U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Intellectual disability, X-linked 1(XLID1)

MedGen UID:
444070
Concept ID:
C2931498
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: Atkin Flaitz Patil Smith syndrome; INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, X-LINKED 1; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 18; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 78; Mental retardation, X-linked, nonspecific; XLID1
 
Gene (location): IQSEC2 (Xp11.22)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010656
OMIM®: 309530

Definition

An X-linked dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the IQSEC2 gene, encoding IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein 2. It is characterized by substantially impaired intellectual functioning and behavioral abnormalities. [from NCI]

Clinical features

From HPO
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Atonic seizure
MedGen UID:
78735
Concept ID:
C0270846
Disease or Syndrome
Atonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by a sudden loss or diminution of muscle tone without apparent preceding myoclonic or tonic event lasting about 1 to 2 seconds, involving head, trunk, jaw, or limb musculature.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
No social interaction
MedGen UID:
376638
Concept ID:
C1849683
Finding
Lack of intentional participation in interactions with another person.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVIntellectual disability, X-linked 1

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gupta AO, Raymond G, Pierpont EI, Kemp S, McIvor RS, Rayannavar A, Miller B, Lund TC, Orchard PJ
Expert Opin Biol Ther 2022 Sep;22(9):1151-1162. Epub 2022 Sep 19 doi: 10.1080/14712598.2022.2124857. PMID: 36107226
Turk BR, Theda C, Fatemi A, Moser AB
Int J Dev Neurosci 2020 Feb;80(1):52-72. Epub 2020 Jan 26 doi: 10.1002/jdn.10003. PMID: 31909500Free PMC Article
Engelen M, Kemp S, Poll-The BT
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2014 Oct;14(10):486. doi: 10.1007/s11910-014-0486-0. PMID: 25115486

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cappa M, Todisco T, Bizzarri C
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1309053. Epub 2023 Nov 16 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1309053. PMID: 38034003Free PMC Article
Gupta AO, Raymond G, Pierpont EI, Kemp S, McIvor RS, Rayannavar A, Miller B, Lund TC, Orchard PJ
Expert Opin Biol Ther 2022 Sep;22(9):1151-1162. Epub 2022 Sep 19 doi: 10.1080/14712598.2022.2124857. PMID: 36107226
Pearson TS, Pons R, Ghaoui R, Sue CM
Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):625-636. Epub 2019 Mar 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.27655. PMID: 30913345
Eichler F, Duncan C, Musolino PL, Orchard PJ, De Oliveira S, Thrasher AJ, Armant M, Dansereau C, Lund TC, Miller WP, Raymond GV, Sankar R, Shah AJ, Sevin C, Gaspar HB, Gissen P, Amartino H, Bratkovic D, Smith NJC, Paker AM, Shamir E, O'Meara T, Davidson D, Aubourg P, Williams DA
N Engl J Med 2017 Oct 26;377(17):1630-1638. Epub 2017 Oct 4 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1700554. PMID: 28976817Free PMC Article
Hu H, Haas SA, Chelly J, Van Esch H, Raynaud M, de Brouwer AP, Weinert S, Froyen G, Frints SG, Laumonnier F, Zemojtel T, Love MI, Richard H, Emde AK, Bienek M, Jensen C, Hambrock M, Fischer U, Langnick C, Feldkamp M, Wissink-Lindhout W, Lebrun N, Castelnau L, Rucci J, Montjean R, Dorseuil O, Billuart P, Stuhlmann T, Shaw M, Corbett MA, Gardner A, Willis-Owen S, Tan C, Friend KL, Belet S, van Roozendaal KE, Jimenez-Pocquet M, Moizard MP, Ronce N, Sun R, O'Keeffe S, Chenna R, van Bömmel A, Göke J, Hackett A, Field M, Christie L, Boyle J, Haan E, Nelson J, Turner G, Baynam G, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Müller U, Steinberger D, Budny B, Badura-Stronka M, Latos-Bieleńska A, Ousager LB, Wieacker P, Rodríguez Criado G, Bondeson ML, Annerén G, Dufke A, Cohen M, Van Maldergem L, Vincent-Delorme C, Echenne B, Simon-Bouy B, Kleefstra T, Willemsen M, Fryns JP, Devriendt K, Ullmann R, Vingron M, Wrogemann K, Wienker TF, Tzschach A, van Bokhoven H, Gecz J, Jentsch TJ, Chen W, Ropers HH, Kalscheuer VM
Mol Psychiatry 2016 Jan;21(1):133-48. Epub 2015 Feb 3 doi: 10.1038/mp.2014.193. PMID: 25644381Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Cappa M, Todisco T, Bizzarri C
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1309053. Epub 2023 Nov 16 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1309053. PMID: 38034003Free PMC Article
Gujral J, Sethuram S
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2023 Feb 1;30(1):44-51. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000782. PMID: 36373727
Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA
Endocr Rev 2020 Aug 1;41(4):577-93. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa013. PMID: 32364223Free PMC Article
Wu Y, Lyon GJ
Exp Mol Med 2018 Jul 27;50(7):1-10. doi: 10.1038/s12276-018-0098-x. PMID: 30054457Free PMC Article
Torres RJ, Puig JG
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Dec 8;2:48. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-48. PMID: 18067674Free PMC Article

Therapy

Cappa M, Todisco T, Bizzarri C
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1309053. Epub 2023 Nov 16 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1309053. PMID: 38034003Free PMC Article
Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA
Endocr Rev 2020 Aug 1;41(4):577-93. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa013. PMID: 32364223Free PMC Article
Groeneweg S, van Geest FS, Peeters RP, Heuer H, Visser WE
Endocr Rev 2020 Apr 1;41(2) doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnz008. PMID: 31754699
Vairo FPE, Chwal BC, Perini S, Ferreira MAP, de Freitas Lopes AC, Saute JAM
Mol Genet Metab 2019 Jan;126(1):6-13. Epub 2018 Dec 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.12.005. PMID: 30594472
Eichler F, Duncan C, Musolino PL, Orchard PJ, De Oliveira S, Thrasher AJ, Armant M, Dansereau C, Lund TC, Miller WP, Raymond GV, Sankar R, Shah AJ, Sevin C, Gaspar HB, Gissen P, Amartino H, Bratkovic D, Smith NJC, Paker AM, Shamir E, O'Meara T, Davidson D, Aubourg P, Williams DA
N Engl J Med 2017 Oct 26;377(17):1630-1638. Epub 2017 Oct 4 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1700554. PMID: 28976817Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Cherian A, K P D, Vijayaraghavan A
Curr Opin Neurol 2023 Aug 1;36(4):292-301. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001167. PMID: 37366140
Gujral J, Sethuram S
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2023 Feb 1;30(1):44-51. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000782. PMID: 36373727
Honey MIJ, Jaspers YRJ, Engelen M, Kemp S, Huffnagel IC
Cells 2021 Dec 6;10(12) doi: 10.3390/cells10123427. PMID: 34943935Free PMC Article
Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA
Endocr Rev 2020 Aug 1;41(4):577-93. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa013. PMID: 32364223Free PMC Article
Pearson TS, Pons R, Ghaoui R, Sue CM
Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):625-636. Epub 2019 Mar 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.27655. PMID: 30913345

Clinical prediction guides

Cappa M, Todisco T, Bizzarri C
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1309053. Epub 2023 Nov 16 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1309053. PMID: 38034003Free PMC Article
Cherian A, K P D, Vijayaraghavan A
Curr Opin Neurol 2023 Aug 1;36(4):292-301. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001167. PMID: 37366140
Honey MIJ, Jaspers YRJ, Engelen M, Kemp S, Huffnagel IC
Cells 2021 Dec 6;10(12) doi: 10.3390/cells10123427. PMID: 34943935Free PMC Article
Piché J, Van Vliet PP, Pucéat M, Andelfinger G
Cell Cycle 2019 Nov;18(21):2828-2848. Epub 2019 Sep 13 doi: 10.1080/15384101.2019.1658476. PMID: 31516082Free PMC Article
Moortgat S, Berland S, Aukrust I, Maystadt I, Baker L, Benoit V, Caro-Llopis A, Cooper NS, Debray FG, Faivre L, Gardeitchik T, Haukanes BI, Houge G, Kivuva E, Martinez F, Mehta SG, Nassogne MC, Powell-Hamilton N, Pfundt R, Rosello M, Prescott T, Vasudevan P, van Loon B, Verellen-Dumoulin C, Verloes A, Lippe CV, Wakeling E, Wilkie AOM, Wilson L, Yuen A, Study D, Low KJ, Newbury-Ecob RA
Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Jan;26(1):64-74. Epub 2017 Nov 27 doi: 10.1038/s41431-017-0038-6. PMID: 29180823Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Shah A, Bapna M, Al-Saif H, Li R, Couser NL
Ophthalmic Genet 2022 Feb;43(1):126-129. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2021.1989601. PMID: 34670449
Mallack EJ, Turk BR, Yan H, Price C, Demetres M, Moser AB, Becker C, Hollandsworth K, Adang L, Vanderver A, Van Haren K, Ruzhnikov M, Kurtzberg J, Maegawa G, Orchard PJ, Lund TC, Raymond GV, Regelmann M, Orsini JJ, Seeger E, Kemp S, Eichler F, Fatemi A
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 May;44(3):728-739. Epub 2021 Jan 9 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12356. PMID: 33373467Free PMC Article
Vairo FPE, Chwal BC, Perini S, Ferreira MAP, de Freitas Lopes AC, Saute JAM
Mol Genet Metab 2019 Jan;126(1):6-13. Epub 2018 Dec 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.12.005. PMID: 30594472
Birch RC, Cornish KM, Hocking DR, Trollor JN
Neuropsychol Rev 2014 Dec;24(4):491-513. Epub 2014 May 15 doi: 10.1007/s11065-014-9262-9. PMID: 24828430
da Silva EM, Strufaldi MW, Andriolo RB, Silva LA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jan 8;(1):CD008185. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008185.pub3. PMID: 24399699

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...