, but other visceral findings have been described in some cases (summary by Funari et al., 2010).
Gaucher disease perinatal lethal
MedGen UID:
374996
Concept ID:
C1842704
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 1, X-linked
MedGen UID:
336609
Concept ID:
C1844020
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects (CHTD) are among the most common congenital defects, occurring with an incidence of 8/1,000 live births. The etiology of CHTD is complex, with contributions from environmental exposure, chromosomal abnormalities, and gene defects. Some patients with CHTD also have cardiac arrhythmias, which may be due to the anatomic defect itself or to surgical interventions (summary by van de Meerakker et al., 2011). Reviews Obler et al. (2008) reviewed published cases of double-outlet right ventricle and discussed etiology and associations. Genetic Heterogeneity of Visceral Heterotaxy See also HTX2 (605376), caused by mutation in the CFC1 gene (605194) on chromosome 2q21; HTX3 (606325), which maps to chromosome 6q21; HTX4 (613751), caused by mutation in the ACVR2B gene (602730) on chromosome 3p22; HTX5 (270100), caused by mutation in the NODAL gene (601265) on chromosome 10q22; HTX6 (614779), caused by mutation in the CCDC11 gene (614759) on chromosome 18q21; HTX7 (616749), caused by mutation in the MMP21 gene (608416) on chromosome 10q26; HTX8 (617205), caused by mutation in the PKD1L1 gene (609721) on chromosome 7p12; HTX9 (618948), caused by mutation in the MNS1 gene (610766) on chromosome 15q21; HTX10 (619607), caused by mutation in the CFAP52 gene (609804) on chromosome 17p13; HTX11 (619608), caused by mutation in the CFAP45 gene (605152) on chromosome 1q23; and HTX12 (619702), caused by mutation in the CIROP gene (619703) on chromosome 14q11. Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects An X-linked form of CHTD, CHTD1, is caused by mutation in the ZIC3 gene on chromosome Xq26. CHTD2 (614980) is caused by mutation in the TAB2 gene (605101) on chromosome 6q25. A form of nonsyndromic congenital heart defects associated with cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances (CHTD3; 614954) has been mapped to chromosome 9q31. CHTD4 (615779) is caused by mutation in the NR2F2 gene (107773) on chromosome 15q26. CHTD5 (617912) is caused by mutation in the GATA5 gene (611496) on chromosome 20q13. CHTD6 (613854) is caused by mutation in the GDF1 gene (602880) on chromosome 19p13. CHTD7 (618780) is caused by mutation in the FLT4 gene (136352) on chromosome 5q35. CHTD8 (619657) is caused by mutation in the SMAD2 gene (601366) on chromosome 18q21. CHTD9 (620294) is caused by mutation in the PLXND1 gene (604282) on chromosome 3q22.
X-linked myotubular myopathy-abnormal genitalia syndrome
MedGen UID:
335354
Concept ID:
C1846169
Disease or Syndrome
A rare chromosomal anomaly, partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome X, with characteristics of a combination of clinical manifestations of X-linked myotubular myopathy and a 46,XY disorder of sex development. Patients present with a severe form of congenital myopathy and abnormal male genitalia.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 2
MedGen UID:
338258
Concept ID:
C1847554
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Lethal congenital glycogen storage disease of heart
MedGen UID:
337919
Concept ID:
C1849813
Disease or Syndrome
A rare glycogen storage disease with fetal or neonatal onset of severe cardiomyopathy with non-lysosomal glycogen accumulation and fatal outcome in infancy. Patients present with massive cardiomegaly, severe cardiac and respiratory complications and failure to thrive. Non-specific facial dysmorphism, bilateral cataracts, macroglossia, hydrocephalus, enlarged kidneys and skeletal muscle involvement have been reported in some cases.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 6 (hepatocerebral type)
MedGen UID:
338045
Concept ID:
C1850406
Disease or Syndrome
MPV17-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect presents in the vast majority of affected individuals as an early-onset encephalohepatopathic (hepatocerebral) disease that is typically associated with mtDNA depletion, particularly in the liver. A later-onset neuromyopathic disease characterized by myopathy and neuropathy, and associated with multiple mtDNA deletions in muscle, has also rarely been described. MPV17-related mtDNA maintenance defect, encephalohepatopathic form is characterized by: Hepatic manifestations (liver dysfunction that typically progresses to liver failure, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and steatosis); Neurologic involvement (developmental delay, hypotonia, microcephaly, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy); Gastrointestinal manifestations (gastrointestinal dysmotility, feeding difficulties, and failure to thrive); and Metabolic derangements (lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia). Less frequent manifestations include renal tubulopathy, nephrocalcinosis, and hypoparathyroidism. Progressive liver disease often leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported.
Muscular hypertonia, lethal
MedGen UID:
342600
Concept ID:
C1850827
Disease or Syndrome
Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome
MedGen UID:
377668
Concept ID:
C1852406
Disease or Syndrome
Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome (BSTVS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the furrowed skin disorder of cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, craniosynostosis, craniofacial dysmorphism, digital anomalies, umbilical and anogenital abnormalities, and early death (summary by Przylepa et al., 1996).
Methylmalonic aciduria, cblB type
MedGen UID:
344420
Concept ID:
C1855102
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Methylmalonic aciduria, cblA type
MedGen UID:
344422
Concept ID:
C1855109
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Methylmalonic aciduria due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency
MedGen UID:
344424
Concept ID:
C1855114
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Methylcobalamin deficiency type cblG
MedGen UID:
344426
Concept ID:
C1855128
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
349893
Concept ID:
C1860808
Disease or Syndrome
Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency (TPID) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by congenital hemolytic anemia, and progressive neuromuscular dysfunction beginning in early childhood. Many patients die from respiratory failure in childhood. The neurologic syndrome is variable, but usually includes lower motor neuron dysfunction with hypotonia, muscle weakness and atrophy, and hyporeflexia. Some patients may show additional signs such as dystonic posturing and/or spasticity. Laboratory studies show intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), particularly in red blood cells (summary by Fermo et al., 2010).
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4
MedGen UID:
350526
Concept ID:
C1861862
Disease or Syndrome
Nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tends to be milder. This form typically begins later in life than familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and affected individuals have a lower risk of serious cardiac events and sudden death than people with the familial form.\n\nThe symptoms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are variable, even within the same family. Many affected individuals have no symptoms. Other people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may experience chest pain; shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion; a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations); lightheadedness; dizziness; and fainting.\n\nIn familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac thickening usually occurs in the interventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) from the lower right chamber (the right ventricle). In some people, thickening of the interventricular septum impedes the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart, which may lead to an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) and other signs and symptoms of the condition. Other affected individuals do not have physical obstruction of blood flow, but the pumping of blood is less efficient, which can also lead to symptoms of the condition. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often begins in adolescence or young adulthood, although it can develop at any time throughout life.\n\nWhile most people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are symptom-free or have only mild symptoms, this condition can have serious consequences. It can cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that may be life threatening. People with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of sudden death, even if they have no other symptoms of the condition. A small number of affected individuals develop potentially fatal heart failure, which may require heart transplantation.\n\nHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart condition characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart (cardiac) muscle. When multiple members of a family have the condition, it is known as familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in people with no family history; these cases are considered nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
355264
Concept ID:
C1864652
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is characterized by malar and mandibular hypoplasia, microcephaly (congenital or postnatal onset), intellectual disability (mild, moderate, or severe), malformations of the external ear, and hearing loss that is typically conductive. Associated craniofacial malformations may include cleft palate, choanal atresia, zygomatic arch cleft (identified on cranial CT scan), and facial asymmetry. Other relatively common findings (present in 25%-35% of individuals) can include cardiac anomalies, thumb anomalies, esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula, short stature, spine anomalies, and epilepsy.
Respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants
MedGen UID:
368840
Concept ID:
C1968593
Disease or Syndrome
The main cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants is a developmental deficiency of pulmonary surfactant. The frequency of RDS is inversely proportional to gestational age. However, not all infants born prematurely develop RDS, suggesting that there may be susceptibility factors. Because multiple factors can contribute to the pathogenesis of RDS specifically in premature infants, the etiology is considered to be multifactorial (summaries by Ramet et al., 2000; Clark and Clark, 2005). Pathogenic germline mutations in several genes involved in surfactant metabolism, including SFTPB (178640) and SFTPC (178620), can cause clinical features of respiratory distress syndrome in term neonates, children, and adults, disorders referred to as 'surfactant metabolism dysfunction' (see, e.g., SMDP1, 265120). Susceptibility to the development of RDS in premature infants may be associated with polymorphisms in surfactant genes, such as surfactant protein A1 (SFTPA1; 178630), SFTPB, and SFTPC (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Brain-lung-thyroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
369694
Concept ID:
C1970269
Disease or Syndrome
NKX2-1-related disorders range from benign hereditary chorea (BHC) to choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress (also known as brain-lung-thyroid syndrome). Childhood-onset chorea, the hallmark of NKX2-1-related disorders, may or may not be associated with respiratory distress syndrome or congenital hypothyroidism. Chorea generally begins in early infancy or about age one year (most commonly) or in late childhood or adolescence, and progresses into the second decade after which it remains static or (rarely) remits. Pulmonary disease, the second most common manifestation, can include respiratory distress syndrome in neonates, interstitial lung disease in young children, and pulmonary fibrosis in older persons. The risk for pulmonary carcinoma is increased in young adults with an NKX2-1-related disorder. Thyroid dysfunction, the result of dysembryogenesis, can present as congenital hypothyroidism or compensated hypothyroidism. The risk for thyroid cancer is unknown and may not be increased. In one review, 50% of affected individuals had the full brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, 30% had involvement of brain and thyroid only, and 13% had isolated chorea only.
Interstitial lung disease due to ABCA3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
410074
Concept ID:
C1970456
Disease or Syndrome
For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction, see SMDP1 (265120).
Surfactant metabolism dysfunction, pulmonary, 2
MedGen UID:
410078
Concept ID:
C1970470
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction-2 (SMDP2) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with progressive respiratory insufficiency and lung disease with a variable clinical course. The pathophysiology of the disorder is postulated to involve intracellular accumulation of a structurally defective SPC protein (Thomas et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction, see SMDP1 (265120).
Severe achondroplasia-developmental delay-acanthosis nigricans syndrome
MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
SADDAN dysplasia (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by the constellation of these features. Radiology reveals 'ram's horn' shaped clavicles and reverse bowing of lower limbs. Approximately half of patients die before the fourth week of life secondary to respiratory failure (summary by Zankl et al., 2008).
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
MedGen UID:
412530
Concept ID:
C2745959
Congenital Abnormality
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature (short trunk), abnormal epiphyses, and flattened vertebral bodies. Skeletal features are manifested at birth and evolve with time. Other features include myopia and/or retinal degeneration with retinal detachment and cleft palate (summary by Anderson et al., 1990).
Sterile multifocal osteomyelitis with periostitis and pustulosis
MedGen UID:
411230
Concept ID:
C2748507
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis-2 with periostitis and pustulosis (CRMO2) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic autoinflammatory disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in early infancy. Affected individuals present with joint swelling and pain, pustular rash, oral mucosal lesions, and fetal distress. The disorder progresses in severity to generalized severe pustulosis or ichthyosiform lesions and diffuse bone lesions. Radiographic studies show widening of the anterior rib ends, periosteal elevation along multiple long bones, multifocal osteolytic lesions, heterotopic ossification, and metaphyseal erosions of the long bones. Laboratory studies show elevation of inflammatory markers. The disorder results from unopposed activation of the IL1 inflammatory signaling pathway. Treatment with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra may result in clinical improvement (Aksentijevich et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CRMO, see 609628.
Isolated congenital hypoglossia/aglossia
MedGen UID:
411249
Concept ID:
C2748587
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoglossia with situs inversus is a very rare congenital condition that likely represents a developmental field defect. Only sporadic cases have been reported (Faqeih et al., 2008). Hypoglossia is part of a group of malformation syndromes collectively termed 'oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndromes,' that usually include limb defects. Hall (1971) provided a classification system (see 103300). See also agnathia with holoprosencephaly (202650), which shows hypoglossia and situs inversus in addition to severe neurodevelopmental defects.
Myopathy, congenital, with fiber-type disproportion, X-linked
MedGen UID:
440714
Concept ID:
C2749128
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 8a
MedGen UID:
412815
Concept ID:
C2749861
Disease or Syndrome
Four phenotypes comprise the RRM2B mitochondrial DNA maintenance defects (RRM2B-MDMDs): RRM2B encephalomyopathic MDMD, the most severe phenotype, usually manifesting shortly after birth as hypotonia, poor feeding, and faltering growth requiring hospitalization. Subsequent assessments are likely to reveal multisystem involvement including sensorineural hearing loss, renal tubulopathy, and respiratory failure. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), typically adult onset; other manifestations can include ptosis, bulbar dysfunction, fatigue, and muscle weakness. RRM2B autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO), a typically childhood-onset predominantly myopathic phenotype of PEO, ptosis, proximal muscle weakness, and bulbar dysfunction. RRM2B mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE)-like, characterized by progressive ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, and peripheral neuropathy. To date, 78 individuals from 52 families with a molecularly confirmed RRM2B-MDMD have been reported.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 10
MedGen UID:
412873
Concept ID:
C2750080
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
STT3B-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419309
Concept ID:
C2931007
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ix (CDG1X) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of protein glycosylation. Clinical features include hypotonia, developmental delay, seizures and respiratory difficulties (Shrimal et al., 2013; Kilic and Akkus, 2020).
Chromosome 6q24-q25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461565
Concept ID:
C3150215
Disease or Syndrome
6q25 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, facial dysmorphism and hearing loss.
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 2
MedGen UID:
462152
Concept ID:
C3150802
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia-2 (MLASA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The disorder shows marked phenotypic variability: some patients have a severe multisystem disorder from infancy, including cardiomyopathy and respiratory insufficiency resulting in early death, whereas others present in the second or third decade of life with sideroblastic anemia and mild muscle weakness (summary by Riley et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MLASA, see MLASA1 (600462).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1GG
MedGen UID:
462248
Concept ID:
C3150898
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SDHA gene.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 10
MedGen UID:
462561
Concept ID:
C3151211
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type X is an autosomal recessive form characterized by multiple bone deformities and fractures, generalized osteopenia, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and blue sclera (Christiansen et al., 2010).
Steinert myotonic dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
886881
Concept ID:
C3250443
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. The clinical findings, which span a continuum from mild to severe, have been categorized into three somewhat overlapping phenotypes: mild, classic, and congenital. Mild DM1 is characterized by cataract and mild myotonia (sustained muscle contraction); life span is normal. Classic DM1 is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, myotonia, cataract, and often cardiac conduction abnormalities; adults may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. Congenital DM1 is characterized by hypotonia and severe generalized weakness at birth, often with respiratory insufficiency and early death; intellectual disability is common.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482008
Concept ID:
C3280378
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-2 (MMDS2) with hyperglycinemia is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental regression in infancy. Affected children have an encephalopathic disease course with seizures, spasticity, loss of head control, and abnormal movement. Additional more variable features include optic atrophy, cardiomyopathy, and leukodystrophy. Laboratory studies show increased serum glycine and lactate. Most patients die in childhood. The disorder represents a form of 'variant' nonketotic hyperglycinemia and is distinct from classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH, or GCE; 605899), which is characterized by significantly increased CSF glycine. Several forms of 'variant' NKH, including MMDS2, appear to result from defects of mitochondrial lipoate biosynthesis (summary by Baker et al., 2014). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
MEGF10-related myopathy
MedGen UID:
482309
Concept ID:
C3280679
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-10A (CMYP10A) is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by generalized hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and poor feeding apparent from birth. Decreased fetal movements may be observed. More variable features include high-arched palate, distal joint contractures, foot deformities, scoliosis, areflexia, and dysphagia. Many patients show eventration of the diaphragm. Affected individuals become ventilator-dependent in the first months or years of life and never achieve walking; many die in childhood (Logan et al., 2011). Patients with more damaging mutations in the MEGF10 gene, including nonsense or frameshift null mutations, show the more severe phenotype (CMYP10A), whereas those with missense mutations affecting conserved cysteine residues in the EGF-like domain show the less severe phenotype with later onset of respiratory failure and minicores on muscle biopsy (CMYP10B) (Croci et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766318
Concept ID:
C3553404
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND), also known as 'question-mark ear syndrome' or 'dysgnathia complex,' is a craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by highly variable mandibular anomalies, including mild to severe micrognathia, often with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, cleft palate, and a distinctive ear malformation that consists of separation of the lobule from the external ear, giving the appearance of a question mark. Other frequently described features include prominent cheeks, cupped and posteriorly rotated ears, preauricular tags, and microstomia (summary by Rieder et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).
Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier deficiency
MedGen UID:
766521
Concept ID:
C3553607
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and lactic acidosis with a normal lactate/pyruvate ratio resulting from impaired mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation (summary by Bricker et al., 2012).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 19
MedGen UID:
816385
Concept ID:
C3810055
Disease or Syndrome
Any combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the LYRM4 gene.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 16
MedGen UID:
855172
Concept ID:
C3889474
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-16 (BBS16) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, renal disease, and cognitive impairment. Although polydactyly is considered a primary feature of BBS overall, it has not been reported in any BBS16 patient (Billingsley et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
SSR4-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
860832
Concept ID:
C4012395
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation with characteristics of neurologic abnormalities (global developmental delay in language, social skills and fine and gross motor development, intellectual disability, hypotonia, microcephaly, seizures/epilepsy), facial dysmorphism (deep set eyes, large ears, hypoplastic vermillion of upper lip, large mouth with widely spaced teeth), feeding problems often due to chewing difficulties and aversion to food with certain textures, failure to thrive, gastrointestinal abnormalities (reflux or vomiting) and strabismus. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene SSR4 (Xq28).
Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency 8
MedGen UID:
908648
Concept ID:
C4225226
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 30
MedGen UID:
898954
Concept ID:
C4225360
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-30 (DEE30) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures soon after birth or in the first months of life. Seizure types include early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME), Ohtahara syndrome, and infantile spasms; most are refractory to treatment. Patients with earlier seizure onset make essentially no developmental progress and may die in infancy. Those with later onset show profoundly impaired global development with absent speech, poor eye contact, inability to walk, behavioral abnormalities, and feeding difficulties that may require a feeding tube (summary by Hansen et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 15 with mandibulofacial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
902755
Concept ID:
C4225411
Disease or Syndrome
Any Diamond-Blackfan anemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RPS28 gene.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4A
MedGen UID:
908188
Concept ID:
C4225413
Disease or Syndrome
Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 99, syndromic, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
899839
Concept ID:
C4225416
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-99 (MRXS99F) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Affected females can have a wide range of additional congenital anomalies, including scoliosis, postaxial polydactyly, mild cardiac or urogenital anomalies, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities (summary by Reijnders et al., 2016).
Mucopolysaccharidosis-plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
934594
Concept ID:
C4310627
Disease or Syndrome
MPSPS is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in a multisystem disorder with features of the mucopolysaccharidosis lysosomal storage diseases (see, e.g., 607016). Patients present in infancy or early childhood with respiratory difficulties, cardiac problems, anemia, dysostosis multiplex, renal involvement, coarse facies, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients die of cardiorespiratory failure in the first years of life (summary by Kondo et al., 2017).
Lymphatic malformation 7
MedGen UID:
934596
Concept ID:
C4310629
Disease or Syndrome
LMPHM7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expressivity. Some patients may develop severe nonimmune lymphatic-related hydrops fetalis (LRHF) in utero, resulting in early death, whereas others may have milder manifestations, such as atrial septal defect (ASD) or varicose veins as adults. The hydrops and/or swelling improves spontaneously in those who survive the neonatal period (summary by Martin-Almedina et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.
Chitayat syndrome
MedGen UID:
934646
Concept ID:
C4310679
Disease or Syndrome
Chitayat syndrome (CHYTS) is a rare condition characterized by respiratory distress presenting at birth, bilateral accessory phalanx resulting in shortened index fingers with ulnar deviation, hallux valgus, and characteristic facial features including prominent eyes, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, full lips, and upturned nose (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2017).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 15 (hepatocerebral type)
MedGen UID:
934657
Concept ID:
C4310690
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TFAM gene.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 16 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
934685
Concept ID:
C4310718
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 15 with polydactyly
MedGen UID:
934691
Concept ID:
C4310724
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). SRTD15 is characterized by narrow thorax, oral and cardiovascular anomalies, short long bones, and postaxial polydactyly, in addition to other congenital anomalies. Considerable variability in features and in severity has been reported, with some affected individuals succumbing shortly after birth and others living to adulthood, even within the same family. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
PERCHING syndrome
MedGen UID:
934709
Concept ID:
C4310742
Disease or Syndrome
PERCHING syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by global developmental delay, dysmorphic facial features, feeding and respiratory difficulties with poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, and joint contractures. The features are variable, even within families, and may also include retinitis pigmentosa, cardiac or genitourinary anomalies, and abnormal sweating. Each letter of the PERCHING acronym represents 2 important phenotypic elements: Postural and Palatal abnormalities; Exophthalmos and Enteral-tube dependency/feeding issues; Respiratory distress and Retinitis pigmentosa; Contractures and Camptodactyly; Hypertelorism and Hirsutism; Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)/growth failure and Intellectual disability/developmental delay; Nevus flammeus and Neurologic malformations; and facial Gestalt/grimacing and Genitourinary abnormalities (Jeffries et al., 2019). Death in infancy or early childhood often occurs, although survival to the third decade has been reported. Some of the features, such as contractures, dysmorphic craniofacial features, and severe feeding difficulties, are reminiscent of Bohring-Opitz syndrome (605039) (summary by Kanthi et al., 2019 and Buers et al., 2020).
Pidermolysis bullosa, junctional 7, with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012).
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641240
Concept ID:
C4552001
Disease or Syndrome
The Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, bilateral microtia, and aplasia or hypoplasia of the patellae (summary by Shalev and Hall, 2003). While almost all cases have primordial dwarfism with substantial prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, not all cases have microcephaly, and microtia and absent/hypoplastic patella are absent in some. Despite the presence of microcephaly, intellect is usually normal (Bicknell et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Meier-Gorlin Syndrome Most forms of Meier-Gorlin syndrome are autosomal recessive disorders, including Meier-Gorlin syndrome-1; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-2 (613800), caused by mutation in the ORC4 gene (603056) on chromosome 2q23; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-3 (613803), caused by mutation in the ORC6 gene (607213) on chromosome 16q11; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-4 (613804), caused by mutation in the CDT1 gene (605525) on chromosome 16q24; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-5 (613805), caused by mutation in the CDC6 gene (602627) on chromosome 17q21; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-7 (617063), caused by mutation in the CDC45L gene (603465) on chromosome 22q11; and Meier-Gorlin syndrome-8 (617564), caused by mutation in the MCM5 gene (602696) on chromosome 22q12. An autosomal dominant form of the disorder, Meier-Gorlin syndrome-6 (616835), is caused by mutation in the GMNN gene (602842) on chromosome 6p22.
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1640046
Concept ID:
C4692625
Disease or Syndrome
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is characterized by: exocrine pancreatic dysfunction with malabsorption, malnutrition, and growth failure; hematologic abnormalities with single- or multilineage cytopenias and susceptibility to myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML); and bone abnormalities. In almost all affected children, persistent or intermittent neutropenia is a common presenting finding, often before the diagnosis of SDS is made. Short stature and recurrent infections are common.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 19 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
1635837
Concept ID:
C4693524
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic quadriplegia and brain abnormalities with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1633724
Concept ID:
C4693816
Disease or Syndrome
El-Hattab-Alkuraya syndrome is characterized by microcephaly (often early onset and progressive); severe-to-profound developmental delay; refractory and early-onset seizures; spastic quadriplegia with axial hypotonia; and growth deficiency with poor weight gain and short stature. Characteristic findings on brain imaging include cerebral atrophy that is disproportionately most prominent in the frontal lobes; ex vacuo ventricular dilatation with notable posterior horn predominance; brain stem volume loss with flattening of the belly of the pons; and symmetric under-opercularization. Neurologic involvement is progressive, with significant morbidity and mortality.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 68
MedGen UID:
1648479
Concept ID:
C4748688
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-68 (DEE68) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of twitching and/or myoclonic jerks in infancy. The disorder progresses to refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, often resulting in status epilepticus, loss of developmental milestones, and early death. Other features include delayed development, axial hypotonia, spasticity of the limbs, and clonus. Brain imaging may show cortical atrophy (summary by Barel et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Congenital muscular dystrophy with intellectual disability and severe epilepsy
MedGen UID:
1682844
Concept ID:
C5190603
Disease or Syndrome
A rare fatal inborn error of metabolism disorder with characteristics of respiratory distress and severe hypotonia at birth, severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, myopathic facies with craniofacial dysmorphism (trigonocephaly/progressive microcephaly, low anterior hairline, arched eyebrows, hypotelorism, strabismus, small nose, prominent philtrum, thin upper lip, high-arched palate, micrognathia, malocclusion), severe, congenital flexion joint contractures and elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Scoliosis, optic atrophy, mild hepatomegaly, and hypoplastic genitalia may also be associated. There is evidence the disease is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the DPM2 gene on chromosome 9q34.
Encephalopathy, acute, infection-induced, susceptibility to, 9
MedGen UID:
1673394
Concept ID:
C5193089
Finding
Susceptibility to acute infection-induced encephalopathy-9 (IIAE9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by episodic acute neurodegeneration and developmental regression associated with infections and febrile illness. Patients present in the first months or years of life, often after normal or only mildly delayed early development. Some patients may have partial recovery between episodes, such as transient ataxia, but the overall disease course is progressive, resulting in global developmental delay, abnormal movements, refractory seizures, microcephaly, and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Fichtman et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to acute infection-induced encephalopathy, see 610551.
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1684682
Concept ID:
C5231388
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-1 (OPDM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity (summary by Ishiura et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy See also OPDM2 (618940), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the GIPC1 gene (605072) on chromosome 19p13; OPDM3 (619473), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene (618025) on chromosome 1q21; and OPDM4 (619790), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the RILPL1 gene (614092) on chromosome 12q24. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300) is a similar disorder with overlapping features. It is caused by a similar heterozygous trinucleotide repeat expansion in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Neuromuscular disease and ocular or auditory anomalies with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684689
Concept ID:
C5231483
Disease or Syndrome
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
1748867
Concept ID:
C5399977
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC4DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms at birth or in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have severe hypotonia, often associated with feeding difficulties and respiratory insufficiency necessitating tube feeding and mechanical ventilation. The vast majority of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first days or weeks of life, which usually leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Patients also show neurologic abnormalities, including developmental delay, nystagmus, fasciculations, dystonia, EEG changes, and brain imaging abnormalities compatible with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). There may also be evidence of systemic involvement with hepatomegaly and myopathy, although neurogenic muscle atrophy is more common and may resemble spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA1; 253300). Serum lactate is increased, and laboratory studies show decreased mitochondrial complex IV protein and activity levels in various tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Most patients die in infancy of cardiorespiratory failure (summary by Papadopoulou et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
1750917
Concept ID:
C5435656
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 1 (MC4DN1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurodegeneration and encephalopathy with loss of motor and cognitive skills between about 5 and 18 months of age after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, and poor eye contact. Other features may include oculomotor abnormalities, including slow saccades, strabismus, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus, as well as deafness, apneic episodes, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Some patients may also have abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum. Laboratory studies usually show increased serum and CSF lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues. There is phenotypic variability, but death in childhood, often due to central respiratory failure, is common (summary by Tiranti et al., 1998; Tiranti et al., 1999; Teraoka et al., 1999; Poyau et al., 2000) Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency Most isolated COX deficiencies are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes; mutations in the mtDNA-encoded COX subunit genes are relatively rare (Shoubridge, 2001; Sacconi et al., 2003). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes, in addition to MC4DN1, include MC4DN2 (604377), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (604272); MC4DN3 (619046), caused by mutation in the COX10 gene (602125); MC4DN4 (619048), caused by mutation in the SCO1 gene (603664); MC4DN5 (220111), caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544); MC4DN6 (615119), caused by mutation in the COX15 gene (603646); MC4DN7 (619051), caused by mutation in the COX6B1 gene (124089); MC4DN8 (619052), caused by mutation in the TACO1 gene (612958); MC4DN9 (616500), caused by mutation in the COA5 gene (613920); MC4DN10 (619053), caused by mutation in the COX14 gene (614478); MC4DN11 (619054), caused by mutation in the COX20 gene (614698); MC4DN12 (619055), caused by mutation in the PET100 gene (614770); MC4DN13 (616501), caused by mutation in the COA6 gene (614772); MC4DN14 (619058), caused by mutation in the COA3 gene (614775); MC4DN15 (619059), caused by mutation in the COX8A gene (123870); MC4DN16 (619060), caused by mutation in the COX4I1 gene (123864); MC4DN17 (619061), caused by mutation in the APOPT1 gene (616003); MC4DN18 (619062), caused by mutation in the COX6A2 gene (602009); MC4DN19 (619063), caused by mutation in the PET117 gene (614771); MC4DN20 (619064), caused by mutation in the COX5A gene (603773); MC4DN21 (619065), caused by mutation in the COXFA4 gene (603883); MC4DN22 (619355), caused by mutation in the COX16 gene (618064); and MC4DN23 (620275), caused by mutation in the COX11 gene (603648). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency has been associated with mutations in several mitochondrial genes, including MTCO1 (516030), MTCO2 (516040), MTCO3 (516050), MTTS1 (590080), MTTL1 (590050), and MTTN (590010).
Growth hormone insensitivity with immune dysregulation 1, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1734133
Concept ID:
C5435698
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive growth hormone insensitivity syndrome with immune dysregulation-1 (GHISID1) is a congenital disorder characterized by short stature due to insensitivity to growth hormone (GH1; 139250). Affected individuals usually have failure to thrive, delayed bone age, and delayed puberty associated with decreased serum IGF1 (147440), IGFBP3 (146732), and ALS (601489). Some patients may have dysmorphic features. Most, but not all, patients have features of immune dysregulation, including chronic pulmonary disease, interstitial pneumonitis, recurrent or severe infections, eczema, and autoimmune arthritis. The immune features are highly variable (summary by Kofoed et al., 2003; Vidarsdottir et al., 2006). See 262500 for a form of growth hormone insensitivity caused by mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene (GHR; 600946).
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay and axonal peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
1754849
Concept ID:
C5436813
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay and axonal peripheral neuropathy (IDDSAPN) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by mild global developmental delay with motor impairment and severe speech delay apparent in the first years of life. Affected individuals begin to walk independently between 3 and 4 years of age, but often have an unsteady or ataxic gait. Most patients have progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy of the lower limbs, foot or hand deformities, and dysarthria, consistent with a peripheral neuropathy. There is mildly impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have behavioral anomalies, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and some can attend special schools. The overall clinical features indicate involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (summary by Martin et al., 2020 and Ahmed et al., 2021)
Odontochondrodysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
1784281
Concept ID:
C5542277
Disease or Syndrome
Odontochondrodysplasia-1 (ODCD1) is characterized by mesomelic shortening of tubular bones, ligamentous laxity, and scoliosis, in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta involving both primary and secondary dentition. Affected individuals show variable severity. Radiologic features include trident pelvis, posteriorly flattened vertebrae, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses (Maroteaux et al., 1996). Clinical variability and extraskeletal manifestations have been observed (Wehrle et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Odontochondrodysplasia Odontochondrodysplasia-2 with hearing loss and diabetes (ODCD2; 619269) is caused by mutation in the TANGO1 gene (MIA3; 613455) on chromosome 1q41.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 37
MedGen UID:
1783339
Concept ID:
C5543281
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1780615
Concept ID:
C5543591
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities (NEDHFBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, hypotonia and muscle weakness, often resulting in the inability to walk or sit, and characteristic coarse facial features. Additional features include feeding difficulties, respiratory distress, scoliosis, poor visual function, and rotary nystagmus. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, decreased white matter volume, white matter changes, thin corpus callosum, and cerebellar hypoplasia (summary by Loddo et al., 2020).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 47, and lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
1794161
Concept ID:
C5561951
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-47 and lissencephaly (CILD47) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of recurrent respiratory infections and respiratory dysfunction caused by defective mucociliary clearance in early childhood. Affected individuals also have neurologic features, such as impaired intellectual development and central hypotonia, associated with structural brain abnormalities, most notably lissencephaly and thin or absent corpus callosum. The disorder results from impaired function of motile ciliopathy and can be classified as 'reduced generation of multiple motile cilia' (RGMC). Situs inversus is not observed (summary by Wallmeier et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 30
MedGen UID:
1799028
Concept ID:
C5567605
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder with characteristics of neonatal onset of hypotonia, feeding difficulties, deafness, and early fatal respiratory failure. Cardiac and liver involvement has been reported. Serum lactate is increased and metabolic studies show decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and IV in skeletal muscle.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type VIIB
MedGen UID:
1810214
Concept ID:
C5676893
Disease or Syndrome
CLPB (caseinolytic peptidase B) deficiency is characterized by neurologic involvement and neutropenia, which can range from severe to mild. In severe CLPB deficiency, death usually occurs at a few months of age due to significant neonatal neurologic involvement (hyperekplexia or absence of voluntary movements, hypotonia or hypertonia, swallowing problems, respiratory insufficiency, and epilepsy) and severe neutropenia associated with life-threatening infections. Individuals with moderate CLPB deficiency present with neurologic abnormalities in infancy including hypotonia and feeding problems, and develop spasticity, a progressive movement disorder (ataxia, dystonia, and/or dyskinesia), epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Neutropenia is variable, but not life threatening. In those with mild CLPB deficiency there is no neurologic involvement, intellect is normal, neutropenia is mild and intermittent, and life expectancy is normal.
Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1805977
Concept ID:
C5676919
Disease or Syndrome
Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome-2 (STWS2) is an autosomal recessive lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, small chest, bowing of the long bones, and neonatal cardiopulmonary and autonomous dysfunction. Additional variable features include congenital thrombocytopenia, eczematoid dermatitis, renal anomalies, and defective acute-phase response (Chen et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome, see STWS1 (601559).
Immunodeficiency 95
MedGen UID:
1802205
Concept ID:
C5676929
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-95 (IMD95) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized predominantly by the onset of recurrent and severe viral respiratory infections in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals often require hospitalization or respiratory support for these infections, which include human rhinovirus (HRV) and RSV. Immunologic workup is usually normal, although some mild abnormalities may be observed. The disorder results from a loss of ability of the innate immune system to sense viral genetic information, which causes a lack of interferon (IFN) production, poor response to viral and immunologic stimulation, and failure to control viral replication (summary by Lamborn et al., 2017, Asgari et al., 2017, Cananzi et al., 2021).
Restrictive dermopathy 2
MedGen UID:
1801155
Concept ID:
C5676942
Disease or Syndrome
Restrictive dermopathy is a rare genodermatosis characterized mainly by intrauterine growth retardation, tight and rigid skin with erosions, prominent superficial vasculature and epidermal hyperkeratosis, facial dysmorphism (small mouth, small pinched nose and micrognathia), sparse/absent eyelashes and eyebrows, mineralization defects of the skull, thin dysplastic clavicles, pulmonary hypoplasia, multiple joint contractures, and an early neonatal lethal course. Liveborn children usually die within the first week of life (summary by Navarro et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of restrictive dermopathy, see RSDM1 (275210).
Spinal muscular atrophy, distal, autosomal recessive, 6
MedGen UID:
1823974
Concept ID:
C5774201
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-6 (HMNR6) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness in early infancy. Affected individuals often present at birth with distal joint contractures or foot deformities and show delayed motor development, often with inability to walk or frequent falls. Hypo- or hyperreflexia may be observed; limb muscle atrophy may also be present. Patients often show respiratory distress or diaphragmatic palsy. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a peripheral motor neuropathy without sensory involvement (Maroofian et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive distal HMN, see HMNR1 (604320).
Muscular dystrophy, congenital, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1824047
Concept ID:
C5774274
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy with or without seizures (MYOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe muscle hypotonia apparent from birth, as well as developmental delay. Laboratory studies show increased serum creatine kinase and muscle biopsy shows nonspecific dystrophic features. Most patients develop seizures or have abnormal epileptiform findings on EEG studies; other variable findings may include feeding difficulties, nystagmus, myopathic facies, areflexia, and brain atrophy on MRI (summary by Larson et al., 2018 and Henige et al., 2021).
Congenital myopathy 2c, severe infantile, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1840969
Concept ID:
C5830333
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2C (CMYP2C) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by severe congenital weakness usually resulting in death from respiratory failure in the first year or so of life. Patients present at birth with hypotonia, lack of antigravity movements, poor head control, and difficulties feeding or breathing, often requiring tube-feeding and mechanical ventilation. Decreased fetal movements may be observed in some cases. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype. Some patients with heterozygous mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation (CMYP2A; 161800). The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Neurodegeneration and seizures due to copper transport defect
MedGen UID:
1841021
Concept ID:
C5830385
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration and seizures due to copper transport defect (NSCT) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport characterized by hypotonia, global developmental delay, seizures, and rapid brain atrophy (summary by Dame et al., 2023).
Congenital myopathy 22B, severe fetal
MedGen UID:
1841137
Concept ID:
C5830501
Disease or Syndrome
Severe fetal congenital myopathy-22B (CMYP22B) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by in utero onset of severe muscle weakness manifest as fetal akinesia. The pregnancies are often complicated by polyhydramnios, and affected individuals develop fetal hydrops with pulmonary hypoplasia, severe joint contractures, and generalized muscle hypoplasia. Those who are born have respiratory failure resulting in death. Dysmorphic facial features may be present. The features in these patients overlap with fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS; see 208150) and lethal congenital contractures syndrome (LCCS; see 253310) (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 1
MedGen UID:
989503
Concept ID:
CN306977
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with NGLY1-related congenital disorder of deglycosylation (NGLY1-CDDG) typically display a clinical tetrad of developmental delay / intellectual disability in the mild to profound range, hypo- or alacrima, elevated liver transaminases that may spontaneously resolve in childhood, and a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder that can include choreiform, athetoid, dystonic, myoclonic, action tremor, and dysmetric movements. About half of affected individuals will develop clinical seizures. Other findings may include obstructive and/or central sleep apnea, oral motor defects that affect feeding ability, auditory neuropathy, constipation, scoliosis, and peripheral neuropathy.

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PubMed

Qadir N, Sahetya S, Munshi L, Summers C, Abrams D, Beitler J, Bellani G, Brower RG, Burry L, Chen JT, Hodgson C, Hough CL, Lamontagne F, Law A, Papazian L, Pham T, Rubin E, Siuba M, Telias I, Patolia S, Chaudhuri D, Walkey A, Rochwerg B, Fan E
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2024 Jan 1;209(1):24-36. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202311-2011ST. PMID: 38032683Free PMC Article
Sweet DG, Carnielli VP, Greisen G, Hallman M, Klebermass-Schrehof K, Ozek E, Te Pas A, Plavka R, Roehr CC, Saugstad OD, Simeoni U, Speer CP, Vento M, Visser GHA, Halliday HL
Neonatology 2023;120(1):3-23. Epub 2023 Feb 15 doi: 10.1159/000528914. PMID: 36863329Free PMC Article
Chen IL, Chen HL
Pediatr Neonatol 2022 Jul;63(4):341-347. Epub 2022 Mar 16 doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2022.02.002. PMID: 35382987

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gragossian A, Siuba MT
Emerg Med Clin North Am 2022 Aug;40(3):459-472. Epub 2022 May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2022.05.002. PMID: 35953211Free PMC Article
Kaku S, Nguyen CD, Htet NN, Tutera D, Barr J, Paintal HS, Kuschner WG
J Intensive Care Med 2020 Aug;35(8):723-737. Epub 2019 Jun 17 doi: 10.1177/0885066619855021. PMID: 31208266
Thompson BT, Chambers RC, Liu KD
N Engl J Med 2017 Aug 10;377(6):562-572. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1608077. PMID: 28792873
Confalonieri M, Salton F, Fabiano F
Eur Respir Rev 2017 Jun 30;26(144) Epub 2017 Apr 26 doi: 10.1183/16000617.0116-2016. PMID: 28446599Free PMC Article
Hermansen CL, Lorah KN
Am Fam Physician 2007 Oct 1;76(7):987-94. PMID: 17956068

Diagnosis

Gorman EA, O'Kane CM, McAuley DF
Lancet 2022 Oct 1;400(10358):1157-1170. Epub 2022 Sep 4 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01439-8. PMID: 36070788
Gragossian A, Siuba MT
Emerg Med Clin North Am 2022 Aug;40(3):459-472. Epub 2022 May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2022.05.002. PMID: 35953211Free PMC Article
Hogden L, Munger K, Duffek S
S D Med 2021 Jan;74(1):28-35. PMID: 33691054
Hermansen CL, Mahajan A
Am Fam Physician 2015 Dec 1;92(11):994-1002. PMID: 26760414
Hermansen CL, Lorah KN
Am Fam Physician 2007 Oct 1;76(7):987-94. PMID: 17956068

Therapy

Abdel-Latif ME, Davis PG, Wheeler KI, De Paoli AG, Dargaville PA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 10;5(5):CD011672. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011672.pub2. PMID: 33970483Free PMC Article
Goligher EC, Tomlinson G, Hajage D, Wijeysundera DN, Fan E, Jüni P, Brodie D, Slutsky AS, Combes A
JAMA 2018 Dec 4;320(21):2251-2259. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.14276. PMID: 30347031
Famous KR, Delucchi K, Ware LB, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Thompson BT, Calfee CS; ARDS Network
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Feb 1;195(3):331-338. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201603-0645OC. PMID: 27513822Free PMC Article
Bellomo R, Warrillow SJ, Reade MC
Crit Care Med 2009 Dec;37(12):3114-9. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181bc7bd5. PMID: 19789447
Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, Lamy M, Legall JR, Morris A, Spragg R
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994 Mar;149(3 Pt 1):818-24. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.149.3.7509706. PMID: 7509706

Prognosis

Wick KD, Matthay MA
Crit Care Clin 2021 Oct;37(4):717-732. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2021.05.002. PMID: 34548130Free PMC Article
Bellani G, Laffey JG, Pham T, Fan E, Brochard L, Esteban A, Gattinoni L, van Haren F, Larsson A, McAuley DF, Ranieri M, Rubenfeld G, Thompson BT, Wrigge H, Slutsky AS, Pesenti A; LUNG SAFE Investigators; ESICM Trials Group
JAMA 2016 Feb 23;315(8):788-800. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0291. PMID: 26903337
Conti G, Piastra M
Curr Opin Crit Care 2016 Feb;22(1):60-6. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000271. PMID: 26645553
Riviello ED, Kiviri W, Twagirumugabe T, Mueller A, Banner-Goodspeed VM, Officer L, Novack V, Mutumwinka M, Talmor DS, Fowler RA
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016 Jan 1;193(1):52-9. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201503-0584OC. PMID: 26352116
Rubenfeld GD, Caldwell E, Peabody E, Weaver J, Martin DP, Neff M, Stern EJ, Hudson LD
N Engl J Med 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1685-93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa050333. PMID: 16236739

Clinical prediction guides

Raimondi F, Migliaro F, Corsini I, Meneghin F, Dolce P, Pierri L, Perri A, Aversa S, Nobile S, Lama S, Varano S, Savoia M, Gatto S, Leonardi V, Capasso L, Carnielli VP, Mosca F, Dani C, Vento G, Lista G
Pediatrics 2021 Apr;147(4) Epub 2021 Mar 9 doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-030528. PMID: 33688032
Shah J, Rana SS
Indian J Gastroenterol 2020 Apr;39(2):123-132. Epub 2020 Apr 13 doi: 10.1007/s12664-020-01016-z. PMID: 32285399
Sarma A, Calfee CS, Ware LB
Crit Care Clin 2020 Jan;36(1):155-165. Epub 2019 Oct 22 doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2019.08.012. PMID: 31733677
Schmidt M, Bailey M, Sheldrake J, Hodgson C, Aubron C, Rycus PT, Scheinkestel C, Cooper DJ, Brodie D, Pellegrino V, Combes A, Pilcher D
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014 Jun 1;189(11):1374-82. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201311-2023OC. PMID: 24693864
Kacmarek RM, Schwartz DR
Respir Care Clin N Am 2000 Dec;6(4):597-623. doi: 10.1016/s1078-5337(05)70090-3. PMID: 11172579

Recent systematic reviews

Obarzanek L, Wu W, Tutag-Lehr V
J Palliat Med 2023 May;26(5):711-726. Epub 2022 Nov 28 doi: 10.1089/jpm.2022.0311. PMID: 36453988
Chang X, Li S, Fu Y, Dang H, Liu C
Respir Res 2022 Nov 4;23(1):301. doi: 10.1186/s12931-022-02186-4. PMID: 36333729Free PMC Article
Bhandari AP, Nnate DA, Vasanthan L, Konstantinidis M, Thompson J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jun 6;6(6):CD003645. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003645.pub4. PMID: 35661343Free PMC Article
Munshi L, Walkey A, Goligher E, Pham T, Uleryk EM, Fan E
Lancet Respir Med 2019 Feb;7(2):163-172. Epub 2019 Jan 11 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30452-1. PMID: 30642776
Munshi L, Del Sorbo L, Adhikari NKJ, Hodgson CL, Wunsch H, Meade MO, Uleryk E, Mancebo J, Pesenti A, Ranieri VM, Fan E
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Oct;14(Supplement_4):S280-S288. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201704-343OT. PMID: 29068269

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