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Epilepsy, childhood absence, susceptibility to, 1(ECA1)

MedGen UID:
325057
Concept ID:
C1838604
Finding
Synonym: Epilepsy, childhood absence 1
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020759
OMIM®: 600131

Definition

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE, ECA), a subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (EIG; 600669), is characterized by a sudden and brief impairment of consciousness that is accompanied by a generalized, synchronous, bilateral, 2.5- to 4-Hz spike and slow-wave discharge (SWD) on EEG. Seizure onset occurs between 3 and 8 years of age and seizures generally occur multiple times per day. About 70% of patients experience spontaneous remission of seizures, often around adolescence. There are no structural neuropathologic findings in patients with ECA (Crunelli and Leresche, 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Childhood Absence Epilepsy The ECA1 locus has been mapped to chromosome 8q24; see also EIG1 (see 600669), which also maps to 8q24. Susceptibility to the development of childhood absence epilepsy may be conferred by variation in several genes: ECA2 (see 607681), conferred by variation in the GABRG2 gene (137164) on chromosome 5q31.1; ECA4 (611136), conferred by variation in the GABRA1 gene (137160) on chromosome 5q34; ECA5 (612269), conferred by variation in the GABRB3 gene (137192) on chromosome 15q12; and ECA6 (see 611942), conferred by variation in the CACNA1H gene (607904) on chromosome 16p13. See EIG11 (607628) for discussion of a locus previously designated ECA3 on chromosome 3q26. [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Childhood absence epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). This condition begins in childhood, usually between ages 3 and 8. Affected children have absence seizures (also known as petit mal seizures), which are brief episodes of impaired consciousness that look like staring spells. During seizures, children are not aware of and do not respond to people or activities around them. The seizures usually last several seconds and they occur often, up to 200 times each day.

Some affected individuals have febrile seizures before they develop childhood absence epilepsy. Febrile seizures are involuntary muscle contractions (convulsions) brought on by a high body temperature (fever).

In most people with childhood absence epilepsy, the absence seizures disappear in adolescence. However, some affected individuals continue to have absence seizures into adulthood, or they may develop generalized tonic-clonic seizures, which cause muscle rigidity, convulsions, and loss of consciousness, or myoclonic seizures, which are characterized by rapid, uncontrolled muscle jerks.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/childhood-absence-epilepsy

Clinical features

From HPO
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
MedGen UID:
3232
Concept ID:
C0009952
Disease or Syndrome
A febrile seizure is any type of seizure (most often a generalized tonic-clonic seizure) occurring with fever (at least 38 degrees Celsius) but in the absence of central nervous system infection, severe metabolic disturbance or other alternative precipitant in children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
EEG with polyspike wave complexes
MedGen UID:
867392
Concept ID:
C4021757
Finding
The presence of complexes of repetitive spikes and waves in EEG.
EEG with spike-wave complexes (>3.5 Hz)
MedGen UID:
892339
Concept ID:
C4023684
Finding
The presence of complexes of spikes and waves (>3.5 Hz) in electroencephalography (EEG).
Generalized non-motor (absence) seizure
MedGen UID:
1385688
Concept ID:
C4316903
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized non-motor (absence) seizure is a type of a type of dialeptic seizure that is of electrographically generalized onset. It is a generalized seizure characterized by an interruption of activities, a blank stare, and usually the person will be unresponsive when spoken to. Any ictal motor phenomena are minor in comparison to these non-motor features.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Stredny C, Rotenberg A, Leviton A, Loddenkemper T
Epilepsia Open 2023 Mar;8(1):221-234. Epub 2023 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12684. PMID: 36524286Free PMC Article
Lee CG, Lee J, Lee M
PLoS One 2018;13(6):e0199321. Epub 2018 Jun 20 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199321. PMID: 29924869Free PMC Article
Thomas RH, Chung SK, Wood SE, Cushion TD, Drew CJ, Hammond CL, Vanbellinghen JF, Mullins JG, Rees MI
Brain 2013 Oct;136(Pt 10):3085-95. Epub 2013 Sep 11 doi: 10.1093/brain/awt207. PMID: 24030948

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gokce-Samar Z, Vetro A, De Bellescize J, Pisano T, Monteiro L, Penaud N, Korff CM, Fluss J, Marini C, Cesaroni E, Alvarez BM, Sanlaville D, Chatron N, Arzimanoglou AA, Labalme A, Cuddapah VA, Ruggiero SM, Lecoquierre F, Nicolas G, Marie GA, Lebas A, Testard HO, Helbig KL, Ruiz A, Ngoh A, Kurian MA, Reid K, Spaull R, Joset P, Ramantani G, Steindl K, Krenn M, Gerstl L, Vieker S, Craiu D, Pendziwiat M, Haldeman-Englert C, Kanivets I, Romanova I, Rajan DS, Rosenfeld JA, Au M, Grand K, Graham M Jr, Isapof A, Villeneuve N, Smol T, Caumes R, Zacher P, Neuser S, Tinschert S, Platzer K, Bartolomaeus T, Mohnke I, Radtke M, Jamra RA, Helbig I, Jansen FE, Koop K, Rudolf G, Küry S, Courchet J, Guerrini R, Lesca G
Neurology 2024 Jan 23;102(2):e207945. Epub 2023 Dec 22 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207945. PMID: 38165337
Fang Y, Si X, Wang J, Wang Z, Chen Y, Liu Y, Yan Y, Tian J, Zhang B, Pu J
Neurology 2023 Jul 25;101(4):e399-e409. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207423. PMID: 37225432Free PMC Article
Tang P, Guo X, Chong L, Li R
Front Immunol 2023;14:1071580. Epub 2023 Feb 13 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1071580. PMID: 36860869Free PMC Article
Nix JS, Blakeley J, Rodriguez FJ
Acta Neuropathol 2020 Apr;139(4):625-641. Epub 2019 Apr 8 doi: 10.1007/s00401-019-02002-2. PMID: 30963251Free PMC Article
Mullen SA, Berkovic SF; ILAE Genetics Commission
Epilepsia 2018 Jun;59(6):1148-1153. Epub 2018 May 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.14042. PMID: 29741207

Diagnosis

Fang Y, Si X, Wang J, Wang Z, Chen Y, Liu Y, Yan Y, Tian J, Zhang B, Pu J
Neurology 2023 Jul 25;101(4):e399-e409. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207423. PMID: 37225432Free PMC Article
Tang P, Guo X, Chong L, Li R
Front Immunol 2023;14:1071580. Epub 2023 Feb 13 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1071580. PMID: 36860869Free PMC Article
Weerts MJA, Lanko K, Guzmán-Vega FJ, Jackson A, Ramakrishnan R, Cardona-Londoño KJ, Peña-Guerra KA, van Bever Y, van Paassen BW, Kievit A, van Slegtenhorst M, Allen NM, Kehoe CM, Robinson HK, Pang L, Banu SH, Zaman M, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Järvelä I, Lauronen L, Määttä T, Schrauwen I, Leal SM, Ruivenkamp CAL, Barge-Schaapveld DQCM, Peeters-Scholte CMPCD, Galehdari H, Mazaheri N, Sisodiya SM, Harrison V, Sun A, Thies J, Pedroza LA, Lara-Taranchenko Y, Chinn IK, Lupski JR, Garza-Flores A, McGlothlin J, Yang L, Huang S, Wang X, Jewett T, Rosso G, Lin X, Mohammed S, Merritt JL 2nd, Mirzaa GM, Timms AE, Scheck J, Elting MW, Polstra AM, Schenck L, Ruzhnikov MRZ, Vetro A, Montomoli M, Guerrini R, Koboldt DC, Mosher TM, Pastore MT, McBride KL, Peng J, Pan Z, Willemsen M, Koning S, Turnpenny PD, de Vries BBA, Gilissen C, Pfundt R, Lees M, Braddock SR, Klemp KC, Vansenne F, van Gijn ME, Quindipan C, Deardorff MA, Hamm JA, Putnam AM, Baud R, Walsh L, Lynch SA, Baptista J, Person RE, Monaghan KG, Crunk A, Keller-Ramey J, Reich A, Elloumi HZ, Alders M, Kerkhof J, McConkey H, Haghshenas S; Genomics England Research Consortium, Maroofian R, Sadikovic B, Banka S, Arold ST, Barakat TS
Genet Med 2021 Nov;23(11):2122-2137. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1038/s41436-021-01246-2. PMID: 34345025Free PMC Article
Nix JS, Blakeley J, Rodriguez FJ
Acta Neuropathol 2020 Apr;139(4):625-641. Epub 2019 Apr 8 doi: 10.1007/s00401-019-02002-2. PMID: 30963251Free PMC Article
Mullen SA, Berkovic SF; ILAE Genetics Commission
Epilepsia 2018 Jun;59(6):1148-1153. Epub 2018 May 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.14042. PMID: 29741207

Therapy

He Z, Li Y, Liu S, Li J
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1452-1459. Epub 2023 Aug 26 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12818. PMID: 37602490Free PMC Article
Nong W, Mo G, Luo C
Front Public Health 2023;11:1202747. Epub 2023 Jul 26 doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1202747. PMID: 37564429Free PMC Article
Fang Y, Si X, Wang J, Wang Z, Chen Y, Liu Y, Yan Y, Tian J, Zhang B, Pu J
Neurology 2023 Jul 25;101(4):e399-e409. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207423. PMID: 37225432Free PMC Article
Tang P, Guo X, Chong L, Li R
Front Immunol 2023;14:1071580. Epub 2023 Feb 13 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1071580. PMID: 36860869Free PMC Article
Galli J, Micheletti S, Malerba L, Fazzi E, Giordano L
Seizure 2018 Oct;61:1-3. Epub 2018 Jul 18 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.07.009. PMID: 30029089

Prognosis

He Z, Li Y, Liu S, Li J
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1452-1459. Epub 2023 Aug 26 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12818. PMID: 37602490Free PMC Article
Fang Y, Si X, Wang J, Wang Z, Chen Y, Liu Y, Yan Y, Tian J, Zhang B, Pu J
Neurology 2023 Jul 25;101(4):e399-e409. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207423. PMID: 37225432Free PMC Article
Xie H, Su W, Pei J, Zhang Y, Gao K, Li J, Ma X, Zhang Y, Wu X, Jiang Y
Epilepsy Res 2019 Aug;154:55-61. Epub 2019 Apr 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.04.005. PMID: 31054517
Scheffer IE
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2012 Sep;16 Suppl 1:S5-8. Epub 2012 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.04.007. PMID: 22704920
Everett KV, Chioza B, Aicardi J, Aschauer H, Brouwer O, Callenbach P, Covanis A, Dulac O, Eeg-Olofsson O, Feucht M, Friis M, Goutieres F, Guerrini R, Heils A, Kjeldsen M, Lehesjoki AE, Makoff A, Nabbout R, Olsson I, Sander T, Sirén A, McKeigue P, Robinson R, Taske N, Rees M, Gardiner M
Eur J Hum Genet 2007 Apr;15(4):463-72. Epub 2007 Jan 31 doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201783. PMID: 17264864Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Gokce-Samar Z, Vetro A, De Bellescize J, Pisano T, Monteiro L, Penaud N, Korff CM, Fluss J, Marini C, Cesaroni E, Alvarez BM, Sanlaville D, Chatron N, Arzimanoglou AA, Labalme A, Cuddapah VA, Ruggiero SM, Lecoquierre F, Nicolas G, Marie GA, Lebas A, Testard HO, Helbig KL, Ruiz A, Ngoh A, Kurian MA, Reid K, Spaull R, Joset P, Ramantani G, Steindl K, Krenn M, Gerstl L, Vieker S, Craiu D, Pendziwiat M, Haldeman-Englert C, Kanivets I, Romanova I, Rajan DS, Rosenfeld JA, Au M, Grand K, Graham M Jr, Isapof A, Villeneuve N, Smol T, Caumes R, Zacher P, Neuser S, Tinschert S, Platzer K, Bartolomaeus T, Mohnke I, Radtke M, Jamra RA, Helbig I, Jansen FE, Koop K, Rudolf G, Küry S, Courchet J, Guerrini R, Lesca G
Neurology 2024 Jan 23;102(2):e207945. Epub 2023 Dec 22 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207945. PMID: 38165337
He Z, Li Y, Liu S, Li J
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1452-1459. Epub 2023 Aug 26 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12818. PMID: 37602490Free PMC Article
Nong W, Mo G, Luo C
Front Public Health 2023;11:1202747. Epub 2023 Jul 26 doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1202747. PMID: 37564429Free PMC Article
Fang Y, Si X, Wang J, Wang Z, Chen Y, Liu Y, Yan Y, Tian J, Zhang B, Pu J
Neurology 2023 Jul 25;101(4):e399-e409. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207423. PMID: 37225432Free PMC Article
Tang P, Guo X, Chong L, Li R
Front Immunol 2023;14:1071580. Epub 2023 Feb 13 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1071580. PMID: 36860869Free PMC Article

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