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Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis(BANDDOS)

MedGen UID:
1678789
Concept ID:
C5193117
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: BANDDOS; BRAIN ABNORMALITIES, NEURODEGENERATION, AND DYSOSTEOSCLEROSIS
 
Gene (location): CSF1R (5q32)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032772
OMIM®: 618476

Definition

Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, progressive neurologic deterioration, and sclerotic bone dysplasia similar to dysosteosclerosis (DOS). The age at onset is highly variable: some patients may present in infancy with hydrocephalus, global developmental delay, and hypotonia, whereas others may have onset of symptoms in the late teens or early twenties after normal development. Neurologic features include loss of previous motor and language skills, cognitive impairment, spasticity, and focal seizures. Brain imaging shows periventricular white matter abnormalities and calcifications, large cisterna magna or Dandy-Walker malformation, and sometimes agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by Guo et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Erlenmeyer flask deformity of the femurs
MedGen UID:
383796
Concept ID:
C1855895
Finding
Flaring of distal femur.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Mutism
MedGen UID:
6476
Concept ID:
C0026884
Disease or Syndrome
Inability to speak or communicate verbally past the age of typical language development.
Neurodegeneration
MedGen UID:
17999
Concept ID:
C0027746
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
Progressive loss of neural cells and tissue.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Mental deterioration
MedGen UID:
66713
Concept ID:
C0234985
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Loss of previously present mental abilities, generally in adults.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Cognitive impairment
MedGen UID:
90932
Concept ID:
C0338656
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Abnormal cognition is characterized by deficits in thinking, reasoning, or remembering.
Inappropriate laughter
MedGen UID:
98407
Concept ID:
C0424304
Finding
Laughing that may be excessive and/or inappropriate in context (e.g., laughing at a funeral while others are crying).
Spastic tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Chiari type I malformation
MedGen UID:
196689
Concept ID:
C0750929
Congenital Abnormality
Arnold-Chiari type I malformation refers to a relatively mild degree of herniation of the posteroinferior region of the cerebellum (the cerebellar tonsils) into the cervical canal with little or no displacement of the fourth ventricle. It is characterized by one or both pointed (not rounded) cerebellar tonsils that project 5 mm below the foramen magnum, measured by a line drawn from the basion to the opisthion (McRae Line)
Focal-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Hyperintensity of cerebral white matter on MRI
MedGen UID:
811125
Concept ID:
C2938912
Pathologic Function
A brighter than expected signal on magnetic resonance imaging emanating from the cerebral white matter.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Periventricular heterotopia
MedGen UID:
1766888
Concept ID:
C5399973
Disease or Syndrome
A form of gray matter heterotopia were the mislocalized gray matter is typically located periventricularly, also sometimes called subependymal heterotopia. Periventricular means beside the ventricles. This is by far the most common location for heterotopia. Subependymal heterotopia present in a wide array of variations. There can be a small single node or a large number of nodes, can exist on either or both sides of the brain at any point along the higher ventricle margins, can be small or large, single or multiple, and can form a small node or a large wavy or curved mass.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Increased skull ossification
MedGen UID:
5694
Concept ID:
C0020496
Disease or Syndrome
An increase in the magnitude or amount of ossification of the skull.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Rigidity
MedGen UID:
7752
Concept ID:
C0026837
Sign or Symptom
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from muscle spasticity.
Osteopetrosis
MedGen UID:
18223
Concept ID:
C0029454
Finding
Abnormally increased formation of dense trabecular bone tissue. Despite the increased density of bone tissue, osteopetrotic bones tend to be more fracture-prone than normal.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Cerebral calcification
MedGen UID:
124360
Concept ID:
C0270685
Finding
The presence of calcium deposition within the cerebrum.
Difficulty walking
MedGen UID:
86319
Concept ID:
C0311394
Finding
Reduced ability to walk (ambulate).
Sclerotic vertebral body
MedGen UID:
374866
Concept ID:
C1842154
Finding
Increase in bone density of the vertebral body.
Platyspondyly
MedGen UID:
335010
Concept ID:
C1844704
Finding
A flattened vertebral body shape with reduced distance between the vertebral endplates.
Metaphyseal widening
MedGen UID:
341364
Concept ID:
C1849039
Finding
Abnormal widening of the metaphyseal regions of long bones.
Enlarged cisterna magna
MedGen UID:
344031
Concept ID:
C1853377
Finding
Increase in size of the cisterna magna, one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater, located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata.
Bell-shaped thorax
MedGen UID:
351320
Concept ID:
C1865186
Finding
The rib cage has the shape of a wide mouthed bell. That is, the superior portion of the rib cage is constricted, followed by a convex region, and the inferior portion of the rib cage expands again to have a large diameter.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Craniofacial osteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
892778
Concept ID:
C4025193
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormally increased density of craniofacial bone tissue.
Diaphyseal sclerosis
MedGen UID:
1631208
Concept ID:
C4551853
Finding
An elevation in bone density in one or more diaphyses. Sclerosis is normally detected on a radiograph as an area of increased opacity.
Hypocalcemia
MedGen UID:
5705
Concept ID:
C0020598
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormally decreased calcium concentration in the blood.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Tented upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326574
Concept ID:
C1839767
Finding
Triangular appearance of the oral aperture with the apex in the midpoint of the upper vermilion and the lower vermilion forming the base.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Guo L, Ikegawa S
J Hum Genet 2021 Dec;66(12):1139-1144. Epub 2021 Jun 16 doi: 10.1038/s10038-021-00942-w. PMID: 34135456

Prognosis

Dulski J, Souza J, Santos ML, Wszolek ZK
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Jun 22;18(1):160. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02772-9. PMID: 37349768Free PMC Article
Turan S
Bone 2023 Feb;167:116615. Epub 2022 Nov 17 doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2022.116615. PMID: 36402365

Clinical prediction guides

Dulski J, Souza J, Santos ML, Wszolek ZK
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Jun 22;18(1):160. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02772-9. PMID: 37349768Free PMC Article
Turan S
Bone 2023 Feb;167:116615. Epub 2022 Nov 17 doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2022.116615. PMID: 36402365

Recent systematic reviews

Dulski J, Souza J, Santos ML, Wszolek ZK
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Jun 22;18(1):160. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02772-9. PMID: 37349768Free PMC Article

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