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High myopia

MedGen UID:
78759
Concept ID:
C0271183
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Severe Myopia
SNOMED CT: Severe myopia (34187009); High myopia (34187009)
 
HPO: HP:0011003

Definition

A severe form of myopia with greater than -6.00 diopters. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHigh myopia

Conditions with this feature

Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Baller-Gerold syndrome
MedGen UID:
120532
Concept ID:
C0265308
Disease or Syndrome
Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. The coronal suture is most commonly affected; the metopic, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures may also be involved alone or in combination. Upper limb abnormality can include a combination of thumb hypo- or aplasia and radial hypo- or aplasia and may be asymmetric. Malformation or absence of carpal or metacarpal bones has also been described. Skin lesions may appear anytime within the first few years after birth, typically beginning with erythema of the face and extremities and evolving into poikiloderma. Slow growth is apparent in infancy with eventual height and length typically at 4 SD below the mean.
DOORS syndrome
MedGen UID:
208648
Concept ID:
C0795934
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 1
MedGen UID:
163210
Concept ID:
C0796070
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or anophthalmia and linear skin defects, usually involving the face and neck, which are present at birth and heal with age, leaving minimal residual scarring. Other findings can include a wide variety of other ocular abnormalities (e.g., corneal anomalies, orbital cysts, cataracts), central nervous system involvement (e.g., structural anomalies, developmental delay, infantile seizures), cardiac concerns (e.g., hypertrophic or oncocytic cardiomyopathy, atrial or ventricular septal defects, arrhythmias), short stature, diaphragmatic hernia, nail dystrophy, hearing impairment, and genitourinary malformations. Inter- and intrafamilial variability is described.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Snyder type
MedGen UID:
162918
Concept ID:
C0796160
Disease or Syndrome
Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome characterized by asthenic build, facial dysmorphism with a prominent lower lip, kyphoscoliosis, osteoporosis, speech abnormalities, and seizures. Developmental delay usually presents as failure to meet early developmental milestones and then evolves to moderate to profound intellectual disability (which appears to remain stable over time) and variable motor disability. Asthenic habitus and low muscle mass usually develop during the first year, even in males who are ambulatory. During the first decade, males with SRS develop osteoporosis, resulting in fractures in the absence of trauma.
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia
MedGen UID:
163223
Concept ID:
C0796173
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a disorder that impairs bone growth. This condition is characterized by flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), with the exception of the first (big) toes. Other skeletal abnormalities associated with spondyloperipheral dysplasia include short stature, shortened long bones of the arms and legs, exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Additionally, some affected individuals have nearsightedness (myopia), hearing loss, and intellectual disability.
Ectopia lentis et pupillae
MedGen UID:
301316
Concept ID:
C1644196
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of ADAMTSL4-related eye disorders is a continuum that includes the phenotypes known as "autosomal recessive isolated ectopia lentis" and "ectopia lentis et pupillae" as well as more minor eye anomalies with no displacement of the pupil and very mild displacement of the lens. Typical eye findings are dislocation of the lens, congenital abnormalities of the iris, refractive errors that may lead to amblyopia, and early-onset cataract. Increased intraocular pressure and retinal detachment may occur on occasion. Eye findings can vary within a family and between the eyes in an individual. In general, no additional systemic manifestations are observed, although skeletal features have been reported in a few affected individuals.
Facial dysmorphism-lens dislocation-anterior segment abnormalities-spontaneous filtering blebs syndrome
MedGen UID:
330396
Concept ID:
C1832167
Disease or Syndrome
Traboulsi syndrome is characterized by dislocated crystalline lenses and anterior segment abnormalities in association with a distinctive facies involving flat cheeks and a beaked nose. Some affected individuals develop highly unusual nontraumatic conjunctival cysts (filtering blebs), presumably caused by abnormal thinning of the sclera (Patel et al., 2014).
Aplasia cutis-myopia syndrome
MedGen UID:
331375
Concept ID:
C1832826
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disorder characterised by the association of aplasia cutis congenita with high myopia, congenital nystagmus and cone-rod dysfunction. It has been described in two siblings (brother and sister). Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Myopia 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
331770
Concept ID:
C1834531
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Myopia MYP2 maps to chromosome 18p. Other myopia loci include MYP1 (310460) on Xq28; MYP3 (603221) on 12q21-q23; MYP5 (608474) on 17q21-q22; MYP6 (608908), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (602474) on 22q13; MYP7 (609256) on 11p13; MYP8 (609257) on 3q26; MYP9 (609258) on 4q12; MYP10 (609259) on 8p23; MYP11 (609994) on 4q22-q27; MYP12 (609995) on 2q37.1; MYP13 (300613) on Xq23-q27; MYP14 (610320) on 1p36; MYP15 (612717) on 10q21.1; MYP16 (612554) on 5p15.33-p15.2; MYP17 (formerly MYP4) (608367) on 7p15; MYP18 (255500) on chromosome 14q22-q24; MYP19 (613969) on 5p15.1-p13.3; MYP20 (614166) on 13q12.12; MYP21 (614167), caused by mutation in the ZNF644 gene (614159) on 1p22; MYP22 (615420), caused by mutation in the CCDC111 gene (615421) on 4q35; MYP23 (615431), caused by mutation in the LRPAP1 gene (104225) on 4p16; MYP24 (615946), caused by mutation in the SLC39A5 gene (608730) on 12q13; MYP25 (617238), caused by mutation in the P4HA2 gene (600608) on 5q31; MYP26 (301010), caused by mutation in the ARR3 gene (301770) on Xq13; MYP27 (618827), caused by mutation in the CPSF1 gene (606027) on 8q24; and MYP28 (619781), caused by mutation in the LOXL3 gene (607163) on 2p13.
Pierson syndrome
MedGen UID:
373199
Concept ID:
C1836876
Disease or Syndrome
Pierson syndrome (PIERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria and hypoplasia of the ciliary and pupillary muscles, as well as other anomalies. Many patients die early, and those who survive tend to show neurodevelopmental delay and visual loss (summary by Zenker et al., 2004). Mutations in the LAMB2 gene also cause nephrotic syndrome type 5 with or without mild ocular anomalies (NPHS5; 614199).
Myopia 6
MedGen UID:
324696
Concept ID:
C1837148
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see 160700.
Myopia 5, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
324913
Concept ID:
C1837972
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see (160700).
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334413
Concept ID:
C1843478
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome-2 (LCCS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe multiple congenital contractures with muscle wasting and atrophy. Micrognathia and other craniofacial anomalies, including cleft palate, as well as cardiac defects and enlarged urinary bladder at birth have also been reported. Hydrops fetalis and multiple pterygia are absent. Most patients have died in the neonatal period, although 2 survived to early adolescence (Landau et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LCCS, see LCCS1 (253310).
Exudative vitreoretinopathy 2, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337030
Concept ID:
C1844579
Disease or Syndrome
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited disorder characterized by the incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Its clinical appearance varies considerably, even within families, with severely affected patients often registered as blind during infancy, whereas mildly affected patients with few or no visual problems may have such a small area of avascularity in their peripheral retina that it is visible only by fluorescein angiography. It is believed that this peripheral avascularity is the primary anomaly in FEVR and results from defective retinal angiogenesis. The sight-threatening features of the FEVR phenotype are considered secondary to retinal avascularity and develop because of the resulting retinal ischemia; they include the development of hyperpermeable blood vessels, neovascularization, vitreoretinal traction, retinal folds, and retinal detachments (summary by Poulter et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FEVR, see EVR1 (133780).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 92
MedGen UID:
335109
Concept ID:
C1845144
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Retinitis pigmentosa 3
MedGen UID:
336999
Concept ID:
C1845667
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a severe form of inherited retinal degeneration that primarily affects the rod photoreceptors (Demirci et al., 2002). It typically causes an early-onset night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often causing patients to become legally blind by the age of 30 to 40 years. In RP3, affected males have a severe phenotype, and carrier females show a wide spectrum of clinical features ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe RP (Jin et al., 2007). Mutation in the RPGR gene is believed to account for approximately 70% of XLRP (Vervoort et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Achromatopsia 3
MedGen UID:
340413
Concept ID:
C1849792
Disease or Syndrome
Achromatopsia is characterized by reduced visual acuity, pendular nystagmus, increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), a small central scotoma, eccentric fixation, and reduced or complete loss of color discrimination. All individuals with achromatopsia (achromats) have impaired color discrimination along all three axes of color vision corresponding to the three cone classes: the protan or long-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (red), the deutan or middle-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (green), and the tritan or short-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (blue). Most individuals have complete achromatopsia, with total lack of function of all three types of cones. Rarely, individuals have incomplete achromatopsia, in which one or more cone types may be partially functioning. The manifestations are similar to those of individuals with complete achromatopsia, but generally less severe. Hyperopia is common in achromatopsia. Nystagmus develops during the first few weeks after birth followed by increased sensitivity to bright light. Best visual acuity varies with severity of the disease; it is 20/200 or less in complete achromatopsia and may be as high as 20/80 in incomplete achromatopsia. Visual acuity is usually stable over time; both nystagmus and sensitivity to bright light may improve slightly. Although the fundus is usually normal, macular changes (which may show early signs of progression) and vessel narrowing may be present in some affected individuals. Defects in the macula are visible on optical coherence tomography.
Renal coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Epiphyseal dysplasia of femoral head, myopia, and deafness
MedGen UID:
346470
Concept ID:
C1856918
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome
MedGen UID:
347406
Concept ID:
C1857277
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features (large anterior fontanelle, wide metopic suture, widow's peak, markedly widely spaced eyes, enlarged globes, downslanted palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, depressed nasal bridge, and short nose. Ocular complications include high myopia, retinal detachment, retinal dystrophy, and progressive vision loss. Additional common features include agenesis of the corpus callosum, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and/or omphalocele. Both inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability are observed.
Cataract 21 multiple types
MedGen UID:
347538
Concept ID:
C1857768
Congenital Abnormality
Mutations in the MAF gene have been found to cause multiple types of cataract, which have been described as cortical pulverulent, lamellar, nuclear, nuclear pulverulent, nuclear stellate, anterior polar, anterior subcapsular, posterior subcapsular, and cerulean. In some cases, the cataracts are of juvenile onset. The preferred title of this entry was formerly 'Cataract, Pulverulent, Juvenile-Onset,' with an 'Included' title/symbol of 'Cataract, Congenital, Cerulean Type, 4; CCA4.'
Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
347895
Concept ID:
C1859486
Disease or Syndrome
Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is a chorioretinal degeneration characterized by the presence of yellow-white crystals and/or complex lipid deposits in the retina and (to a variable degree) the cornea. Progressive atrophy and degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) / choroid lead to symptoms similar to those of other forms of retinal degeneration that fall under the category of retinitis pigmentosa and allied disorders, namely: reduced visual acuity, poor night vision, abnormal retinal electrophysiology, visual field loss, and often impaired color vision. Marked asymmetry between eyes is not uncommon. Onset is typically during the second to third decade of life, but ranges from the early teenage years to beyond the third decade. With time, loss of peripheral visual field, central acuity, or both result in legal blindness in most if not all affected individuals.
Myopia 3, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
400454
Concept ID:
C1864111
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see 160700.
Retinal cone dystrophy 3A
MedGen UID:
355864
Concept ID:
C1864900
Disease or Syndrome
Achromatopsia is characterized by reduced visual acuity, pendular nystagmus, increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), a small central scotoma, eccentric fixation, and reduced or complete loss of color discrimination. All individuals with achromatopsia (achromats) have impaired color discrimination along all three axes of color vision corresponding to the three cone classes: the protan or long-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (red), the deutan or middle-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (green), and the tritan or short-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (blue). Most individuals have complete achromatopsia, with total lack of function of all three types of cones. Rarely, individuals have incomplete achromatopsia, in which one or more cone types may be partially functioning. The manifestations are similar to those of individuals with complete achromatopsia, but generally less severe. Hyperopia is common in achromatopsia. Nystagmus develops during the first few weeks after birth followed by increased sensitivity to bright light. Best visual acuity varies with severity of the disease; it is 20/200 or less in complete achromatopsia and may be as high as 20/80 in incomplete achromatopsia. Visual acuity is usually stable over time; both nystagmus and sensitivity to bright light may improve slightly. Although the fundus is usually normal, macular changes (which may show early signs of progression) and vessel narrowing may be present in some affected individuals. Defects in the macula are visible on optical coherence tomography.
Sinus node disease and myopia
MedGen UID:
401121
Concept ID:
C1866960
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 2, dominant
MedGen UID:
358388
Concept ID:
C1869115
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Craniofacial dysplasia - osteopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including brachycephaly, prominent forehead, sparse lateral eyebrows, severe hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, protruding ears, broad nasal bridge, pointed nasal tip, flat philtrum, anteverted nostrils, large mouth, thin upper vermilion border, highly arched palate and mild micrognathia) associated with osteopenia leading to repeated long bone fractures, severe myopia, mild to moderate sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, enamel hypoplasia, sloping shoulders and mild intellectual disability. There is evidence the disease can be caused by homozygous mutation in the IRX5 gene on chromosome 16q11.2.
Severe achondroplasia-developmental delay-acanthosis nigricans syndrome
MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
SADDAN dysplasia (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by the constellation of these features. Radiology reveals 'ram's horn' shaped clavicles and reverse bowing of lower limbs. Approximately half of patients die before the fourth week of life secondary to respiratory failure (summary by Zankl et al., 2008).
Syndactyly-telecanthus-anogenital and renal malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
394424
Concept ID:
C2678045
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of toe syndactyly, facial dysmorphism including telecanthus and a broad nasal tip, urogenital malformations and anal atresia. Around ten cases have been reported so far. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the FAM58A gene (located on the X chromosome) encoding a protein of unknown function.
Retinitis pigmentosa 2
MedGen UID:
394544
Concept ID:
C2681923
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by constriction of the visual fields, night blindness, and fundus changes, including 'bone corpuscle' lumps of pigment. RP unassociated with other abnormalities is inherited most frequently (84%) as an autosomal recessive, next as an autosomal dominant (10%), and least frequently (6%) as an X-linked recessive in the white U.S. population (Boughman et al., 1980). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Weill-Marchesani 4 syndrome, recessive
MedGen UID:
416383
Concept ID:
C2750787
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
RIN2 syndrome
MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare inherited connective tissue disorder with characteristics of macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rare manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the RIN2 gene on chromosome 20p11.
Amyloidogenic transthyretin amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
414031
Concept ID:
C2751492
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is characterized by a slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor and/or autonomic neuropathy as well as non-neuropathic changes of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities, and CNS amyloidosis. The disease usually begins in the third to fifth decade in persons from endemic foci in Portugal and Japan; onset is later in persons from other areas. Typically, sensory neuropathy starts in the lower extremities with paresthesias and hypesthesias of the feet, followed within a few years by motor neuropathy. In some persons, particularly those with early-onset disease, autonomic neuropathy is the first manifestation of the condition; findings can include: orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, attacks of nausea and vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, sexual impotence, anhidrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Cardiac amyloidosis is mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy. Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis may have the following CNS findings: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2O
MedGen UID:
461767
Concept ID:
C3150417
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGC3 is a rare form of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with normal cognition (Clement et al., 2008). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type C, see MDDGC1 (609308).
Retinitis pigmentosa 51
MedGen UID:
462065
Concept ID:
C3150715
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TTC8 gene.
Myopia 19, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
462760
Concept ID:
C3151410
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see 160700.
X-linked cone dysfunction syndrome with myopia
MedGen UID:
463611
Concept ID:
C3159311
Disease or Syndrome
Bornholm eye disease consists of X-linked high myopia, amblyopia, and deuteranopia. Associated signs include optic nerve hypoplasia, reduced electroretinographic (ERG) flicker, and nonspecific retinal pigment abnormalities (Schwartz et al., 1990).
Stickler syndrome, type 4
MedGen UID:
481571
Concept ID:
C3279941
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Myopia 21, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
481627
Concept ID:
C3279997
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see 160700.
Stickler syndrome, type 5
MedGen UID:
481972
Concept ID:
C3280342
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Myopia, high, with cataract and vitreoretinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
481976
Concept ID:
C3280346
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 8 with or without oligodontia and-or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
482274
Concept ID:
C3280644
Disease or Syndrome
POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome.
Congenital ichthyosis-intellectual disability-spastic quadriplegia syndrome
MedGen UID:
482486
Concept ID:
C3280856
Disease or Syndrome
ISQMR is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis apparent from birth, profound psychomotor retardation with essentially no development, spastic quadriplegia, and seizures (summary by Aldahmesh et al., 2011).
Congenital stationary night blindness 1E
MedGen UID:
482845
Concept ID:
C3281215
Disease or Syndrome
Complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal disorders characterized by nonprogressive impairment of night vision, absence of the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave, and variable degrees of involvement of other visual functions. Individuals with cCSNB and animal models of the disorder have an ERG waveform that lacks the b-wave because of failure to transmit the photoreceptor signal through the retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (summary by Peachey et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital stationary night blindness, see CSNB1A (310500).
Congenital stationary night blindness 1A
MedGen UID:
501208
Concept ID:
C3495587
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is characterized by non-progressive retinal findings of reduced visual acuity ranging from 20/30 to 20/200; defective dark adaptation; refractive error, most typically myopia ranging from low (-0.25 diopters [D] to -4.75 D) to high (=-10.00 D) but occasionally hyperopia; nystagmus; strabismus; normal color vision; and normal fundus examination. Characteristic ERG findings can help distinguish between complete X-linked CSNB and incomplete X-linked CSNB.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
766699
Concept ID:
C3553785
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Congenital stationary night blindness 1F
MedGen UID:
767313
Concept ID:
C3554399
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing and distinguishing objects in low light (night blindness). For example, they may not be able to identify road signs at night or see stars in the night sky. They also often have other vision problems, including loss of sharpness (reduced acuity), nearsightedness (myopia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus).\n\nThe vision problems associated with this condition are congenital, which means they are present from birth. They tend to remain stable (stationary) over time.
High myopia-sensorineural deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
812605
Concept ID:
C3806275
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness and myopia (DFNMYP) syndrome is characterized by bilateral, congenital or prelingual deafness (sensorineural hearing loss or auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder) and high myopia (>-6 diopters). In individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis reported to date, hearing loss was progressive and severity ranged from moderate to profound. Vestibular testing was normal. Myopia was diagnosed at infancy or early childhood.
Cataract 16 multiple types
MedGen UID:
814707
Concept ID:
C3808377
Disease or Syndrome
Mutations in the CRYAB gene have been found to cause multiple types of cataract, which have been described as congenital posterior polar, congenital lamellar, and juvenile. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms have been described. The preferred title/symbol of this entry was formerly 'Cataract, Posterior Polar, 2; CTPP2.'
Cone-rod dystrophy 18
MedGen UID:
815629
Concept ID:
C3809299
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.
Myopia 22, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
815794
Concept ID:
C3809464
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see 160700.
Myopia 23, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
815812
Concept ID:
C3809482
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myopia, see 160700.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
854728
Concept ID:
C3888026
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Myopia 17, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
854818
Concept ID:
C3888211
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see 160700.
Short stature with microcephaly and distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
862776
Concept ID:
C4014339
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature with microcephaly and distinctive facies is characterized by pre- or postnatal growth retardation, frontal bossing, high forehead, sparse hair and eyebrows, and telecanthus. Patients also show skin dyspigmentation, with hyper- and/or hypopigmented areas (Leduc et al., 2016).
Cone-rod dystrophy 19
MedGen UID:
862938
Concept ID:
C4014501
Disease or Syndrome
There are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Myopia 24, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
863199
Concept ID:
C4014762
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myopia, see 160700.
Cone-rod dystrophy 20
MedGen UID:
863293
Concept ID:
C4014856
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.
Macular dystrophy with central cone involvement
MedGen UID:
863808
Concept ID:
C4015371
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A9
MedGen UID:
902513
Concept ID:
C4225291
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, and congenital muscular dystrophy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designation Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), which is associated with death in infancy. The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Geis et al., 2013 and Riemersma et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Retinitis pigmentosa 72
MedGen UID:
895867
Concept ID:
C4225315
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZNF408 gene.
Myopia 25, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
934622
Concept ID:
C4310655
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error of the eye. Light rays from a distant object are focused in front of the retina and those from a near object are focused in the retina; therefore distant objects are blurry and near objects are clear (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to myopia, see 160700.
Progeroid and marfanoid aspect-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934763
Concept ID:
C4310796
Disease or Syndrome
The marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MFLS) is characterized by congenital lipodystrophy, premature birth with an accelerated linear growth disproportionate to weight gain, and progeroid appearance with distinct facial features, including proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, and retrognathia. Other characteristic features include arachnodactyly, digital hyperextensibility, myopia, dural ectasia, and normal psychomotor development (Takenouchi et al., 2013). Takenouchi et al. (2013) noted phenotypic overlap with Marfan syndrome (154700) and Shprintzen-Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome (182212).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia 26, X-linked, female-limited
MedGen UID:
1618364
Concept ID:
C4538795
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked myopia-26 is characterized by female-limited early-onset high myopia. The fundus of affected individuals shows a tigroid appearance, and there is a temporal crescent of the optic nerve head (Xiao et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myopia, see 160700.
Joint laxity, short stature, and myopia
MedGen UID:
1621331
Concept ID:
C4540020
Disease or Syndrome
A rare developmental defect with connective tissue involvement and characteristics of joint hyperextensibility and multiple dislocations of large joints, severe myopia and short stature. Other common features include retinal detachment, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, kyphoscoliosis and other spine deformities, pectus carinatum, talipes equinovarus and progressive hearing loss.
Retinitis pigmentosa-hearing loss-premature aging-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1615526
Concept ID:
C4540367
Disease or Syndrome
SHRF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, hearing loss, and visual impairment. Onset of the hearing and visual abnormalities, including retinitis pigmentosa, varies from birth to the second decade. Patients have mild intellectual disability and mild cerebellar atrophy with myelination defects on brain imaging (summary by Di Donato et al., 2016).
Knobloch syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1642123
Concept ID:
C4551775
Disease or Syndrome
Knobloch syndrome-1 (KNO1) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder primarily characterized by typical eye abnormalities, including high myopia, cataracts, dislocated lens, vitreoretinal degeneration, and retinal detachment, with occipital skull defects, which can range from occipital encephalocele to occult cutis aplasia (summary by Aldahmesh et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Knobloch Syndrome KNO2 (618458) is caused by mutation in the PAK2 gene (605022) on chromosome 3q29.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1637058
Concept ID:
C4552002
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1634617
Concept ID:
C4693704
Disease or Syndrome
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is characterized by: exocrine pancreatic dysfunction with malabsorption, malnutrition, and growth failure; hematologic abnormalities with single- or multilineage cytopenias and susceptibility to myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML); and bone abnormalities. In almost all affected children, persistent or intermittent neutropenia is a common presenting finding, often before the diagnosis of SDS is made. Short stature and recurrent infections are common.
Paganini-Miozzo syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683361
Concept ID:
C5193010
Disease or Syndrome
Paganini-Miozzo syndrome (MRXSPM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, high myopia, and mild dysmorphic facial features (summary by Paganini et al., 2019)
Myopia 27
MedGen UID:
1719756
Concept ID:
C5394215
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia-27 (MYP27) is characterized by early-onset high myopia with increased axial lengths. Fundus changes include optic nerve head crescent and tigroid appearance of the posterior retina (Ouyang et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1777442
Concept ID:
C5436821
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities (NEDFASB) is a syndromic disorder with multisystemic involvement. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent language, behavioral abnormalities, seizures, and sleep disturbances. Craniofacial dysmorphisms, while variable, include round face, prognathism, depressed nasal bridge, and cleft or high-arched palate. Brain imaging shows dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Additional features may include genitourinary tract anomalies, hearing loss, and mild distal skeletal defects (summary by Humbert et al., 2020).
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, sensorineural hearing loss, impaired intellectual development, and leber congenital amaurosis
MedGen UID:
1780157
Concept ID:
C5543257
Disease or Syndrome
SHILCA is characterized by early-onset retinal degeneration in association with sensorineural hearing loss, short stature, vertebral anomalies, and epiphyseal dysplasia, as well as motor and intellectual delay. Delayed myelination, leukoencephalopathy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellum have been observed on brain MRI (Bedoni et al., 2020).
VISS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and neonatal cholestasis
MedGen UID:
1794262
Concept ID:
C5562052
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and neonatal cholestasis (NEDMSC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, progressive microcephaly, and neonatal cholestasis manifest as jaundice and elevated liver enzymes. The liver disease resolves, but affected individuals show feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, seizures, hyperkinetic movements, irritability, and poor eye contact or vision, and achieve almost no motor or cognitive developmental milestones. Brain imaging demonstrates agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2021).
Chromosome 16q12 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794292
Concept ID:
C5562082
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 16q12 duplication syndrome is characterized by early-onset progressive cone dystrophy, with early blue cone involvement. Patients report reduced visual acuity in the first decade of life, as well as difficulty differentiating colors, photophobia, and reduced night vision (Kohl et al., 2021). Tritanopia can also be caused by heterozygous mutation in the OPN1SW gene (613522) on chromosome 7q32 (see 190900).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, Pilorge type
MedGen UID:
1803486
Concept ID:
C5676881
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The Pilorge type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSP) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). More variable features include motor incoordination, seizures, and ocular abnormalities (summary by Marcogliese et al., 2022).
Knobloch syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1812153
Concept ID:
C5676897
Disease or Syndrome
Kury-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1807460
Concept ID:
C5676925
Disease or Syndrome
Kury-Isidor syndrome (KURIS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. It is characterized mainly by mild global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood with walking delayed by a few years and speech delay, often with language deficits. Intellectual development may be mildly delayed, borderline, or even normal; most patients have behavioral problems, including autism. Additional variable systemic features may include poor overall growth, hypotonia, distal skeletal anomalies, seizures, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (summary by Kury et al., 2022).
Myopia 28, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1806812
Concept ID:
C5676935
Disease or Syndrome
Myopia-28 (MYP28) is characterized by early-onset high myopia in the first decade of life. Retinal detachment may occur, and early-onset cataract has been reported (Li et al., 2016; Maddirevula et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myopia, see MYP2 (160700).
Stickler syndrome, IIa 6
MedGen UID:
1823980
Concept ID:
C5774207
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome type VI (STL6) is characterized by early-onset progressive hearing loss and progressive myopia, with variable manifestation of facial dysmorphism and skeletal anomalies (Nixon et al., 2019; Rad et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Stickler syndrome, see STL1 (108300).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and visual impairment
MedGen UID:
1823998
Concept ID:
C5774225
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and visual impairment (NEDMVIC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, facial dysmorphism, and microcephaly (Ziegler et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
1824001
Concept ID:
C5774228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties (NEDSFF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features, multisystem dysfunction, profound neurodevelopmental delays, and neonatal death (Shankar et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Németh J, Tapasztó B, Aclimandos WA, Kestelyn P, Jonas JB, De Faber JHN, Januleviciene I, Grzybowski A, Nagy ZZ, Pärssinen O, Guggenheim JA, Allen PM, Baraas RC, Saunders KJ, Flitcroft DI, Gray LS, Polling JR, Haarman AE, Tideman JWL, Wolffsohn JS, Wahl S, Mulder JA, Smirnova IY, Formenti M, Radhakrishnan H, Resnikoff S
Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 May;31(3):853-883. Epub 2021 Mar 5 doi: 10.1177/1120672121998960. PMID: 33673740Free PMC Article
Klaver C, Polling JR; Erasmus Myopia Research Group
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2020 Mar;40(2):230-240. doi: 10.1111/opo.12676. PMID: 32202320
Wu PC, Chuang MN, Choi J, Chen H, Wu G, Ohno-Matsui K, Jonas JB, Cheung CMG
Eye (Lond) 2019 Jan;33(1):3-13. Epub 2018 Jun 11 doi: 10.1038/s41433-018-0139-7. PMID: 29891900Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lin F, Chen S, Song Y, Li F, Wang W, Zhao Z, Gao X, Wang P, Jin L, Liu Y, Chen M, Liang X, Yang B, Ning G, Cheng CY, Healey PR, Park KH, Zangwill LM, Aung T, Ohno-Matsui K, Jonas JB, Weinreb RN, Zhang X; Glaucoma Suspects with High Myopia Study Group
Ophthalmology 2022 Jul;129(7):803-812. Epub 2022 Mar 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.03.001. PMID: 35288144Free PMC Article
Li SM, Wei S, Atchison DA, Kang MT, Liu L, Li H, Li S, Yang Z, Wang Y, Zhang F, Wang N
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022 Jan 3;63(1):8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.63.1.8. PMID: 34989760Free PMC Article
Haarman AEG, Enthoven CA, Tideman JWL, Tedja MS, Verhoeven VJM, Klaver CCW
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Apr 9;61(4):49. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.49. PMID: 32347918Free PMC Article
Morgan IG, French AN, Ashby RS, Guo X, Ding X, He M, Rose KA
Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Jan;62:134-149. Epub 2017 Sep 23 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2017.09.004. PMID: 28951126
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, Wong TY, Naduvilath TJ, Resnikoff S
Ophthalmology 2016 May;123(5):1036-42. Epub 2016 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006. PMID: 26875007

Diagnosis

Sun MT, Tran M, Singh K, Chang R, Wang H, Sun Y
Biomolecules 2023 Mar 20;13(3) doi: 10.3390/biom13030562. PMID: 36979497Free PMC Article
Ohno-Matsui K, Wu PC, Yamashiro K, Vutipongsatorn K, Fang Y, Cheung CMG, Lai TYY, Ikuno Y, Cohen SY, Gaudric A, Jonas JB
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr 28;62(5):5. doi: 10.1167/iovs.62.5.5. PMID: 33909033Free PMC Article
Jonker SMR, Berendschot TTJM, Saelens IEY, Bauer NJC, Nuijts RMMA
Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 Dec;68(12):2779-2796. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2995_20. PMID: 33229653Free PMC Article
Morgan IG, French AN, Ashby RS, Guo X, Ding X, He M, Rose KA
Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Jan;62:134-149. Epub 2017 Sep 23 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2017.09.004. PMID: 28951126
Morgan IG, Ohno-Matsui K, Saw SM
Lancet 2012 May 5;379(9827):1739-48. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60272-4. PMID: 22559900

Therapy

Sankaridurg P, Berntsen DA, Bullimore MA, Cho P, Flitcroft I, Gawne TJ, Gifford KL, Jong M, Kang P, Ostrin LA, Santodomingo-Rubido J, Wildsoet C, Wolffsohn JS
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2023 May 1;64(6):7. doi: 10.1167/iovs.64.6.7. PMID: 37126356Free PMC Article
Yam JC, Zhang XJ, Zhang Y, Yip BHK, Tang F, Wong ES, Bui CHT, Kam KW, Ng MPH, Ko ST, Yip WWK, Young AL, Tham CC, Chen LJ, Pang CP
JAMA 2023 Feb 14;329(6):472-481. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.24162. PMID: 36786791Free PMC Article
Haarman AEG, Enthoven CA, Tideman JWL, Tedja MS, Verhoeven VJM, Klaver CCW
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Apr 9;61(4):49. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.49. PMID: 32347918Free PMC Article
Upadhyay A, Beuerman RW
Eye Contact Lens 2020 May;46(3):129-135. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000677. PMID: 31899695Free PMC Article
Morgan IG, French AN, Ashby RS, Guo X, Ding X, He M, Rose KA
Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Jan;62:134-149. Epub 2017 Sep 23 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2017.09.004. PMID: 28951126

Prognosis

Lee SS, Lingham G, Sanfilippo PG, Hammond CJ, Saw SM, Guggenheim JA, Yazar S, Mackey DA
JAMA Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 1;140(2):162-169. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.5067. PMID: 34989764Free PMC Article
Li SM, Wei S, Atchison DA, Kang MT, Liu L, Li H, Li S, Yang Z, Wang Y, Zhang F, Wang N
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022 Jan 3;63(1):8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.63.1.8. PMID: 34989760Free PMC Article
Pärssinen O, Kauppinen M
Acta Ophthalmol 2019 Aug;97(5):510-518. Epub 2018 Nov 20 doi: 10.1111/aos.13964. PMID: 30460746
Wang SK, Guo Y, Liao C, Chen Y, Su G, Zhang G, Zhang L, He M
JAMA Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 1;136(9):1017-1024. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.2658. PMID: 29978185Free PMC Article
Greene PR, Greene JM
Int Ophthalmol 2018 Apr;38(2):869-874. Epub 2017 Apr 4 doi: 10.1007/s10792-017-0510-x. PMID: 28378148Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Lin F, Chen S, Song Y, Li F, Wang W, Zhao Z, Gao X, Wang P, Jin L, Liu Y, Chen M, Liang X, Yang B, Ning G, Cheng CY, Healey PR, Park KH, Zangwill LM, Aung T, Ohno-Matsui K, Jonas JB, Weinreb RN, Zhang X; Glaucoma Suspects with High Myopia Study Group
Ophthalmology 2022 Jul;129(7):803-812. Epub 2022 Mar 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.03.001. PMID: 35288144Free PMC Article
Pärssinen O, Kauppinen M
Acta Ophthalmol 2019 Aug;97(5):510-518. Epub 2018 Nov 20 doi: 10.1111/aos.13964. PMID: 30460746
Wang SK, Guo Y, Liao C, Chen Y, Su G, Zhang G, Zhang L, He M
JAMA Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 1;136(9):1017-1024. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.2658. PMID: 29978185Free PMC Article
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, Wong TY, Naduvilath TJ, Resnikoff S
Ophthalmology 2016 May;123(5):1036-42. Epub 2016 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006. PMID: 26875007
Ohno-Matsui K, Kawasaki R, Jonas JB, Cheung CM, Saw SM, Verhoeven VJ, Klaver CC, Moriyama M, Shinohara K, Kawasaki Y, Yamazaki M, Meuer S, Ishibashi T, Yasuda M, Yamashita H, Sugano A, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Wong TY; META-analysis for Pathologic Myopia (META-PM) Study Group
Am J Ophthalmol 2015 May;159(5):877-83.e7. Epub 2015 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2015.01.022. PMID: 25634530

Recent systematic reviews

Kobia-Acquah E, Flitcroft DI, Akowuah PK, Lingham G, Loughman J
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2022 Nov;42(6):1232-1252. Epub 2022 Aug 12 doi: 10.1111/opo.13035. PMID: 35959749Free PMC Article
Haarman AEG, Enthoven CA, Tideman JWL, Tedja MS, Verhoeven VJM, Klaver CCW
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Apr 9;61(4):49. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.49. PMID: 32347918Free PMC Article
Zhang D, Zeng G, Hu J, McCormick K, Shi Y, Gong B
Ophthalmic Genet 2017 Sep-Oct;38(5):434-439. Epub 2017 Jan 31 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2016.1253105. PMID: 28135889
Morgan IG, He M, Rose KA
Retina 2017 May;37(5):989-997. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000001272. PMID: 27617538
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, Wong TY, Naduvilath TJ, Resnikoff S
Ophthalmology 2016 May;123(5):1036-42. Epub 2016 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006. PMID: 26875007

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