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Neu-Laxova syndrome 1(NLS1)

MedGen UID:
1633287
Concept ID:
C4551478
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: NLS1
 
Gene (location): PHGDH (1p12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009736
OMIM®: 256520
Orphanet: ORPHA583607

Definition

Any Neu-Laxova syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PHGDH gene. [from MONDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
154237
Concept ID:
C0542519
Congenital Abnormality
Agenesis, that is, failure of the kidney to develop during embryogenesis and development.
Bifid uterus
MedGen UID:
342474
Concept ID:
C1850327
Finding
The presence of a bifid uterus.
Micromelia
MedGen UID:
10031
Concept ID:
C0025995
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of abnormally small extremities.
Finger syndactyly
MedGen UID:
65139
Concept ID:
C0221352
Congenital Abnormality
Webbing or fusion of the fingers, involving soft parts only or including bone structure. Bony fusions are referred to as "bony" Syndactyly if the fusion occurs in a radio-ulnar axis. Fusions of bones of the fingers in a proximo-distal axis are referred to as "Symphalangism".
Limb undergrowth
MedGen UID:
116086
Concept ID:
C0239399
Finding
Limb shortening because of underdevelopment of one or more bones of the extremities.
Congenital vertical talus
MedGen UID:
66821
Concept ID:
C0240912
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital vertical talus (CVT), also known as 'rocker-bottom foot' deformity, is a dislocation of the talonavicular joint characterized by vertical orientation of the talus with a rigid dorsal dislocation of the navicular, equinus deformity of the calcaneus, abduction deformity of the forefoot, and contracture of the soft tissues of the hind- and mid-foot. This condition is usually associated with multiple other congenital deformities and only rarely is an isolated deformity with familial occurrence (summary by Levinsohn et al., 2004). The condition is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and sometimes shows incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. There may be a broad spectrum of deformities, including flatfoot, talipes equinovarus (TEV or clubfoot), cavus foot, metatarsus adductus, and even hypoplasia of the tibia (summary by Dobbs et al., 2006).
Toe syndactyly
MedGen UID:
75581
Concept ID:
C0265660
Congenital Abnormality
Webbing or fusion of the toes, involving soft parts only or including bone structure. Bony fusions are referred to as "bony" Syndactyly if the fusion occurs in a radio-ulnar axis. Fusions of bones of the toes in a proximo-distal axis are referred to as "Symphalangism".
Radial deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
322852
Concept ID:
C1836189
Finding
Bending or curvature of a finger toward the radial side (i.e., towards the thumb). The deviation is at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint, and this finding is distinct from clinodactyly.
Long fingers
MedGen UID:
346836
Concept ID:
C1858091
Finding
The middle finger is more than 2 SD above the mean for newborns 27 to 41 weeks EGA or above the 97th centile for children from birth to 16 years of age AND the five digits retain their normal length proportions relative to each other (i.e., it is not the case that the middle finger is the only lengthened digit), or, Fingers that appear disproportionately long compared to the palm of the hand.
Calcaneovalgus deformity
MedGen UID:
395489
Concept ID:
C1860450
Anatomical Abnormality
This is a postural deformity in which the foot is positioned up against the tibia. The heel (calcaneus) is positioned downward (that is, the ankle is flexed upward), and the heel is turned outward (valgus).
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
1644094
Concept ID:
C4551485
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Patent foramen ovale
MedGen UID:
8891
Concept ID:
C0016522
Congenital Abnormality
Failure of the foramen ovale to seal postnatally, leaving a potential conduit between the left and right cardiac atria.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Transposition of the great arteries
MedGen UID:
21245
Concept ID:
C0040761
Congenital Abnormality
Each of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.\n\nPeople with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.\n\nCritical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.\n\nAlthough babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.\n\nSome people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hydranencephaly
MedGen UID:
6937
Concept ID:
C0020225
Congenital Abnormality
A defect of development of the brain characterized by replacement of greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and the corpus striatum by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and glial tissue.
Spina bifida
MedGen UID:
38283
Concept ID:
C0080178
Congenital Abnormality
Incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube, whereby some vertebral arches remain unfused and open. The mildest form is spina bifida occulta, followed by meningocele and meningomyelocele.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
78604
Concept ID:
C0266463
Finding
A spectrum of malformations of cortical development caused by insufficient neuronal migration that subsumes the terms agyria, pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia. See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Choroid plexus cyst
MedGen UID:
87376
Concept ID:
C0338597
Finding
A cyst occurring within the choroid plexus within a cerebral ventricle.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1643639
Concept ID:
C4551584
Disease or Syndrome
Partial or complete wasting (loss) of brain tissue that was once present.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Primary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
383046
Concept ID:
C2677180
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender at birth.
Pulmonary hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
78574
Concept ID:
C0265783
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality in which the lung parenchyma is not fully developed. It may be associated with other congenital abnormalities.
Generalized edema
MedGen UID:
376817
Concept ID:
C1850534
Pathologic Function
Generalized abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin, or in one or more cavities of the body.
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
40327
Concept ID:
C0008924
Congenital Abnormality
A gap or groove in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Swollen lip
MedGen UID:
116100
Concept ID:
C0240211
Sign or Symptom
Enlargement of the lip typically due to fluid buildup or inflammation.
Ablepharon
MedGen UID:
120585
Concept ID:
C0266574
Congenital Abnormality
Absent eyelids.
Wide nose
MedGen UID:
140869
Concept ID:
C0426421
Finding
Interalar distance more than two standard deviations above the mean for age, i.e., an apparently increased width of the nasal base and alae.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Thick lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326567
Concept ID:
C1839739
Finding
Increased thickness of the lower lip, leading to a prominent appearance of the lower lip. The height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the midline is more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Depressed nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
334631
Concept ID:
C1842876
Finding
Lack of prominence of the nose resulting from a posteriorly-placed nasal ridge.
Broad neck
MedGen UID:
344099
Concept ID:
C1853638
Finding
Increased side-to-side width of the neck.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization.
Pterygium
MedGen UID:
46202
Concept ID:
C0033999
Finding
Pterygia are 'winglike' triangular membranes occurring in the neck, eyes, knees, elbows, ankles or digits.
Absent eyelashes
MedGen UID:
334299
Concept ID:
C1843005
Congenital Abnormality
Lack of eyelashes.
Yellow subcutaneous tissue covered by thin, scaly skin
MedGen UID:
340563
Concept ID:
C1850533
Finding
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Decreased fetal movement
MedGen UID:
68618
Concept ID:
C0235659
Finding
An abnormal reduction in quantity or strength of fetal movements.
Short umbilical cord
MedGen UID:
78620
Concept ID:
C0266786
Finding
Decreased length of the umbilical cord.
Small placenta
MedGen UID:
488920
Concept ID:
C0566694
Finding
Reduced size of the placenta.
Fetal akinesia deformation sequence 1
MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased fetal activity associated with multiple joint contractures, facial anomalies and pulmonary hypoplasia. Ultrasound examination may reveal polyhydramnios, ankylosis, scalp edema, and decreased chest movements (reflecting pulmonary hypoplasia).
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNeu-Laxova syndrome 1

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Xie MJ, Cromie GA, Owens K, Timour MS, Tang M, Kutz JN, El-Hattab AW, McLaughlin RN Jr, Dudley AM
PLoS Genet 2023 Oct;19(10):e1010972. Epub 2023 Oct 9 doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1010972. PMID: 37812589Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Dwivedi T, Gosavi M
Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2019 Jan-Mar;62(1):149-152. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_351_17. PMID: 30706883
Badakali M, Badakali A, Dombale V
Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2012 Feb;31(1):1-5. doi: 10.3109/15513815.2011.618864. PMID: 22233503
Carder KR, Fitzpatrick JE, Weston WL
Pediatr Dermatol 2003 Jan-Feb;20(1):78-80. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1470.2003.03017.x. PMID: 12558853
Hickey P, Piantanida E, Lentz-Kapua S, Kenner J
Pediatr Dermatol 2003 Jan-Feb;20(1):25-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1470.2003.03005.x. PMID: 12558841
Shivarajan MA, Suresh S, Jagadeesh S, Lata S, Bhat L
Prenat Diagn 2003 Jan;23(1):21-4. doi: 10.1002/pd.485. PMID: 12533807

Diagnosis

Dwivedi T, Gosavi M
Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2019 Jan-Mar;62(1):149-152. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_351_17. PMID: 30706883
Roy S, Begum J, Sharifunnaher B, Saha AK, Afroza S, Islam MZ
Mymensingh Med J 2014 Jan;23(1):167-9. PMID: 24584393
Badakali M, Badakali A, Dombale V
Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2012 Feb;31(1):1-5. doi: 10.3109/15513815.2011.618864. PMID: 22233503
Hickey P, Piantanida E, Lentz-Kapua S, Kenner J
Pediatr Dermatol 2003 Jan-Feb;20(1):25-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1470.2003.03005.x. PMID: 12558841
Karimi-Nejad MH, Khajavi H, Gharavi MJ, Karimi-Nejad R
Am J Med Genet 1987 Sep;28(1):17-23. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320280104. PMID: 3314507

Prognosis

Dwivedi T, Gosavi M
Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2019 Jan-Mar;62(1):149-152. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_351_17. PMID: 30706883
Badakali M, Badakali A, Dombale V
Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2012 Feb;31(1):1-5. doi: 10.3109/15513815.2011.618864. PMID: 22233503
Carder KR, Fitzpatrick JE, Weston WL
Pediatr Dermatol 2003 Jan-Feb;20(1):78-80. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1470.2003.03017.x. PMID: 12558853
Hickey P, Piantanida E, Lentz-Kapua S, Kenner J
Pediatr Dermatol 2003 Jan-Feb;20(1):25-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1470.2003.03005.x. PMID: 12558841
Elliott AM, Gonzales M, Hoeffel JC, Le Merrer M, Maroteaux P, Encha-Razavi F, Joye N, Berchel C, Fliegel C, Aughton DJ, Beaudry-Rodgers K, Hasteh F, Nerlich AG, Wilcox WR, Rimoin DL, Lachman RS, Freisinger P
Am J Med Genet 2002 Apr 22;109(2):139-48. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.10324. PMID: 11977163

Clinical prediction guides

Xie MJ, Cromie GA, Owens K, Timour MS, Tang M, Kutz JN, El-Hattab AW, McLaughlin RN Jr, Dudley AM
PLoS Genet 2023 Oct;19(10):e1010972. Epub 2023 Oct 9 doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1010972. PMID: 37812589Free PMC Article
Cuinat S, Quélin C, Pasquier L, Loget P, Aussel D, Odent S, Laquerrière A, Proisy M, Mazoyer S, Delous M, Edery P, Chatron N, Lesca G, Putoux A
Eur J Med Genet 2023 Nov;66(11):104852. Epub 2023 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2023.104852. PMID: 37758168
Shivarajan MA, Suresh S, Jagadeesh S, Lata S, Bhat L
Prenat Diagn 2003 Jan;23(1):21-4. doi: 10.1002/pd.485. PMID: 12533807
Ejeckam GG, Wadhwa JK, Williams JP, Lacson AG
Pediatr Pathol 1986;5(3-4):295-306. doi: 10.3109/15513818609068856. PMID: 3786261
Lazjuk GI, Lurie IW, Ostrowskaja TI, Cherstvoy ED, Kirillova IA, Nedzved MK, Usoev SS
Am J Med Genet 1979;3(3):261-7. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320030304. PMID: 225952

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