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Dementia

MedGen UID:
99229
Concept ID:
C0497327
Finding; Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: Amentia; Amentias; Dementias
SNOMED CT: Organic dementia (52448006); Dementia (52448006)
 
HPO: HP:0000726
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0001627

Definition

A loss of global cognitive ability of sufficient amount to interfere with normal social or occupational function. Dementia represents a loss of previously present cognitive abilities, generally in adults, and can affect memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVDementia

Conditions with this feature

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4886
Concept ID:
C0017495
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome.
Pigmentary pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Wilson disease
MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body.
Huntington disease
MedGen UID:
5654
Concept ID:
C0020179
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive disorder of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. The mean age of onset is 35 to 44 years, and the median survival time is 15 to 18 years after onset.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
42526
Concept ID:
C0020258
Disease or Syndrome
Normal-pressure hydrocephalus-1 (HYDNP1) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by the clinical triad of slowly progressive gait instability, urinary incontinence, and cognitive decline associated with ventricular enlargement on brain imaging with normal pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The onset of symptoms is usually in late adulthood; the symptoms are responsive to shunting. The disorder has been associated with recurrent respiratory infections and possible infertility issues, but the latter has not been confirmed (summary by Takahashi et al., 2011 and Morimoto et al., 2019).
Kearns-Sayre syndrome
MedGen UID:
9618
Concept ID:
C0022541
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion syndromes predominantly comprise three overlapping phenotypes that are usually simplex (i.e., a single occurrence in a family), but rarely may be observed in different members of the same family or may evolve from one clinical syndrome to another in a given individual over time. The three classic phenotypes caused by mtDNA deletions are Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), Pearson syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). KSS is a progressive multisystem disorder defined by onset before age 20 years, pigmentary retinopathy, and PEO; additional features include cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellect (intellectual disability, dementia, or both), sensorineural hearing loss, ptosis, oropharyngeal and esophageal dysfunction, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, cardiac conduction block, and endocrinopathy. Pearson syndrome is characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction and may be fatal in infancy without appropriate hematologic management. PEO is characterized by ptosis, impaired eye movements due to paralysis of the extraocular muscles (ophthalmoplegia), oropharyngeal weakness, and variably severe proximal limb weakness with exercise intolerance. Rarely, a mtDNA deletion can manifest as Leigh syndrome.
Azorean disease
MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including pyramidal signs, a dystonic-rigid extrapyramidal syndrome, significant peripheral amyotrophy and generalized areflexia, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, action-induced facial and lingual fasciculations, and bulging eyes. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disorder progresses.
Tay-Sachs disease
MedGen UID:
11713
Concept ID:
C0039373
Disease or Syndrome
HEXA disorders are best considered as a disease continuum based on the amount of residual beta-hexosaminidase A (HEX A) enzyme activity. This, in turn, depends on the molecular characteristics and biological impact of the HEXA pathogenic variants. HEX A is necessary for degradation of GM2 ganglioside; without well-functioning enzymes, GM2 ganglioside builds up in the lysosomes of brain and nerve cells. The classic clinical phenotype is known as Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), characterized by progressive weakness, loss of motor skills beginning between ages three and six months, decreased visual attentiveness, and increased or exaggerated startle response with a cherry-red spot observable on the retina followed by developmental plateau and loss of skills after eight to ten months. Seizures are common by 12 months with further deterioration in the second year of life and death occurring between ages two and three years with some survival to five to seven years. Subacute juvenile TSD is associated with normal developmental milestones until age two years, when the emergence of abnormal gait or dysarthria is noted followed by loss of previously acquired skills and cognitive decline. Spasticity, dysphagia, and seizures are present by the end of the first decade of life, with death within the second decade of life, usually by aspiration. Late-onset TSD presents in older teens or young adults with a slowly progressive spectrum of neurologic symptoms including lower-extremity weakness with muscle atrophy, dysarthria, incoordination, tremor, mild spasticity and/or dystonia, and psychiatric manifestations including acute psychosis. Clinical variability even among affected members of the same family is observed in both the subacute juvenile and the late-onset TSD phenotypes.
Adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention-deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within six months to two years. Most individuals have impaired adrenocortical function at the time that neurologic disturbances are first noted. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in an individual in his twenties or middle age as progressive stiffness and weakness of the legs, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops by middle age. More than 20% of female carriers develop mild-to-moderate spastic paraparesis in middle age or later. Adrenal function is usually normal.
Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke
MedGen UID:
56485
Concept ID:
C0162671
Disease or Syndrome
MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) is a multisystem disorder with protean manifestations. The vast majority of affected individuals develop signs and symptoms of MELAS between ages two and 40 years. Common clinical manifestations include stroke-like episodes, encephalopathy with seizures and/or dementia, muscle weakness and exercise intolerance, normal early psychomotor development, recurrent headaches, recurrent vomiting, hearing impairment, peripheral neuropathy, learning disability, and short stature. During the stroke-like episodes neuroimaging shows increased T2-weighted signal areas that do not correspond to the classic vascular distribution (hence the term "stroke-like"). Lactic acidemia is very common and muscle biopsies typically show ragged red fibers.
Progressive sclerosing poliodystrophy
MedGen UID:
60012
Concept ID:
C0205710
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Fatal familial insomnia
MedGen UID:
104768
Concept ID:
C0206042
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome.
Cholestanol storage disease
MedGen UID:
116041
Concept ID:
C0238052
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disease characterized by infantile-onset diarrhea, childhood-onset cataract, adolescent- to young adult-onset tendon xanthomas, and adult-onset progressive neurologic dysfunction (dementia, psychiatric disturbances, pyramidal and/or cerebellar signs, dystonia, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures). Chronic diarrhea from infancy and/or neonatal cholestasis may be the earliest clinical manifestation. In approximately 75% of affected individuals, cataracts are the first finding, often appearing in the first decade of life. Xanthomas appear in the second or third decade; they occur on the Achilles tendon, the extensor tendons of the elbow and hand, the patellar tendon, and the neck tendons. Xanthomas have been reported in the lung, bones, and central nervous system. Some individuals show cognitive impairment from early infancy, whereas the majority have normal or only slightly impaired intellectual function until puberty; dementia with slow deterioration in intellectual abilities occurs in the third decade in more than 50% of individuals. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as behavioral changes, hallucinations, agitation, aggression, depression, and suicide attempts may be prominent. Pyramidal signs (i.e., spasticity) and/or cerebellar signs almost invariably become evident between ages 20 and 30 years. The biochemical abnormalities that distinguish CTX from other conditions with xanthomas include high plasma and tissue cholestanol concentration, normal-to-low plasma cholesterol concentration, decreased chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), increased concentration of bile alcohols and their glyconjugates, and increased concentrations of cholestanol and apolipoprotein B in cerebrospinal fluid.
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by very early childhood blindness due to degenerative and proliferative changes of the neuroretina. Approximately 50% of patients show some form of progressive mental disorder, often with psychotic features, and about one-third of patients develop sensorineural deafness in the second decade. In addition, some patients have more complex phenotypes, including growth failure and seizures (Berger et al., 1992). Warburg (1966) noted confusion of the terms 'pseudoglioma' and microphthalmia with Norrie disease in the literature. 'Pseudoglioma' is a nonspecific term for any condition resembling retinoblastoma and can have diverse causes, including inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma, neoplasia, or congenital malformation, and often shows unilateral involvement. Thus, 'pseudoglioma' is not an acceptable clinical or pathologic diagnosis (Duke-Elder, 1958).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group F
MedGen UID:
120612
Concept ID:
C0268140
Congenital Abnormality
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Gaucher disease type III
MedGen UID:
78653
Concept ID:
C0268251
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Tay-Sachs disease, variant AB
MedGen UID:
78657
Concept ID:
C0268275
Disease or Syndrome
Acute infantile GM2 activator deficiency is a neurodegenerative disorder in which infants, who are generally normal at birth, have progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress between ages four and 12 months. An ensuing developmental plateau is followed by progressively rapid developmental regression. By the second year of life decerebrate posturing, difficulty in swallowing, and worsening seizures lead to an unresponsive vegetative state. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years.
Frontotemporal dementia
MedGen UID:
83266
Concept ID:
C0338451
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) refers to a clinical manifestation of the pathologic finding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FTD, the most common subtype of FTLD, is a behavioral variant characterized by changes in social and personal conduct with loss of volition, executive dysfunction, loss of abstract thought, and decreased speech output. A second clinical subtype of FTLD is 'semantic dementia,' characterized by specific loss of comprehension of language and impaired facial and object recognition. A third clinical subtype of FTLD is 'primary progressive aphasia' (PPA), characterized by a reduction in speech production, speech errors, and word retrieval difficulties resulting in mutism and an inability to communicate. All subtypes have relative preservation of memory, at least in the early stages. FTLD is often associated with parkinsonism or motor neuron disease (MND) resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400) (reviews by Tolnay and Probst, 2002 and Mackenzie and Rademakers, 2007). Mackenzie et al. (2009, 2010) provided a classification of FTLD subtypes according to the neuropathologic findings (see PATHOGENESIS below). Clinical Variability of Tauopathies Tauopathies comprise a clinically variable group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized neuropathologically by accumulation of abnormal MAPT-positive inclusions in nerve and/or glial cells. In addition to frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, and PPA, different clinical syndromes with overlapping features have been described, leading to confusion in the terminology (Tolnay and Probst, 2002). Other terms used historically include parkinsonism and dementia with pallidopontonigral degeneration (PPND) (Wszolek et al., 1992); disinhibition-dementia-parkinsonism-amyotrophy complex (DDPAC) (Lynch et al., 1994); frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism (FLDEM) (Yamaoka et al., 1996); and multiple system tauopathy with presenile dementia (MSTD) (Spillantini et al., 1997). These disorders are characterized by variable degrees of frontal lobe dementia, parkinsonism, motor neuron disease, and amyotrophy. Other neurodegenerative associated with mutations in the MAPT gene include Pick disease (172700) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; 601104), Inherited neurodegenerative tauopathies linked to chromosome 17 and caused by mutation in the MAPT gene have also been collectively termed 'FTDP17' (Lee et al., 2001). Kertesz (2003) suggested the term 'Pick complex' to represent the overlapping syndromes of FTD, primary progressive aphasia (PPA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), PSP, and FTD with motor neuron disease. He noted that frontotemporal dementia may also be referred to as 'clinical Pick disease' and that the term 'Pick disease' should be restricted to the pathologic finding of Pick bodies. Genetic Heterogeneity of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Mutations in several different genes can cause frontotemporal dementia and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, with or without motor neuron disease. See FTLD with TDP43 inclusions (607485), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on chromosome 17q21; FTLALS7 (600795), caused by mutation in the CHMP2B gene (609512) on chromosome 3p11; inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease and FTD (IBMPFD; 167320), caused by mutation in the VCP gene (601023) on chromosome 9p13; ALS6 (608030), caused by mutation in the FUS gene (137070) on 16p11; ALS10 (612069), caused by mutation in the TARDBP gene (605078) on 1p36; and FTDALS1 (105550), caused by mutation in the C9ORF72 gene (614260) on 9p21. In 1 family with FTD, a mutation was identified in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on chromosome 14, which is usually associated with a familial form of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD3; 607822).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1
MedGen UID:
90994
Concept ID:
C0342727
Disease or Syndrome
3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is an inherited condition that causes neurological problems. Beginning in infancy to early childhood, children with this condition often have delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), speech delay, involuntary muscle cramping (dystonia), and spasms and weakness of the arms and legs (spastic quadriparesis). Affected individuals can also have optic atrophy, which is the breakdown (atrophy) of nerve cells that carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nIn some cases, signs and symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency begin in adulthood, often in a person's twenties or thirties. These individuals have damage to a type of brain tissue called white matter (leukoencephalopathy). This damage likely contributes to progressive problems with speech (dysarthria), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), stiffness (spasticity), optic atrophy, and a decline in intellectual function (dementia).\n\nAffected individuals who show symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency in childhood often go on to develop leukoencephalopathy and other neurological problems in adulthood.\n\nAll people with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency accumulate large amounts of a substance called 3-methylglutaconic acid in their body fluids. As a result, they have elevated levels of acid in their blood (metabolic acidosis) and excrete large amounts of acid in their urine (aciduria). 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is one of a group of metabolic disorders that can be diagnosed by the presence of increased levels 3-methylglutaconic acid in urine (3-methylglutaconic aciduria). People with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency also have high urine levels of another acid called 3-methylglutaric acid.
Flynn-Aird syndrome
MedGen UID:
91009
Concept ID:
C0343108
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disease characterized by childhood onset of bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss, ocular anomalies (myopia, cataract, retinitis pigmentosa), central and peripheral nervous system features (dementia, epilepsy, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy), ectodermal features (skin atrophy, alopecia, dental caries), and skeletal anomalies (bone cysts, joint stiffness, scoliosis, kyphosis). Laboratory examination may reveal elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein.
Chorea-acanthocytosis
MedGen UID:
98277
Concept ID:
C0393576
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is characterized by a progressive movement disorder, cognitive and behavior changes, a myopathy that can be subclinical, and chronic hyperCKemia in serum. Although the disorder is named for acanthocytosis of the red blood cells, this feature is variable. The movement disorder is mostly limb chorea, but some individuals present with parkinsonism. Dystonia is common and affects the oral region and especially the tongue, causing dysarthria and serious dysphagia with resultant weight loss. Habitual tongue and lip biting are characteristic, as well as tongue protrusion dystonia. Progressive cognitive and behavioral changes resemble those in a frontal lobe syndrome. Seizures are observed in almost half of affected individuals and can be the initial manifestation. Myopathy results in progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness. Mean age of onset in ChAc is about 30 years, although ChAc can develop as early as the first decade or as late as the seventh decade. It runs a chronic progressive course and may lead to major disability within a few years. Life expectancy is reduced, with age of death ranging from 28 to 61 years.
Benign hereditary chorea
MedGen UID:
98278
Concept ID:
C0393584
Disease or Syndrome
NKX2-1-related disorders range from benign hereditary chorea (BHC) to choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress (also known as brain-lung-thyroid syndrome). Childhood-onset chorea, the hallmark of NKX2-1-related disorders, may or may not be associated with respiratory distress syndrome or congenital hypothyroidism. Chorea generally begins in early infancy or about age one year (most commonly) or in late childhood or adolescence, and progresses into the second decade after which it remains static or (rarely) remits. Pulmonary disease, the second most common manifestation, can include respiratory distress syndrome in neonates, interstitial lung disease in young children, and pulmonary fibrosis in older persons. The risk for pulmonary carcinoma is increased in young adults with an NKX2-1-related disorder. Thyroid dysfunction, the result of dysembryogenesis, can present as congenital hypothyroidism or compensated hypothyroidism. The risk for thyroid cancer is unknown and may not be increased. In one review, 50% of affected individuals had the full brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, 30% had involvement of brain and thyroid only, and 13% had isolated chorea only.
Amelocerebrohypohidrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98036
Concept ID:
C0406740
Disease or Syndrome
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, spasticity, and amelogenesis imperfecta affecting both primary and secondary teeth and causing yellow or brown discoloration of the teeth. Although the phenotype is consistent, there is variability. Impaired intellectual development is related to the severity of seizures, and the disorder can thus be considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Some infants show normal development until seizure onset, whereas others are delayed from birth. The most severely affected individuals have profound mental retardation, never acquire speech, and become bedridden early in life (summary by Schossig et al., 2012 and Mory et al., 2012). See also Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like (KTZSL; 619229), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SATB1 gene (602075) on chromosome 3p23.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia complex
MedGen UID:
107775
Concept ID:
C0543859
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex of Guam is a neurodegenerative disorder with unusually high incidence among the Chamorro people of Guam. Both ALS and parkinsonism-dementia are chronic, progressive, and uniformly fatal disorders in this population. Both diseases are known to occur in the same kindred, the same sibship, and even the same individual. See PARK7 (606324) for discussion of a similar phenotype caused by mutation in the DJ1 gene (602533).
Cockayne syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
MedGen UID:
155837
Concept ID:
C0751254
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3
MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). The hallmark of CLN3 is the ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment with a 'fingerprint' profile, which can have 3 different appearances: pure within a lysosomal residual body; in conjunction with curvilinear or rectilinear profiles; and as a small component within large membrane-bound lysosomal vacuoles. The combination of fingerprint profiles within lysosomal vacuoles is a regular feature of blood lymphocytes from patients with CLN3 (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy
MedGen UID:
155630
Concept ID:
C0751781
Disease or Syndrome
Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive disorder of ataxia, myoclonus, epilepsy, and progressive intellectual deterioration in children and ataxia, choreoathetosis, and dementia or character changes in adults. Onset ranges from before age one year to age 72 years; mean age of onset is 31.5 years. The clinical presentation varies depending on the age of onset. The cardinal features in adults are ataxia, choreoathetosis, and dementia. Cardinal features in children are progressive intellectual deterioration, behavioral changes, myoclonus, and epilepsy.
Lafora disease
MedGen UID:
155631
Concept ID:
C0751783
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy, Lafora type (also known as Lafora disease [LD]) is characterized by focal occipital seizures presenting as transient blindness or visual hallucinations and fragmentary, symmetric, or generalized myoclonus beginning in previously healthy individuals at age eight to 19 years (peak 14-16 years). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures, atypical absence seizures, atonic seizures, and focal seizures with impaired awareness may occur. The course of the disease is characterized by increasing frequency and intractability of seizures. Status epilepticus with any of the seizure types is common. Cognitive decline becomes apparent at or soon after the onset of seizures. Dysarthria and ataxia appear early while spasticity appears late. Emotional disturbance and confusion are common in the early stages of the disease and are followed by dementia. Most affected individuals die within ten years of onset, usually from status epilepticus or from complications related to nervous system degeneration.
Unverricht-Lundborg syndrome
MedGen UID:
155923
Concept ID:
C0751785
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1(EPM1) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset from age six to 15 years, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus, and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. Some years after the onset, ataxia, incoordination, intentional tremor, and dysarthria develop. Individuals with EPM1 are cognitively mostly within the normal range, but show emotional lability and depression. The epileptic seizures are usually well controlled by anti-seizure medication, but the myoclonic jerks are progressive, action activated, and treatment resistant, and can be severely disabling.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2
MedGen UID:
155704
Concept ID:
C0752121
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, including nystagmus, slow saccadic eye movements, and in some individuals, ophthalmoparesis or parkinsonism. Pyramidal findings are present; deep tendon reflexes are brisk early on and absent later in the course. Age of onset is typically in the fourth decade with a ten- to 15-year disease duration.
Lewy body dementia
MedGen UID:
199874
Concept ID:
C0752347
Disease or Syndrome
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by dementia and parkinsonism, often with fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Pathologically, Lewy bodies are present in a pattern more widespread than usually observed in Parkinson disease (see PD; 168600). Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300)-associated pathology and spongiform changes may also be seen (McKeith et al., 1996; Mizutani, 2000; McKeith et al., 2005).
Early-onset parkinsonism-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
208674
Concept ID:
C0796195
Disease or Syndrome
Waisman syndrome is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development, and early-onset Parkinson disease (summary by Wilson et al., 2014).
Deficiency of ferroxidase
MedGen UID:
168057
Concept ID:
C0878682
Disease or Syndrome
Aceruloplasminemia is characterized by iron accumulation in the brain and viscera. The clinical triad of retinal degeneration, diabetes mellitus (DM), and neurologic disease is seen in individuals ranging from age 30 years to older than 70 years. The neurologic findings of movement disorder (blepharospasm, grimacing, facial and neck dystonia, tremors, chorea) and ataxia (gait ataxia, dysarthria) correspond to regions of iron deposition in the brain. Individuals with aceruloplasminemia often present with anemia prior to onset of DM or obvious neurologic problems. Cognitive dysfunction including apathy and forgetfulness occurs in more than half of individuals with this condition.
NARP syndrome
MedGen UID:
231285
Concept ID:
C1328349
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-associated Leigh syndrome and NARP (neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa) are part of a continuum of progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormalities of mitochondrial energy generation. Leigh syndrome (or subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy) is characterized by onset of symptoms typically between ages three and 12 months, often following a viral infection. Decompensation (often with elevated lactate levels in blood and/or CSF) during an intercurrent illness is typically associated with psychomotor retardation or regression. Neurologic features include hypotonia, spasticity, movement disorders (including chorea), cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Extraneurologic manifestations may include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. About 50% of affected individuals die by age three years, most often as a result of respiratory or cardiac failure. NARP is characterized by proximal neurogenic muscle weakness with sensory neuropathy, ataxia, and pigmentary retinopathy. Onset of symptoms, particularly ataxia and learning difficulties, is often in early childhood. Individuals with NARP can be relatively stable for many years, but may suffer episodic deterioration, often in association with viral illnesses.
Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Icelandic type
MedGen UID:
279656
Concept ID:
C1527338
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), defined by the deposition of congophilic material in the vessels of the cortex and leptomeninges, is a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly (Vinters, 1987, Greenberg, 1998). Palsdottir et al. (1988) referred to the disorder in Icelandic patients as hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA).
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 4 (Kufs type)
MedGen UID:
320287
Concept ID:
C1834207
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-4 (CLN4) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in adulthood. It belongs to a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of intracellular autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in the brain and other tissues. Several different forms have been described according to age of onset (see, e.g., CLN3, 204200). Individuals with the adult form, sometimes referred to as Kufs disease, develop psychiatric manifestations, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive decline. Retinal degeneration is usually not present (summary by Benitez et al., 2011 and Velinov et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Spinal muscular atrophy-progressive myoclonic epilepsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
371854
Concept ID:
C1834569
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of ASAH1-related disorders ranges from Farber disease (FD) to spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME). Classic FD is characterized by onset in the first weeks of life of painful, progressive deformity of the major joints; palpable subcutaneous nodules of joints and mechanical pressure points; and a hoarse cry resulting from granulomas of the larynx and epiglottis. Life expectancy is usually less than two years. In the other less common types of FD, onset, severity, and primary manifestations vary. SMA-PME is characterized by early-childhood-onset progressive lower motor neuron disease manifest typically between ages three and seven years as proximal lower-extremity weakness, followed by progressive myoclonic and atonic seizures, tremulousness/tremor, and sensorineural hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy typically begins in late childhood after the onset of weakness and can include jerking of the upper limbs, action myoclonus, myoclonic status, and eyelid myoclonus. Other findings include generalized tremor, and cognitive decline. The time from disease onset to death from respiratory complications is usually five to 15 years.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
373087
Concept ID:
C1836439
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Patients with C10ORF2-linked adPEO may have other clinical features including proximal muscle weakness, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, cataracts, depression, and endocrine abnormalities (summary by Fratter et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene (174763) are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the SLC25A4 (103220) or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002).
CARASIL syndrome
MedGen UID:
325051
Concept ID:
C1838577
Disease or Syndrome
HTRA1 disorder is a phenotypic spectrum in which some individuals have few to no symptoms and others manifest with the more severe CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) phenotype. Those who have a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant may have mild neurologic findings (sometimes identified only on neuroimaging) or mild-to-moderate neurologic signs and symptoms of CARASIL. In this chapter, the term "classic CARASIL" refers to the more severe phenotype associated with biallelic pathogenic variants, and "HTRA1 cerebral small vessel disease" (HTRA1-CSVD) refers to the milder phenotype associated with a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant. Classic CARASIL is characterized by early-onset changes in the deep white matter of the brain observed on MRI, and associated neurologic findings. The most frequent initial symptom is gait disturbance from spasticity beginning between ages 20 and 40 years. Forty-four percent of affected individuals have stroke-like episodes before age 40 years. Mood changes (apathy and irritability), pseudobulbar palsy, and cognitive dysfunction begin between ages 20 and 50 years. The disease progresses slowly following the onset of neurologic symptoms. Scalp alopecia and acute mid- to lower-back pain (lumbago) before age 30 years are characteristic. The most frequent initial symptom in individuals with HTRA1-CSVD is slowly progressive gait disturbance after age 40 years, which may be followed by the development of mood changes and cognitive dysfunction. A majority of affected individuals have a stroke-like episode after age 40 years. Spondylosis and alopecia are seen in a minority of individuals with HTRA1-CSVD.
Leber optic atrophy and dystonia
MedGen UID:
333240
Concept ID:
C1839040
Disease or Syndrome
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population.
Epilepsy, familial adult myoclonic, 2
MedGen UID:
375031
Concept ID:
C1842852
Disease or Syndrome
Familial adult myoclonic epilepsy-2 (FAME2) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset of tremor affecting the fingers, hand, and voice in adolescence or young adulthood with somewhat later onset of rhythmic myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with cortical reflex myoclonus. Some patients may show cognitive decline or migraines; photosensitivity is common (summary by De Fusco et al., 2014; Crompton et al., 2012). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial adult myoclonic epilepsy, see FAME1 (601068).
Alzheimer disease 3
MedGen UID:
334304
Concept ID:
C1843013
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer's disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's disease.\n\nIndividuals with Alzheimer's disease usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. In Alzheimer's disease, death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with Alzheimer's disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer's disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAlzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.
Cataract, congenital, with mental impairment and dentate gyrus atrophy
MedGen UID:
334365
Concept ID:
C1843257
Disease or Syndrome
Niemann-Pick disease, type C2
MedGen UID:
335942
Concept ID:
C1843366
Disease or Syndrome
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a slowly progressive lysosomal disorder whose principal manifestations are age dependent. The manifestations in the perinatal period and infancy are predominantly visceral, with hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and (in some instances) pulmonary infiltrates. From late infancy onward, the presentation is dominated by neurologic manifestations. The youngest children may present with hypotonia and developmental delay, with the subsequent emergence of ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and, in some individuals, epileptic seizures, dystonia, and gelastic cataplexy. Although cognitive impairment may be subtle at first, it eventually becomes apparent that affected individuals have a progressive dementia. Older teenagers and young adults may present predominantly with apparent early-onset dementia or psychiatric manifestations; however, careful examination usually identifies typical neurologic signs.
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Cerebral sclerosis, diffuse, scholz type
MedGen UID:
335049
Concept ID:
C1844884
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoprebetalipoproteinemia, acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
337612
Concept ID:
C1846582
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17
MedGen UID:
337637
Concept ID:
C1846707
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is characterized by ataxia, dementia, and involuntary movements, including chorea and dystonia. Psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal signs, and rigidity are common. The age of onset ranges from three to 55 years. Individuals with full-penetrance alleles develop neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms by age 50 years. Ataxia and psychiatric abnormalities are frequently the initial findings, followed by involuntary movement, parkinsonism, dementia, and pyramidal signs. Brain MRI shows variable atrophy of the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. The clinical features correlate with the length of the polyglutamine expansion but are not absolutely predictive of the clinical course.
Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 8
MedGen UID:
339628
Concept ID:
C1846862
Disease or Syndrome
LRRK2 Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by features consistent with idiopathic PD: initial motor features of slowly progressive asymmetric tremor at rest and/or bradykinesia, cogwheel muscle rigidity, postural instability, and gait abnormalities that may include festination and freezing. Certain nonmotor symptoms in LRRK2-PD, especially REM sleep behavior disorder and cognitive decline, may occur at similar or slightly reduced frequency compared to typical idiopathic* PD. Onset is generally after age 50, although early-onset (in the 20s) and late-onset (in the 90s) disease has been described. * Idiopathic PD refers to the presence of signs and symptoms of PD for which the etiology is currently unknown and in which there is no known family history of PD.
Alzheimer disease 4
MedGen UID:
376072
Concept ID:
C1847200
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer's disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with Alzheimer's disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nAlzheimer's disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's disease.\n\nIndividuals with Alzheimer's disease usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. In Alzheimer's disease, death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Spongiform encephalopathy with neuropsychiatric features
MedGen UID:
339812
Concept ID:
C1847650
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease-like 2
MedGen UID:
341120
Concept ID:
C1847987
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease-like 2 (HDL2) typically presents in midlife with a relentless progressive triad of movement, emotional, and cognitive abnormalities which lead to death within ten to 20 years. HDL2 cannot be differentiated from Huntington disease clinically. Neurologic abnormalities include chorea, hypokinesia (rigidity, bradykinesia), dysarthria, and hyperreflexia in the later stages of the disease. There is a strong correlation between the duration of the disease and the progression of the motor and cognitive disorder.
Cobalamin C disease
MedGen UID:
341256
Concept ID:
C1848561
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism syndrome
MedGen UID:
342410
Concept ID:
C1850077
Disease or Syndrome
An atypical variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a rare late-onset neurodegenerative disease, by prominent early parkinsonism (tremor, limb bradykinesia, axial and limb rigidity) rather than falls and cognitive change. Over the years, patients ultimately develop clinical features characteristic of classical PSP. Neuropathological characteristics includes tau pathology and neuronal loss in specific brain areas, especially in the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. The tau pathology is less severe than in classical PSP.
Dementia/parkinsonism with non-Alzheimer amyloid plaques
MedGen UID:
338883
Concept ID:
C1852223
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroferritinopathy
MedGen UID:
381211
Concept ID:
C1853578
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroferritinopathy is an adult-onset progressive movement disorder characterized by chorea or dystonia and speech and swallowing deficits. The movement disorder typically affects one or two limbs and progresses to become more generalized within 20 years of disease onset. When present, asymmetry in the movement abnormalities remains throughout the course of the disorder. Most individuals develop a characteristic orofacial action-specific dystonia related to speech that leads to dysarthrophonia. Frontalis overactivity and orolingual dyskinesia are common. Cognitive deficits and behavioral issues become major problems with time.
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 6
MedGen UID:
342982
Concept ID:
C1853833
Disease or Syndrome
PINK1 type of young-onset Parkinson disease is characterized by early onset (mean age 33 years) of tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity that are often indistinguishable from other causes of Parkinson disease. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign. Postural instability, hyperreflexia, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric manifestations have been described. The disease is usually slowly progressive. Individuals have a marked and sustained response to oral administration of levodopa (L-dopa), frequently associated with L-dopa-induced fluctuations and dyskinesias.
Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 4
MedGen UID:
381361
Concept ID:
C1854182
Disease or Syndrome
Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.
Mast syndrome
MedGen UID:
343325
Concept ID:
C1855346
Disease or Syndrome
Mast syndrome (MASTS) is an autosomal recessive complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia in which progressive spastic paraparesis is associated in more advanced cases with cognitive decline, dementia, and other neurologic abnormalities. Symptom onset usually occurs in adulthood, and the disorder is progressive with variable severity. Brain imaging shows thinning of the corpus callosum. The disorder occurs with high frequency in the Old Order Amish (summary by Simpson et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Internal carotid arteries, hypoplasia of
MedGen UID:
383757
Concept ID:
C1855736
Finding
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12
MedGen UID:
347653
Concept ID:
C1858501
Disease or Syndrome
Rare disease with manifestations of action tremor associated with relatively mild cerebellar ataxia. Associated pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and dementia have been reported. Prevalence is unknown. Approximately 40 families have been reported. The pathogenesis seems to be related to a toxic effect at the RNA level as it is caused by a CAG expansion at the 5'' end of the PPP2R2B gene on chromosome 5q31-5q32.
Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies
MedGen UID:
346965
Concept ID:
C1858680
Disease or Syndrome
Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive epilepsy and dementia. Onset of symptoms ranges from the second to fifth decades of life. Severity is variable (summary by Molinari et al., 2003).
Cerebellar ataxia-hypogonadism syndrome
MedGen UID:
349137
Concept ID:
C1859305
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia
MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed.
Ataxia with myoclonic epilepsy and presenile dementia
MedGen UID:
347924
Concept ID:
C1859646
Disease or Syndrome
Angiomatosis, diffuse Corticomeningeal, of Divry and van Bogaert
MedGen UID:
347234
Concept ID:
C1859783
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia
MedGen UID:
395347
Concept ID:
C1859806
Disease or Syndrome
A juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that is slowly progressive with concomitantly progressive dementia.
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations
MedGen UID:
348124
Concept ID:
C1860518
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is a small-vessel disease that affects highly vascularized tissues including the retina, brain, liver, and kidneys. Age of onset is often between 35 and 50 years. The most common presenting finding is decreased visual acuity and/or visual field defects. Neurologic manifestations may include hemiparesis, facial weakness, aphasia, and hemianopsia. Migraines and seizures are less frequently described. Renal manifestations may include mild-to-moderate increase in serum creatinine and mild proteinuria; progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is uncommon. Hepatic manifestations frequently include mildly elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Less common findings include psychiatric disorders, hypertension, mild-to-moderate anemia, and Raynaud phenomenon.
Choreoathetosis, familial inverted
MedGen UID:
348393
Concept ID:
C1861569
Disease or Syndrome
ADan amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
396208
Concept ID:
C1861735
Disease or Syndrome
ITM2B-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy-2, also known as familial Danish dementia (FDD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive development of cataracts and other ocular disorders including ocular hemorrhages, hearing impairment, varying neurologic symptoms, and dementia, usually associated with paranoid reactions and temporal disturbance of consciousness. Most patients die in the fifth to sixth decade of life. Neuropathologic findings include severe widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hippocampal plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles, similar to Alzheimer disease (see 104300) (summary by Vidal et al., 2000).
Alzheimer disease 2
MedGen UID:
400197
Concept ID:
C1863051
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with Alzheimer's disease usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. In Alzheimer's disease, death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAlzheimer's disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's disease.\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with Alzheimer's disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer's disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAlzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.
Alzheimer disease type 1
MedGen UID:
354892
Concept ID:
C1863052
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11; AD6 (605526) on 10q24; AD7 (606187) on 10p13; AD8 (607116) on 20p; AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13; AD10 (609636) on 7q36; AD11 (609790) on 9q22; AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22; AD13 (611152) on 1q21; AD14 (611154) on 1q25; AD15 (604154) on 3q22-q24; AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3; AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2; and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease
MedGen UID:
355075
Concept ID:
C1863843
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an autosomal dominant, slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, cerebellar ataxia, cognitive decline and dementia, peripheral neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. The age at onset varies, but most individuals present as adults between about 30 and 70 years of age. Pathologic investigation shows eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in almost all cell types, including neurons, skin cells, fibroblasts, and skeletal muscle. Brain imaging shows a characteristic leukoencephalopathy with high intensity signals in the corticomedullary junction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), as well as white matter abnormalities in subcortical and brainstem regions. Skin biopsy combined with brain imaging is useful for diagnosis (summary by Sone et al., 2016). The phenotype in some cases is suggestive of Parkinson disease (see 168600) and/or Alzheimer disease (see 104300), consistent with an evolving phenotypic spectrum of adult-onset NIID (summary by Tian et al., 2019).
Huntington disease-like 1
MedGen UID:
355137
Concept ID:
C1864112
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome.
Alzheimer disease 10
MedGen UID:
351228
Concept ID:
C1864828
Disease or Syndrome
An Alzheimer's disease that is characterized by an associated with variation in the region 7q36.
Spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and dementia
MedGen UID:
356630
Concept ID:
C1866849
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 4
MedGen UID:
401097
Concept ID:
C1866855
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 4 (SPG4; also known as SPAST-HSP) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral lower-limb gait spasticity. More than 50% of affected individuals have some weakness in the legs and impaired vibration sense at the ankles. Sphincter disturbances are very common. Onset is insidious, mostly in young adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age one year and as late as age 76 years. Intrafamilial variation is considerable.
Presenile dementia, Kraepelin type
MedGen UID:
356847
Concept ID:
C1867772
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 1
MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease is the second most common neurogenic disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50. Clinical manifestations include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10
MedGen UID:
369786
Concept ID:
C1963674
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia that usually starts as poor balance and unsteady gait, followed by upper-limb ataxia, scanning dysarthria, and dysphagia. Abnormal tracking eye movements are common. Recurrent seizures after the onset of gait ataxia have been reported with variable frequencies among different families. Some individuals have cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disturbances, mood disorders, mild pyramidal signs, and peripheral neuropathy. Age of onset ranges from 12 to 48 years.
Amyloidogenic transthyretin amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
414031
Concept ID:
C2751492
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is characterized by a slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor and/or autonomic neuropathy as well as non-neuropathic changes of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities, and CNS amyloidosis. The disease usually begins in the third to fifth decade in persons from endemic foci in Portugal and Japan; onset is later in persons from other areas. Typically, sensory neuropathy starts in the lower extremities with paresthesias and hypesthesias of the feet, followed within a few years by motor neuropathy. In some persons, particularly those with early-onset disease, autonomic neuropathy is the first manifestation of the condition; findings can include: orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, attacks of nausea and vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, sexual impotence, anhidrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Cardiac amyloidosis is mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy. Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis may have the following CNS findings: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, APP-related
MedGen UID:
414044
Concept ID:
C2751536
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or cerebroarterial amyloidosis, refers to a pathologic process in which amyloid protein progressively deposits in cerebral blood vessel walls with subsequent degenerative vascular changes that usually result in spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic lesions, and progressive dementia. APP-related CAA is the most common form of CAA (Revesz et al., 2003, 2009).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 46
MedGen UID:
473687
Concept ID:
C2828721
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-46 (SPG46) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset in childhood of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia and cerebellar signs. Some patients have cognitive impairment, cataracts, and cerebral, cerebellar, and corpus callosum atrophy on brain imaging (summary by Boukhris et al., 2010 and Martin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1V
MedGen UID:
462308
Concept ID:
C3150958
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PSEN2 gene.
Parkinson disease, late-onset
MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.
Niemann-Pick disease, type C1
MedGen UID:
465922
Concept ID:
C3179455
Disease or Syndrome
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a slowly progressive lysosomal disorder whose principal manifestations are age dependent. The manifestations in the perinatal period and infancy are predominantly visceral, with hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and (in some instances) pulmonary infiltrates. From late infancy onward, the presentation is dominated by neurologic manifestations. The youngest children may present with hypotonia and developmental delay, with the subsequent emergence of ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and, in some individuals, epileptic seizures, dystonia, and gelastic cataplexy. Although cognitive impairment may be subtle at first, it eventually becomes apparent that affected individuals have a progressive dementia. Older teenagers and young adults may present predominantly with apparent early-onset dementia or psychiatric manifestations; however, careful examination usually identifies typical neurologic signs.
Hereditary sensory neuropathy-deafness-dementia syndrome
MedGen UID:
481515
Concept ID:
C3279885
Disease or Syndrome
DNMT1-related disorder is a degenerative disorder of the central and peripheral nervous systems comprising a phenotypic spectrum that includes hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN). DNMT1 disorder is often characterized by moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss beginning in the teens or early 20s, sensory impairment, sudomotor dysfunction (loss of sweating), and dementia usually beginning in the mid-40s. In some affected individuals, narcolepsy/cataplexy syndrome and ataxia are predominant findings.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4
MedGen UID:
482001
Concept ID:
C3280371
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is characterized initially by gait changes followed by progressive spastic paresis, progressive dystonia (which may be limited to the hands and feet or more generalized), neuropsychiatric abnormalities (emotional lability, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsions, hallucinations, perseveration, inattention, and hyperactivity), and cognitive decline. Additional early findings can include dysphagia, dysarthria, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, parkinsonism, and bowel/bladder incontinence. Survival is usually well into adulthood. End-stage disease is characterized by severe dementia, spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 5
MedGen UID:
763887
Concept ID:
C3550973
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is typically characterized by early-onset seizures, infantile-onset developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent-to-limited expressive language, motor dysfunction (ataxia), and abnormal behaviors often similar to autism spectrum disorder. Seizure types including generalized (absence, tonic, atonic, tonic-clonic and myoclonic), focal with impaired consciousness, and epileptic spasms, as well as epileptic syndromes (West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) can be seen. With age seizures tend to resolve or become less prominent, whereas cognitive decline and movement disorders (progressive parkinsonism and dystonia) emerge as characteristic findings.
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 4
MedGen UID:
767235
Concept ID:
C3554321
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 13
MedGen UID:
811566
Concept ID:
C3715049
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-13 (CLN13) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cognitive decline and motor dysfunction leading to dementia and often early death. Some patients develop seizures. Neurons show abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material (summary by Smith et al., 2013). Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is sometimes referred to as Kufs disease (see 204300). In a review of the classification of CLN disease, Gardner and Mole (2021) noted that the CLN13 phenotype corresponds to 'Kufs type B', which is characterized by dementia and a variety of motor signs (Smith et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN), see CLN1 (256730).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 19
MedGen UID:
811607
Concept ID:
C3715155
Disease or Syndrome
Any amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ERBB4 gene.
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy
MedGen UID:
813625
Concept ID:
C3807295
Disease or Syndrome
ADCADN is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cerebellar ataxia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, sensorineural deafness, and dementia. More variable features include optic atrophy, sensory neuropathy, psychosis, and depression (summary by Winkelmann et al., 2012).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 21
MedGen UID:
813851
Concept ID:
C3807521
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-21 (ALS21) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Some patients may develop myopathic features or dementia (summary by Johnson et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 5
MedGen UID:
815975
Concept ID:
C3809645
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present.
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
854771
Concept ID:
C3888102
Disease or Syndrome
C9orf72 frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9orf72-FTD/ALS) is characterized most often by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and upper and lower motor neuron disease (MND); however, atypical presentations also occur. Age at onset is usually between 50 and 64 years (range: 20-91 years) irrespective of the presenting manifestations, which may be pure FTD, pure amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or a combination of the two phenotypes. The clinical presentation is highly heterogeneous and may differ between and within families, causing an unpredictable pattern and age of onset of clinical manifestations. The presence of MND correlates with an earlier age of onset and a worse overall prognosis.
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, with ovarian failure
MedGen UID:
863025
Concept ID:
C4014588
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive leukoencephalopathy with ovarian failure is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor and cognitive skills, usually with onset in young adulthood. Some patients may have a history of delayed motor development or learning difficulties in early childhood. Neurologic decline is severe, usually resulting in gait difficulties, ataxia, spasticity, and cognitive decline and dementia. Most patients lose speech and become wheelchair-bound or bedridden. Brain MRI shows progressive white matter signal abnormalities in the deep white matter. Affected females develop premature ovarian failure (summary by Dallabona et al., 2014).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2T
MedGen UID:
864072
Concept ID:
C4015635
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2T (CMT2T) is a slowly progressive autosomal recessive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy with onset in middle age (Higuchi et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
865256
Concept ID:
C4016819
Finding
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type I (MGCA1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The metabolic landmark is urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGA) and its derivatives 3-methylglutaric acid (3-MG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA). Two main presentations have been described: one with onset in childhood associated with the nonspecific finding of psychomotor retardation, and the other with onset in adulthood of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes dementia; these patients develop white matter lesions in the brain. However, some asymptomatic pediatric patients have been identified by newborn screening and show no developmental abnormalities when reexamined later in childhood (summary by Wortmann et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity and Classification of Methylglutaconic Aciduria Methylglutaconic aciduria is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Type II MGCA (MGCA2), also known as Barth syndrome (BTHS; 302060), is caused by mutation in the tafazzin gene (TAZ; 300394) on chromosome Xq28. It is characterized by mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, short stature, skeletal myopathy, and recurrent infections; cognitive development is normal. Type III MGCA (MGCA3; 258501), caused by mutation in the OPA3 gene (606580) on chromosome 19q13, involves optic atrophy, movement disorder, and spastic paraplegia. In types II and III, the elevations of 3-methylglutaconate and 3-methylglutarate in urine are modest. Type IV MGCA (MGCA4; 250951) represents an unclassified group of patients who have severe psychomotor retardation and cerebellar dysgenesis. Type V MGCA (MGCA5; 610198), caused by mutation in the DNAJC19 gene (608977) on chromosome 3q26, is characterized by early-onset dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction defects, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia, testicular dysgenesis, and growth failure in addition to 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (Chitayat et al., 1992; Davey et al., 2006). Type VI MGCA (MGCA6; 614739), caused by mutation in the SERAC1 gene (614725) on chromosome 6q25, includes deafness, encephalopathy, and a Leigh-like syndrome. Type VII MGCA (MGCA7B, 616271 and MGCA7A, 619835), caused by mutation in the CLPB gene (616254) on chromosome 11q13, includes cataracts, neurologic involvement, and neutropenia. Type VIII MGCA (MGCA8; 617248) is caused by mutation in the HTRA2 gene (606441) on chromosome 2p13. Type IX MGCA (MGCA9; 617698) is caused by mutation in the TIMM50 gene (607381) on chromosome 19q13. Eriguchi et al. (2006) noted that type I MGCA is very rare, with only 13 patients reported in the literature as of 2003. Wortmann et al. (2013) proposed a pathomechanism-based classification for 'inborn errors of metabolism with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria as discriminative feature.'
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 23
MedGen UID:
896607
Concept ID:
C4225186
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease-23 is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young-adult onset of parkinsonism associated with progressive cognitive impairment leading to dementia and dysautonomia. Some individuals have additional motor abnormalities. Affected individuals become severely disabled within a few decades (summary by Lesage et al., 2016).
Cerebral arteriopathy, autosomal dominant, with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, type 2
MedGen UID:
895965
Concept ID:
C4225211
Disease or Syndrome
HTRA1 disorder is a phenotypic spectrum in which some individuals have few to no symptoms and others manifest with the more severe CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) phenotype. Those who have a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant may have mild neurologic findings (sometimes identified only on neuroimaging) or mild-to-moderate neurologic signs and symptoms of CARASIL. In this chapter, the term "classic CARASIL" refers to the more severe phenotype associated with biallelic pathogenic variants, and "HTRA1 cerebral small vessel disease" (HTRA1-CSVD) refers to the milder phenotype associated with a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant. Classic CARASIL is characterized by early-onset changes in the deep white matter of the brain observed on MRI, and associated neurologic findings. The most frequent initial symptom is gait disturbance from spasticity beginning between ages 20 and 40 years. Forty-four percent of affected individuals have stroke-like episodes before age 40 years. Mood changes (apathy and irritability), pseudobulbar palsy, and cognitive dysfunction begin between ages 20 and 50 years. The disease progresses slowly following the onset of neurologic symptoms. Scalp alopecia and acute mid- to lower-back pain (lumbago) before age 30 years are characteristic. The most frequent initial symptom in individuals with HTRA1-CSVD is slowly progressive gait disturbance after age 40 years, which may be followed by the development of mood changes and cognitive dysfunction. A majority of affected individuals have a stroke-like episode after age 40 years. Spondylosis and alopecia are seen in a minority of individuals with HTRA1-CSVD.
Parkinson disease 22, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
907886
Concept ID:
C4225238
Disease or Syndrome
Any Parkinson disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CHCHD2 gene.
Early-onset Lafora body disease
MedGen UID:
907932
Concept ID:
C4225258
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-10 (EPM10) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of progressive myoclonus, ataxia, spasticity, dysarthria, and cognitive decline in the first decade of life. The severity is variable, but some patients may become mute and bedridden with psychosis (summary by Turnbull et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 6
MedGen UID:
901404
Concept ID:
C4225335
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 4
MedGen UID:
934700
Concept ID:
C4310733
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions-4 (PEOB4) is characterized by adult onset of eye muscle weakness and proximal limb muscle weakness associated with deletions of mtDNA on skeletal muscle biopsy, which results from defective mtDNA replication in post-mitotic muscle tissue. Additional features are more variable (summary by Ronchi et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive PEO, see PEOB1 (258450).
Cerebral arteriopathy, autosomal dominant, with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, type 1
MedGen UID:
1634330
Concept ID:
C4551768
Disease or Syndrome
CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is characterized by mid-adult onset of recurrent ischemic stroke, cognitive decline progressing to dementia, a history of migraine with aura, mood disturbance, apathy, and diffuse white matter lesions and subcortical infarcts on neuroimaging.
Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia type 1
MedGen UID:
1641069
Concept ID:
C4551951
Disease or Syndrome
Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB) and/or frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is characterized by adult-onset proximal and distal muscle weakness (clinically resembling a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy syndrome), early-onset PDB, and premature frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Muscle weakness progresses to involve other limb and respiratory muscles. PDB involves focal areas of increased bone turnover that typically lead to spine and/or hip pain and localized enlargement and deformity of the long bones; pathologic fractures occur on occasion. Early stages of FTD are characterized by dysnomia, dyscalculia, comprehension deficits, and paraphasic errors, with minimal impairment of episodic memory; later stages are characterized by inability to speak, auditory comprehension deficits for even one-step commands, alexia, and agraphia. Mean age at diagnosis for muscle disease and PDB is 42 years; for FTD, 56 years. Dilated cardiomyopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson disease are now known to be part of the spectrum of findings associated with IBMPFD.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631838
Concept ID:
C4551995
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) disease is characterized by progressive gastrointestinal dysmotility (manifesting as early satiety, nausea, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, postprandial emesis, episodic abdominal pain and/or distention, and diarrhea); cachexia; ptosis/ophthalmoplegia or ophthalmoparesis; leukoencephalopathy; and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (manifesting as paresthesias (tingling, numbness, and pain) and symmetric and distal weakness more prominently affecting the lower extremities). The order in which manifestations appear is unpredictable. Onset is usually between the first and fifth decades; in about 60% of individuals, symptoms begin before age 20 years.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 23
MedGen UID:
1645924
Concept ID:
C4693381
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant subtype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutation(s) in the ANXA11 gene, encoding annexin A11.
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1648386
Concept ID:
C4721893
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL) is characterized by fractures (resulting from radiologically demonstrable polycystic osseous lesions), frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia beginning in the fourth decade. The clinical course of PLOSL can be divided into four stages: 1. The latent stage is characterized by normal early development. 2. The osseous stage (3rd decade of life) is characterized by pain and tenderness, mostly in ankles and feet, usually following strain or injury. Fractures are typically diagnosed several years later, most commonly in the bones of the extremities. 3. In the early neurologic stage (4th decade of life), a change of personality begins to develop insidiously. Affected individuals show a frontal lobe syndrome (loss of judgment, euphoria, loss of social inhibitions, disturbance of concentration, and lack of insight, libido, and motor persistence) leading to serious social problems. 4. The late neurologic stage is characterized by progressive dementia and loss of mobility. Death usually occurs before age 50 years.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 12
MedGen UID:
1648278
Concept ID:
C4746984
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 2
MedGen UID:
1648374
Concept ID:
C4748657
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy-2 (PLOSL2), or Nasu-Hakola disease, is a recessively inherited presenile frontal dementia with leukoencephalopathy and basal ganglia calcification. In most cases the disorder first manifests in early adulthood as pain and swelling in ankles and feet, followed by bone fractures. Neurologic symptoms manifest in the fourth decade of life as a frontal lobe syndrome with loss of judgment, euphoria, and disinhibition. Progressive decline in other cognitive domains begins to develop at about the same time. The disorder culminates in a profound dementia and death by age 50 years (summary by Klunemann et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy, see 221770.
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 8
MedGen UID:
1680582
Concept ID:
C5190825
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-8 (EPM8) is a rare autosomal recessive form of progressive myoclonic epilepsy with phenotypic variability including ataxia and other movement disorders in addition to myoclonus (summary by Godeiro et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
ABri amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
1677186
Concept ID:
C5190835
Disease or Syndrome
ITM2B-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy-1, also known as familial British dementia (FBD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, spasticity, and cerebellar ataxia, with onset at around the fifth decade of life. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, nonneuritic and perivascular plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are the predominant pathological lesions (summary by Vidal et al., 1999).
Microangiopathy and leukoencephalopathy, pontine, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1684781
Concept ID:
C5231411
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant pontine microangiopathy and leukoencephalopathy (PADMAL) is a form of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) resulting in the onset of recurrent ischemic strokes in the thirties or forties. Affected individuals develop progressive, but variable, cognitive and motor impairment, consistent with progressive multi-infarct dementia. Brain imaging shows lacunar infarcts, often with a pontine predilection, as well as diffuse leukoencephalopathy affecting various brain regions. Although there are overlapping clinical features, the disorder is genetically and pathologically distinct from CADASIL (125310) (summary by Verdura et al., 2016).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8
MedGen UID:
1728824
Concept ID:
C5436881
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-8 (FTDALS8) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult-onset dementia manifest as memory impairment, executive dysfunction, and behavioral or personality changes. Some patients may develop ALS or parkinsonism. Neuropathologic studies show frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with tau (MAPT; 157140)- and TDP43 (605078)-immunoreactive inclusions (summary by Dobson-Stone et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 6B (Kufs type)
MedGen UID:
1794137
Concept ID:
C5561927
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-6B (CLN6B) is an autosomal recessive form of 'Kufs disease,' which refers in general to adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis without retinal involvement. CLN6B is a neurodegenerative disorder with a mean onset of symptoms at around age 28 years, although onset in the teens and later adulthood may also occur. Patients typically present with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, loss of motor function, dysarthria, progressive dementia, and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Ultrastructural examination typically shows fingerprint profiles and granular osmiophilic deposits in some tissues, including brain samples (summary by Arsov et al., 2011 and Berkovic et al., 2019). However, pathologic findings in peripheral tissues in adults is not as accurate for diagnosis as it is in children with the disease (Cherian et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Leukoencephalopathy, hereditary diffuse, with spheroids 2
MedGen UID:
1794254
Concept ID:
C5562044
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids-2 (HDLS2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and executive dysfunction, psychiatric disturbances, and neurologic symptoms, such as gait abnormalities, paresis, seizures, and rigidity. Symptom onset is usually in adulthood, although earlier onset has been reported. Some patients have an acute encephalopathic course with severe neurologic decline resulting in early death, whereas other patients have a more protracted and chronic disease course. Neuropathologic examination shows a leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and myelination defects (summary by Sundal et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HDLS, see HDLS1 (221820).
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 78
MedGen UID:
1799316
Concept ID:
C5567893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized predominantly by spasticity and muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and loss of ambulation in some patients. Affected individuals also have cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, oculomotor disturbances, and limb and gait ataxia; brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Some patients may have mild cognitive impairment or frank dementia. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693), a neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with KRS have earlier onset and prominent parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 49
MedGen UID:
1805601
Concept ID:
C5676950
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-49 (SCA49) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized initially by gait abnormalities, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and hyperreflexia. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from the second to seventh decades, even within the same family. The disorder is slowly progressive, and later features may include dysarthria, dysmetria, diplopia, pyramidal signs, and axonal peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy and myelination defects (Corral-Juan et al., 2022).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 27, juvenile
MedGen UID:
1840995
Concept ID:
C5830359
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-27 (ALS27) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by early childhood-onset lower extremity spasticity manifesting as toe walking and gait abnormalities, followed by progressive lower motor neuron-mediated weakness without sensory signs or symptoms (Mohassel et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Autosomal dominant popliteal pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
979785
Concept ID:
CN296406
Disease or Syndrome
Most commonly, IRF6-related disorders span a spectrum from isolated cleft lip and palate and Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) at the mild end to popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) at the more severe end. In rare instances, IRF6 pathogenic variants have also been reported in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial cleft (18/3,811; 0.47%) and in individuals with spina bifida (2/192). Individuals with VWS show one or more of the following anomalies: Congenital, usually bilateral, paramedian lower-lip fistulae (pits) or sometimes small mounds with a sinus tract leading from a mucous gland of the lip. Cleft lip (CL). Cleft palate (CP). Note: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) is observed about twice as often as CP only. Submucous cleft palate (SMCP). The PPS phenotype includes the following: CL±P. Fistulae of the lower lip. Webbing of the skin extending from the ischial tuberosities to the heels. In males: bifid scrotum and cryptorchidism. In females: hypoplasia of the labia majora. Syndactyly of fingers and/or toes. Anomalies of the skin around the nails. A characteristic pyramidal fold of skin overlying the nail of the hallux (almost pathognomonic). In some nonclassic forms of PPS: filiform synechiae connecting the upper and lower jaws (syngnathia) or the upper and lower eyelids (ankyloblepharon). Other musculoskeletal anomalies may include spina bifida occulta, talipes equinovarus, digital reduction, bifid ribs, and short sternum. In VWS, PPS, IRF6-related neural tube defect, and IRF6-related orofacial cleft, growth and intelligence are typical.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Izquierdo M, Merchant RA, Morley JE, Anker SD, Aprahamian I, Arai H, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Bernabei R, Cadore EL, Cesari M, Chen LK, de Souto Barreto P, Duque G, Ferrucci L, Fielding RA, García-Hermoso A, Gutiérrez-Robledo LM, Harridge SDR, Kirk B, Kritchevsky S, Landi F, Lazarus N, Martin FC, Marzetti E, Pahor M, Ramírez-Vélez R, Rodriguez-Mañas L, Rolland Y, Ruiz JG, Theou O, Villareal DT, Waters DL, Won Won C, Woo J, Vellas B, Fiatarone Singh M
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Lancet Neurol 2020 Jan;19(1):81-92. Epub 2019 Sep 4 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30290-X. PMID: 31494009

Curated

UK NICE Clinical guideline (CG148), Urinary incontinence in neurological disease: assessment and management, 2023

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Dintica CS, Yaffe K
Psychiatr Clin North Am 2022 Dec;45(4):677-689. Epub 2022 Oct 14 doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2022.07.011. PMID: 36396272
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Taylor ME, Close JCT
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;159:303-321. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63916-5.00019-7. PMID: 30482323

Diagnosis

Ayhan Y, Yoseph SA, Miller BL
Neurol Clin 2023 Feb;41(1):123-139. Epub 2022 Oct 18 doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2022.05.001. PMID: 36400551
Day GS
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Radiologia (Engl Ed) 2018 Nov-Dec;60(6):476-484. Epub 2018 Jun 11 doi: 10.1016/j.rx.2018.04.003. PMID: 29903629

Therapy

Coley N, Giulioli C, Aisen PS, Vellas B, Andrieu S
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Prognosis

Ben Hassen C, Fayosse A, Landré B, Raggi M, Bloomberg M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A
BMJ 2022 Feb 2;376:e068005. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-068005. PMID: 35110302Free PMC Article
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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

Chen H, Wang Y, Zhang M, Wang N, Li Y, Liu Y
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    Curated

    • NICE, 2023
      UK NICE Clinical guideline (CG148), Urinary incontinence in neurological disease: assessment and management, 2023

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