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Bowing of the legs

MedGen UID:
1807399
Concept ID:
C5574706
Finding
Synonyms: Bowed lower limbs; Bowing of legs; Bowing of lower extremities; Bowing of lower limbs; Bowing of the lower extremities; Lower limb bowing
 
HPO: HP:0002979

Definition

A bending or abnormal curvature affecting a long bone of the leg. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Achondroplasia
MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis.
Infantile cortical hyperostosis
MedGen UID:
43781
Concept ID:
C0020497
Disease or Syndrome
Caffey disease is characterized by massive subperiosteal new bone formation (usually involving the diaphyses of the long bones as well as the ribs, mandible, scapulae, and clavicles) typically associated with fever, joint swelling, and pain in children, with onset between birth and five months and spontaneous resolution by age two years. Episodes of recurrence of the manifestations of Caffey disease have been reported multiple times in individuals with the classic infantile presentation. Limited follow-up information suggests that adults who had Caffey disease in childhood may manifest joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, hernias, short stature, and an increased risk for bone fractures and/or deformities.
Childhood hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
65089
Concept ID:
C0220743
Congenital Abnormality
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Achondrogenesis, type IA
MedGen UID:
78546
Concept ID:
C0265273
Congenital Abnormality
The term achondrogenesis has been used to characterize the most severe forms of chondrodysplasia in humans, invariably lethal before or shortly after birth. Achondrogenesis type I is a severe chondrodystrophy characterized radiographically by deficient ossification in the lumbar vertebrae and absent ossification in the sacral, pubic and ischial bones and clinically by stillbirth or early death (Maroteaux and Lamy, 1968; Langer et al., 1969). In addition to severe micromelia, there is a disproportionately large cranium due to marked edema of soft tissues. Classification of Achondrogenesis Achondrogenesis was traditionally divided into 2 types: type I (Parenti-Fraccaro) and type II (Langer-Saldino). Borochowitz et al. (1988) suggested that achondrogenesis type I of Parenti-Fraccaro should be classified into 2 distinct disorders: type IA, corresponding to the cases originally published by Houston et al. (1972) and Harris et al. (1972), and type IB (600972), corresponding to the case originally published by Fraccaro (1952). Analysis of the case reported by Parenti (1936) by Borochowitz et al. (1988) suggested the diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II, i.e., the Langer-Saldino type (200610). Type IA would be classified as lethal achondrogenesis, Houston-Harris type; type IB, lethal achondrogenesis, Fraccaro type; and type II, lethal achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis, Langer-Saldino type. Superti-Furga (1996) suggested that hypochondrogenesis should be considered separately from achondrogenesis type II because the phenotype can be much milder. Genetic Heterogeneity of Achondrogenesis Achondrogenesis type IB (ACG1B; 600972) is caused by mutation in the DTDST gene (606718), and achondrogenesis type II (ACG2; 200610) is caused by mutation in the COL2A1 gene (120140).
Infantile hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
75677
Concept ID:
C0268412
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 1
MedGen UID:
124344
Concept ID:
C0268689
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets is a disorder of bone development that leads to softening and weakening of the bones (rickets). There are several forms of the condition that are distinguished primarily by their genetic causes: type 1A (VDDR1A), type 1B (VDDR1B), and type 2A (VDDR2A). There is also evidence of a very rare form of the condition, called type 2B (VDDR2B), although not much is known about this form.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of vitamin D-dependent rickets begin within months after birth, and most are the same for all types of the condition. The weak bones often cause bone pain and delayed growth and have a tendency to fracture. When affected children begin to walk, they may develop abnormally curved (bowed) legs because the bones are too weak to bear weight. Impaired bone development also results in widening of the areas near the ends of bones where new bone forms (metaphyses), especially in the knees, wrists, and ribs. Some people with vitamin D-dependent rickets have dental abnormalities such as thin tooth enamel and frequent cavities. Poor muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness are also common in this condition, and some affected individuals develop seizures.\n\nHair loss (alopecia) can occur in VDDR2A, although not everyone with this form of the condition has alopecia. Affected individuals can have sparse or patchy hair or no hair at all on their heads. Some affected individuals are missing body hair as well.\n\nIn vitamin D-dependent rickets, there is an imbalance of certain substances in the blood. An early sign in all types of the condition is low levels of the mineral calcium (hypocalcemia), which is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. Affected individuals also develop high levels of a hormone involved in regulating calcium levels called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which leads to a condition called secondary hyperparathyroidism. Low levels of a mineral called phosphate (hypophosphatemia) also occur in affected individuals. Vitamin D-dependent rickets types 1 and 2 can be grouped by blood levels of a hormone called calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D; individuals with VDDR1A and VDDR1B have abnormally low levels of calcitriol and individuals with VDDR2A and VDDR2B have abnormally high levels.
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia
MedGen UID:
90989
Concept ID:
C0342646
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene. This defect leads to an increase in the circulating ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Most patients have total alopecia in addition to rickets. VDDR2B (600785) is a form of vitamin D-dependent rickets with a phenotype similar to VDDR2A but a normal vitamin D receptor, in which end-organ resistance to vitamin D has been shown to be caused by a nuclear ribonucleoprotein that interferes with the vitamin D receptor-DNA interaction. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700).
Congenital livedo reticularis
MedGen UID:
83381
Concept ID:
C0345419
Congenital Abnormality
Isolated and classic cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) are characterized by congenital skin changes including erythematous-to-violaceous, reticulated, net-like or marbled-appearing patches of skin that do not mostly or completely resolve with warming or any other acute intervention. Individuals with isolated CMTC have no other syndromic features, and skin lesions tend to fade or resolve. Those with classic CMTC may have accompanying hemihypoplasia with body asymmetry, skin atrophy or ulceration, other vascular malformations, and occasional ocular issues (early-onset glaucoma and/or peripheral retinal vascular attenuation) but do not have other malformations, dysmorphic features, or cognitive impairment. The most common location for the CMTC lesions is on the legs. An affected limb may also display weakness or be unusually susceptible to cold compared to an unaffected limb. In more than half of affected individuals, skin lesions will generally fade across a wide range in age (6 weeks to 26 years), most commonly in the first year of life, but may not resolve completely.
Type IV short rib polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
96578
Concept ID:
C0432198
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beemer-Langer syndrome have been found to carry mutations in the IFT80 gene (611177); see SRTD2, 611263. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Spahr type
MedGen UID:
140928
Concept ID:
C0432225
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, primary bone dysplasia disease characterized by usually moderate, postnatal short stature, progressive genu vara deformity, a waddling gait, and radiological signs of metaphyseal dysplasia (i.e. irregular, sclerotic and widened metaphyses), in the absence of biochemical abnormalities suggestive of rickets disease. Intermittent knee pain, lordosis, and delayed motor development may also occasionally be associated.
Familial X-linked hypophosphatemic vitamin D refractory rickets
MedGen UID:
196551
Concept ID:
C0733682
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) ranges from isolated hypophosphatemia to severe lower-extremity bowing. XLH frequently manifests in the first two years of life when lower-extremity bowing becomes evident with the onset of weight bearing; however, it sometimes is not manifest until adulthood, as previously unevaluated short stature. In adults, enthesopathy (calcification of the tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules) associated with joint pain and impaired mobility may be the initial presenting complaint. Persons with XLH are prone to spontaneous dental abscesses; sensorineural hearing loss has also been reported.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, matrilin-3 type
MedGen UID:
325181
Concept ID:
C1837481
Disease or Syndrome
The Borochowitz-Cormier-Daire type of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMDBCD) is a rare type of autosomal recessive short-limb short-trunk dwarfism. Affected individuals have significant short stature with pronounced leg bowing, lumbar lordosis, and a waddling gait (summary by Borochowitz et al., 2004 and Shyamasundar et al., 2020).
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets, type 1B
MedGen UID:
374020
Concept ID:
C1838657
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1B (VDDR1B) is caused by a defect in vitamin D 25-hydroxylation (Molin et al., 2017). The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium and phosphate levels in the normal range to support metabolic functions, neuromuscular transmission, and bone mineralization. Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or action lead to defective bone mineralization and clinical features including intestinal malabsorption of calcium, hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased renal clearance of phosphorus, and hypophosphatemia. The combination of hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia causes impaired mineralization of bone that results in rickets and osteomalacia (summary by Liberman and Marx, 2001). Rickets can occur because of inadequate dietary intake or sun exposure or because of genetic disorders. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is taken in the diet or synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by ultraviolet irradiation. For vitamin D to be active, it needs to be converted to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D is transported in the blood by the vitamin D binding protein (DBP; 139200) to the liver, where vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1; 608713) is the key enzyme for 25-hydroxylation. Vitamin D 25(OH)D3, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is then transported to the kidney, where 25(OH)D3 is hydroxylated at the position of carbon 1 of the A ring, resulting in the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (summary by Christakos et al., 2010).
Hypophosphatemic bone disease
MedGen UID:
333534
Concept ID:
C1840321
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked recessive
MedGen UID:
335115
Concept ID:
C1845168
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, which comprises a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
Dent disease type 1
MedGen UID:
336322
Concept ID:
C1848336
Disease or Syndrome
Dent disease, an X-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction, is characterized by low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and at least one additional finding including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hematuria, hypophosphatemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and evidence of X-linked inheritance. Males younger than age ten years may manifest only LMW proteinuria and/or hypercalciuria, which are usually asymptomatic. Thirty to 80% of affected males develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between ages 30 and 50 years; in some instances ESRD does not develop until the sixth decade of life or later. The disease may also be accompanied by rickets or osteomalacia, growth restriction, and short stature. Disease severity can vary within the same family. Males with Dent disease 2 (caused by pathogenic variants in OCRL) may also have mild intellectual disability, cataracts, and/or elevated muscle enzymes. Due to random X-chromosome inactivation, some female carriers may manifest hypercalciuria and, rarely, renal calculi and moderate LMW proteinuria. Females rarely develop CKD.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome
MedGen UID:
338595
Concept ID:
C1849011
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome is a rare, genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature with shortening of upper and lower limbs, short and broad fingers with short hands, narrowed chest with rib abnormalities and pectus excavatum, abnormal chondral calcifications (incl. larynx, trachea and costal cartilages) and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, short flat nose, wide nostrils, high-arched palate, long philtrum). Platyspondyly (esp. of cervical spine) and abnormal epiphyses and metaphyses are observed on radiography. Atlantoaxial instability causing spinal compression and recurrent respiratory disease are potential complications that may result lethal.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 7
MedGen UID:
343981
Concept ID:
C1853162
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VII is an autosomal recessive form of severe or lethal OI (summary by Barnes et al., 2006).
Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic bone disease
MedGen UID:
501133
Concept ID:
C1853271
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, radiographic and/or histologic evidence of rickets, limb deformities, muscle weakness, and bone pain. HHRH is distinct from other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets in that affected individuals present with hypercalciuria due to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and increased intestinal calcium absorption (summary by Bergwitz et al., 2006).
Mesomelic dwarfism-cleft palate-camptodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
340833
Concept ID:
C1855273
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome characterised by mesomelic shortening and bowing of the limbs, camptodactyly, skin dimpling and cleft palate with retrognathia and mandibular hypoplasia. It has been described in a brother and sister born to consanguineous parents. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Tibial torsion, bilateral medial
MedGen UID:
348785
Concept ID:
C1861097
Disease or Syndrome
Tibial torsion (twisting of the tibia) can cause toeing in or out, depending on whether it is internal or external torsion. Although some degree of internal tibial torsion is present in almost all infants because of the intrauterine position, it usually corrects spontaneously. Persistence of internal tibial torsion may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait (summary by Fitch, 1974).
Diaphyseal medullary stenosis-bone malignancy syndrome
MedGen UID:
350613
Concept ID:
C1862177
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphyseal medullary stenosis with malignant fibrous histiocytoma is an autosomal dominant bone dysplasia characterized by pathologic fractures due to abnormal cortical growth and diaphyseal medullary stenosis. The fractures heal poorly, and there is progressive bowing of the lower extremities. In 2 families, affected individuals also showed a limb-girdle myopathy, with muscle weakness and atrophy. Approximately 35% of affected individuals develop an aggressive form of bone sarcoma consistent with malignant fibrous histiocytoma or osteosarcoma. Thus, the disorder may be considered a tumor predisposition syndrome (summary by Camacho-Vanegas et al., 2012).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, PAPSS2 type
MedGen UID:
411234
Concept ID:
C2748515
Congenital Abnormality
This form of brachyolmia, here designated brachyolmia type 4, is characterized by short-trunk stature with normal intelligence and facies. The radiographic features include rectangular vertebral bodies with irregular endplates and narrow intervertebral discs, precocious calcification of rib cartilages, short femoral neck, mildly shortened metacarpals, and mild epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes of the tubular bones (summary by Miyake et al., 2012).
Metaphyseal anadysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
414350
Concept ID:
C2751322
Disease or Syndrome
Any metaphyseal anadysplasia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MMP9 gene.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 12
MedGen UID:
462783
Concept ID:
C3151433
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type XII is an autosomal recessive form characterized by recurrent fractures, mild bone deformations, generalized osteoporosis, delayed teeth eruption, progressive hearing loss, no dentinogenesis imperfecta, and white sclerae (summary by Lapunzina et al., 2010).
Blount disease, adolescent
MedGen UID:
462922
Concept ID:
C3151572
Disease or Syndrome
Blount disease is a developmental condition characterized by disordered endochondral ossification of the medial part of the proximal tibial physis resulting in multiplanar deformities of the lower limb (review by Sabharwal, 2009).
Fanconi renotubular syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
816430
Concept ID:
C3810100
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi renotubular syndrome-3 (FRTS3) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by rickets, impaired growth, glucosuria, generalized aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, metabolic acidosis, and low molecular weight proteinuria (summary by Klootwijk et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fanconi renotubular syndrome, see FRTS1 (134600).
Short stature, rhizomelic, with microcephaly, micrognathia, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
934653
Concept ID:
C4310686
Disease or Syndrome
The core features of short stature-micrognathia syndrome (SSMG) are intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), postnatal short stature that is often rhizomelic, and micrognathia. Other common features include preterm birth, microcephaly, developmental delay, and genitourinary malformations in males. Transient liver dysfunction and glycosylation abnormalities during illness, giant cell hepatitis, hepatoblastoma, and cataracts have also been observed. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic severity varies greatly, from a relatively mild disorder to intrauterine death or stillbirth (Ritter et al., 2022).
Tall stature-intellectual disability-renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
934682
Concept ID:
C4310715
Disease or Syndrome
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, mainly of height, and mildly delayed psychomotor development with mild or severe learning difficulties. More variable features may include congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and skeletal defects. Patients may have an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Akawi et al., 2016).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
934705
Concept ID:
C4310738
Disease or Syndrome
Any Meier-Gorlin syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CDC45 gene.
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1647990
Concept ID:
C4551479
Disease or Syndrome
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome is a rare condition characterized by permanent muscle stiffness (myotonia) and bone abnormalities known as chondrodysplasia. The signs and symptoms of this condition become apparent sometime after birth, usually in early childhood. Either muscle stiffness or chondrodysplasia can appear first. The muscle and bone abnormalities worsen in childhood, although most affected individuals have a normal lifespan. The specific features of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome vary widely.\n\nMyotonia involves continuous tensing (contraction) of muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) throughout the body. This sustained muscle contraction causes stiffness that interferes with eating, sitting, walking, and other movements. Sustained contraction of muscles in the face leads to a fixed, "mask-like" facial expression with narrow eye openings (blepharophimosis) and pursed lips. This facial appearance is very specific to Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Affected individuals may also be nearsighted and experience abnormal blinking or spasms of the eyelids (blepharospasm).\n\nChondrodysplasia affects the development of the skeleton, particularly the long bones in the arms and legs and the bones of the hips. These bones are shortened and unusually wide at the ends, so affected individuals have short stature. The long bones may also be abnormally curved (bowed). Other bone abnormalities associated with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome include a protruding chest (pectus carinatum), abnormal curvature of the spine, flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly), and joint abnormalities called contractures that further restrict movement.\n\nResearchers originally described two types of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Type 1 has the signs and symptoms described above, while type 2 has more severe bone abnormalities and other health problems and is usually life-threatening in early infancy. Researchers have since discovered that the condition they thought was Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2 is actually part of another disorder, Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome, which is caused by mutations in a different gene. They have recommended that the designation Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2 no longer be used.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, di rocco type
MedGen UID:
1646454
Concept ID:
C4693799
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia of the Di Rocco type (SEMDDR) is characterized by short stature, joint pain, and genu varum, as well as SEMD involving primarily the hips but also affecting the wrists, hands, knees, and ankles. Patients also exhibit variable degrees of metaphyseal and spine involvement (Di Rocco et al., 2018).
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 19
MedGen UID:
1648353
Concept ID:
C4746956
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XIX (OI19) is characterized by prenatal fractures and generalized osteopenia, with severe short stature in adulthood, as well as variable scoliosis and pectal deformity, and marked anterior angulation of the tibia (Lindert et al., 2016).
Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 3
MedGen UID:
1725534
Concept ID:
C5436733
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets-3 (VDDR3) is characterized by early-onset rickets, reduced serum levels of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and deficient responsiveness to the parent molecule as well as activated forms of vitamin D (Roizen et al., 2018). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of vitamin D-dependent rickets, see 264700.
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 21
MedGen UID:
1723598
Concept ID:
C5436875
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XXI (OI21) is a progressively deforming disorder, characterized by multiple fractures that often occur after minor trauma. Fractures may be present at birth in some affected individuals. Patients exhibit disproportionate short stature and scoliosis, and are often wheelchair-bound by adulthood (van Dijk et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Bai X, Levental M, Karaplis AC
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Sep 28;107(10):2777-2783. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgac433. PMID: 35896139Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Handa A, Tham E, Wang Z, Horemuzova E, Grigelioniene G
Skeletal Radiol 2016 Nov;45(11):1557-60. Epub 2016 Aug 21 doi: 10.1007/s00256-016-2458-8. PMID: 27544198
Hoy DG, Fransen M, March L, Brooks P, Durham J, Toole MJ
J Physiother 2010;56(1):49-54. doi: 10.1016/s1836-9553(10)70054-0. PMID: 20500137
Najada AS, Habashneh MS, Khader M
J Trop Pediatr 2004 Dec;50(6):364-8. doi: 10.1093/tropej/50.6.364. PMID: 15537725
Lubani MM, Khuffash FA, Reavey PC, Sharda DC, Alshab TS
Ann Trop Paediatr 1990;10(4):377-81. doi: 10.1080/02724936.1990.11747461. PMID: 1708966
Bathfield CA, Beighton PH
Clin Orthop Relat Res 1978 Sep;(135):29-33. PMID: 709942

Diagnosis

Vagha K, Jameel PZ, Vagha J, Varma A, Murhekar S, Reddy P, Madirala S
Pan Afr Med J 2022;42:161. Epub 2022 Jun 29 doi: 10.11604/pamj.2022.42.161.33990. PMID: 36187048Free PMC Article
Maio P, Mano L, Rocha S, Baptista RB, Francisco T, Sousa H, Freixo JP, Abranches M
J Bras Nefrol 2021 Apr-Jun;43(2):279-282. doi: 10.1590/2175-8239-JBN-2020-0027. PMID: 32897287Free PMC Article
Güven A, Hancılı S, Kuru Lİ
Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2014 Jun;53(6):539-43. Epub 2014 Jan 13 doi: 10.1177/0009922813518424. PMID: 24419262
Najada AS, Habashneh MS, Khader M
J Trop Pediatr 2004 Dec;50(6):364-8. doi: 10.1093/tropej/50.6.364. PMID: 15537725
Cohen S, Becker GL
J Am Dent Assoc 1976 Jan;92(1):120-9. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.1976.0327. PMID: 173749

Therapy

Bai X, Levental M, Karaplis AC
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Sep 28;107(10):2777-2783. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgac433. PMID: 35896139Free PMC Article
Najada AS, Habashneh MS, Khader M
J Trop Pediatr 2004 Dec;50(6):364-8. doi: 10.1093/tropej/50.6.364. PMID: 15537725
Verge CF, Lam A, Simpson JM, Cowell CT, Howard NJ, Silink M
N Engl J Med 1991 Dec 26;325(26):1843-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199112263252604. PMID: 1660098
Lubani MM, Khuffash FA, Reavey PC, Sharda DC, Alshab TS
Ann Trop Paediatr 1990;10(4):377-81. doi: 10.1080/02724936.1990.11747461. PMID: 1708966
Greene WB, Kahler SG
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Prognosis

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