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Abnormal foot morphology

MedGen UID:
1762829
Concept ID:
C5399834
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonym: Abnormality of the foot
 
HPO: HP:0001760

Definition

An abnormality of the skeleton of foot. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
56416
Concept ID:
C0162361
Disease or Syndrome
Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia 2, or Clouston syndrome (referred to as HED2 throughout this GeneReview) is characterized by a triad of major clinical features including partial-to-complete alopecia, nail dystrophy, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. Sweating is preserved and there are usually no dental anomalies. Sparse scalp hair and dysplastic nails are seen early in life. In infancy, scalp hair is fine, sparse, and brittle. Progressive hair loss may lead to total alopecia by puberty. The nails may be milky white in early childhood; they gradually become dystrophic, thick, and distally separated from the nail bed. Palmoplantar keratoderma may develop during childhood and increases in severity with age. Associated features may include cutaneous hyperpigmentation (particularly over the joints) and finger clubbing. The clinical manifestations are highly variable even within the same family.
Achondrogenesis type II
MedGen UID:
66315
Concept ID:
C0220685
Congenital Abnormality
Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is characterized by severe micromelic dwarfism with small chest and prominent abdomen, incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies, and disorganization of the costochondral junction. ACG2 is an autosomal dominant trait occurring mostly as new mutations. However, somatic and germline mosaicism have been reported (summary by Comstock et al., 2010).
Miller syndrome
MedGen UID:
120522
Concept ID:
C0265257
Disease or Syndrome
Miller syndrome, or postaxial acrofacial dysostosis, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids, and supernumerary nipples (summary by Ng et al., 2010).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type
MedGen UID:
82698
Concept ID:
C0265280
Congenital Abnormality
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Adult hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
120636
Concept ID:
C0268413
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia
MedGen UID:
96581
Concept ID:
C0432215
Congenital Abnormality
Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by predominant involvement of articular cartilage with progressive joint stiffness and enlargement in the absence of inflammation. Onset – typically between ages three and six years – begins with the involvement of the interphalangeal joints. Over time, involvement of large joints and the spine causes significant joint contractures, gait disturbance, and scoliosis and/or kyphosis, resulting in abnormal posture and significant morbidity. Despite the considerable arthropathy, pain is not a major presenting feature of this condition. Initially height is normal; however, short stature (<3rd centile) becomes evident in adolescence as the skeletal changes progress.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Ohdo type
MedGen UID:
162905
Concept ID:
C0796094
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital malformation syndrome with characteristics of blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental hypoplasia, hearing impairment and intellectual disability. Abnormal ears, microcephaly, and growth retardation have been reported occasionally. Male patients may show cryptorchidism and scrotal hypoplasia. Most reported cases are sporadic, except the original cases of Ohdo who described two affected sisters and a first cousin, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal dominant, X-linked- and mitochondrial inheritance have also been suggested.
Sialic acid storage disease, severe infantile type
MedGen UID:
203367
Concept ID:
C1096902
Disease or Syndrome
Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood.
Congenital hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
316921
Concept ID:
C1832162
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular degeneration (HJMD) is a very rare syndrome characterized by sparse and short hair from birth followed by progressive macular degeneration leading to blindness.
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, neonatal form
MedGen UID:
318896
Concept ID:
C1833518
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. The three clinical presentations are lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and myopathic form (which is usually mild and can manifest from infancy to adulthood). While the former two are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death, the latter is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness, sometimes associated with myoglobinuria. The myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is the most common disorder of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle and the most frequent cause of hereditary myoglobinuria. Males are more likely to be affected than females.
Branchiogenic deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
322970
Concept ID:
C1836673
Disease or Syndrome
A multiple congenital anomalies syndrome, described in one family to date, with characteristics of branchial cysts or fistula, ear malformations, congenital hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), internal auditory canal hypoplasia, strabismus, trismus, abnormal fifth fingers, vitiliginous lesions, short stature and mild learning disability. Renal and urethral abnormalities are absent.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease dominant intermediate C
MedGen UID:
334023
Concept ID:
C1842237
Disease or Syndrome
A rare hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by intermediate motor median nerve conduction velocities (usually between 25 and 60 m/s). It presents with moderately severe, slowly progressive usual clinical features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (muscle weakness and atrophy of the distal extremities, distal sensory loss, reduced or absent deep tendon reflexes, feet deformities, extensor digitorum brevis atrophy). Findings in nerve biopsies include age-dependent axonal degeneration, reduced number of large myelinated fibers, segmental remyelination, and no onion bulbs.
Joubert syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334114
Concept ID:
C1842577
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A
MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH1D (618065), caused by mutation in the EXOSC9 gene (606180); PCH1E (619303), caused by mutation in the SLC25A46 gene (610826); PCH1F (619304), caused by mutation in the EXOSC1 gene (606493); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757); PCH11 (617695), caused by mutation in the TBC1D23 gene (617687); PCH12 (618266), caused by mutation in the COASY gene (609855); PCH13 (618606), caused by mutation in the VPS51 gene (615738); PCH14 (619301), caused by mutation in the PPIL1 gene (601301); PCH15 (619302), caused by mutation in the CDC40 gene (605585); PCH16 (619527), caused by mutation in the MINPP1 gene (605391); and PCH17 (619909), caused by mutation in the PRDM13 gene (616741) on chromosome 6q16.
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
342492
Concept ID:
C1850395
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by the association of an axonal sensory and autonomic neuropathy with spastic paraplegia.
Mesomelic dysplasia, Savarirayan type
MedGen UID:
343129
Concept ID:
C1854470
Disease or Syndrome
Severely hypoplastic and triangular-shaped tibiae and absence of the fibulae.Two sporadic cases have been described. Moderate mesomelia of the upper limbs, proximal widening of the ulnas, pelvic anomalies and marked bilateral glenoid hypoplasia also reported.
Blepharophimosis-ptosis-esotropia-syndactyly-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
347880
Concept ID:
C1859432
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome characterised by the association of blepharophimosis and ptosis, V-esotropia, and weakness of extraocular and frontal muscles with syndactyly of the toes, short stature, prognathism, and hypertrophy and fusion of the eyebrows.
Finnish upper limb-onset distal myopathy
MedGen UID:
400595
Concept ID:
C1864706
Disease or Syndrome
Distal myopathy-3 (MPD3) is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive distal muscular weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs, leading to difficulties using the hands and walking difficulties. Proximal muscle involvement may occur later in the disease, but patients typically remain ambulatory. Muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles (Hackman et al., 2021).
Christianson syndrome
MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
Christianson syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorder, and neurologic findings (e.g., seizures, ataxia, postnatal microcephaly, and eye movement abnormalities). Males with CS typically present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for severe intellectual disability (ID). Behaviorally, autism spectrum disorder and hyperactivity are common, and may resemble the behaviors observed in Angelman syndrome. Hypotonia and oropharyngeal dysphagia in infancy may result in failure to thrive. Seizures, typically beginning before age three years, can include infantile spasms and tonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Subsequently, regression (e.g., loss of ambulation and ability to feed independently) may occur. Manifestations in heterozygous females range from asymptomatic to mild ID and/or behavioral issues.
Peripheral neuropathy-myopathy-hoarseness-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
482186
Concept ID:
C3280556
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy-myopathy-hoarseness-hearing loss syndrome is a rare, syndromic genetic deafness characterized by a combination of muscle weakness, chronic neuropathic and myopathic features, hoarseness and sensorineural hearing loss. A wide range of disease onset and severity has been reported even within the same family.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1B
MedGen UID:
766363
Concept ID:
C3553449
Disease or Syndrome
EXOSC3 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (EXOSC3-PCH) is characterized by abnormalities in the posterior fossa and degeneration of the anterior horn cells. At birth, skeletal muscle weakness manifests as hypotonia (sometimes with congenital joint contractures) and poor feeding. In persons with prolonged survival, spasticity, dystonia, and seizures become evident. Within the first year of life respiratory insufficiency and swallowing difficulties are common. Intellectual disability is severe. Life expectancy ranges from a few weeks to adolescence. To date, 82 individuals (from 58 families) with EXOSC3-PCH have been described.
Microcephaly-thin corpus callosum-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
816410
Concept ID:
C3810080
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disease characterized by progressive postnatal microcephaly and global developmental delay, as well as moderate to profound intellectual disability, difficulty or inability to walk, pyramidal signs (including spasticity, hyperreflexia and extensor plantar response) and thin corpus callosum revealed by brain imaging. Ophthalmologic signs (including nystagmus, strabismus and abnormal retinal pigmentation), foot deformity and genital anomalies may also be associated.
Brachydactyly type A1D
MedGen UID:
903193
Concept ID:
C4225183
Disease or Syndrome
Any brachydactyly type A1 in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BMPR1B gene.
Van Maldergem syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644627
Concept ID:
C4551950
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Van Maldergem Syndrome See also VMLDS2 (615546), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28.
Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1634304
Concept ID:
C4693347
Disease or Syndrome
ALKKUCS is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arthrogryposis, brain abnormalities associated with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, and global developmental delay. Most affected individuals die in utero or soon after birth. Additional abnormalities may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and involvement of other organ systems, such as cardiac or renal. The few patients who survive have variable intellectual disability and may have seizures (summary by Gueneau et al., 2018).
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1648386
Concept ID:
C4721893
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL) is characterized by fractures (resulting from radiologically demonstrable polycystic osseous lesions), frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia beginning in the fourth decade. The clinical course of PLOSL can be divided into four stages: 1. The latent stage is characterized by normal early development. 2. The osseous stage (3rd decade of life) is characterized by pain and tenderness, mostly in ankles and feet, usually following strain or injury. Fractures are typically diagnosed several years later, most commonly in the bones of the extremities. 3. In the early neurologic stage (4th decade of life), a change of personality begins to develop insidiously. Affected individuals show a frontal lobe syndrome (loss of judgment, euphoria, loss of social inhibitions, disturbance of concentration, and lack of insight, libido, and motor persistence) leading to serious social problems. 4. The late neurologic stage is characterized by progressive dementia and loss of mobility. Death usually occurs before age 50 years.
Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 3
MedGen UID:
1648417
Concept ID:
C4748608
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-3 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of neurogenic muscle impairment in utero. Affected individuals present at birth with severe hypotonia, often causing respiratory insufficiency or failure and inability to swallow or feed properly. They have profoundly impaired psychomotor development and may die in infancy or early childhood. Those that survive are unable to sit or walk. Sural nerve biopsy shows hypomyelination of the nerve fibers, and brain imaging often shows impaired myelination and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction velocities are severely decreased (about 10 m/s) or absent due to improper myelination (summary by Vallat et al., 2016 and Low et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 24, presynaptic
MedGen UID:
1648337
Concept ID:
C4748684
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648495
Concept ID:
C4748701
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome (SNIBCPS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and delayed speech acquisition. Affected individuals tend to have expressive language deficits, with speech apraxia and dysarthria. Other features include macrocephaly and characteristic facial features, such as prominent forehead and hypertelorism, hypotonia, and joint laxity. The severity of the neurologic deficits and presence of nonneurologic features is variable (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2018).
Infantile hypotonia-oculomotor anomalies-hyperkinetic movements-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648431
Concept ID:
C4748715
Disease or Syndrome
Baker-Gordon syndrome (BAGOS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, ophthalmic abnormalities, moderate to profound global developmental delay, poor or absent speech, behavioral abnormalities, hyperkinetic movements, and EEG abnormalities in the absence of overt seizures (summary by Baker et al., 2018).
Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia
MedGen UID:
1814513
Concept ID:
C5700127
Disease or Syndrome
NMAN is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first or second decade of a peripheral axonal neuropathy predominantly affecting motor more than sensory nerves. The axonal neuropathy is reminiscent of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (see, e.g., CMT2A1, 118210) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (see, e.g., HMND1, 182960). Individuals with NMAN also have delayed muscle relaxation and action myotonia associated with neuromyotonic discharges on needle EMG resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerves (summary by Zimon et al., 2012).
Autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy without contractures
MedGen UID:
1830501
Concept ID:
C5780022
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of spinal cord motor neurons resulting in muscle weakness. SMALED shows autosomal dominant inheritance with muscle weakness predominantly affecting the proximal lower extremities (Harms et al., 2010). The most common form of SMA (see, e.g., SMA1, 253300) shows autosomal recessive inheritance and is due to mutation in the SMN1 gene (600354) on chromosome 5q. Genetic Heterogeneity of Lower Extremity-Predominant Spinal Muscular Atrophy See also SMALED2A (615290) and SMALED2B (618291), both of which are caused by mutation in the BICD2 gene (609797) on chromosome 9q22. SMALED2A and SMALED2B differ in age at onset and severity, with SMALED2B being more severe.
Spastic paraplegia 18a, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1844217
Concept ID:
C5882694
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-18A (SPG18A) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia phenotype (summary by Rydning et al., 2018).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Xiu Y, Wang Y, He F, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Sun W, Wang B, Chen L
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2023 Dec;36(1):2192323. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2023.2192323. PMID: 36948222

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Xiu Y, Wang Y, He F, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Sun W, Wang B, Chen L
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2023 Dec;36(1):2192323. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2023.2192323. PMID: 36948222
Horii M, Akagi R, Ogawa Y, Yamaguchi S, Kimura S, Ono Y, Watanabe S, Shinohara M, Hosokawa H, Ohtori S, Sasho T
J Orthop Sci 2023 Jan;28(1):212-216. Epub 2021 Oct 27 doi: 10.1016/j.jos.2021.09.014. PMID: 34716069
Burns J, Keenan AM, Redmond A
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2005 May-Jun;95(3):235-41. doi: 10.7547/0950235. PMID: 15901809

Diagnosis

Xiu Y, Wang Y, He F, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Sun W, Wang B, Chen L
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2023 Dec;36(1):2192323. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2023.2192323. PMID: 36948222

Clinical prediction guides

Horii M, Akagi R, Ogawa Y, Yamaguchi S, Kimura S, Ono Y, Watanabe S, Shinohara M, Hosokawa H, Ohtori S, Sasho T
J Orthop Sci 2023 Jan;28(1):212-216. Epub 2021 Oct 27 doi: 10.1016/j.jos.2021.09.014. PMID: 34716069

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