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VISS syndrome(VISS)

MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: VASCULAR ANEURYSM, IMMUNE DYSREGULATION, SKELETAL ANOMALIES, AND SKIN AND JOINT LAXITY
 
Gene (location): IPO8 (12p11.21)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859177
OMIM®: 619472

Definition

VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally long and slender fingers ("spider fingers").
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Congenital vertical talus
MedGen UID:
66821
Concept ID:
C0240912
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital vertical talus (CVT), also known as 'rocker-bottom foot' deformity, is a dislocation of the talonavicular joint characterized by vertical orientation of the talus with a rigid dorsal dislocation of the navicular, equinus deformity of the calcaneus, abduction deformity of the forefoot, and contracture of the soft tissues of the hind- and mid-foot. This condition is usually associated with multiple other congenital deformities and only rarely is an isolated deformity with familial occurrence (summary by Levinsohn et al., 2004). The condition is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and sometimes shows incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. There may be a broad spectrum of deformities, including flatfoot, talipes equinovarus (TEV or clubfoot), cavus foot, metatarsus adductus, and even hypoplasia of the tibia (summary by Dobbs et al., 2006).
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Long toe
MedGen UID:
461963
Concept ID:
C3150613
Finding
Toes that appear disproportionately long compared to the foot.
Contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the 2nd toe
MedGen UID:
866672
Concept ID:
C4021019
Anatomical Abnormality
The proximal interphalangeal joint of the 2nd toe cannot be straightened actively or passively.
Double outlet right ventricle
MedGen UID:
41649
Concept ID:
C0013069
Congenital Abnormality
Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a type of ventriculoarterial connection in which both great vessels arise entirely or predominantly from the right ventricle.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Patent foramen ovale
MedGen UID:
8891
Concept ID:
C0016522
Congenital Abnormality
Failure of the foramen ovale to seal postnatally, leaving a potential conduit between the left and right cardiac atria.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Mitral valve prolapse
MedGen UID:
7671
Concept ID:
C0026267
Disease or Syndrome
One or both of the leaflets (cusps) of the mitral valve bulges back into the left atrium upon contraction of the left ventricle.
Pulmonary artery aneurysm
MedGen UID:
57839
Concept ID:
C0155676
Anatomical Abnormality
An aneurysm (severe localized balloon-like outward bulging) in the pulmonary artery.
Right ventricular hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
57981
Concept ID:
C0162770
Disease or Syndrome
In this case the right ventricle is more muscular than normal, causing a characteristic boot-shaped (coeur-en-sabot) appearance as seen on anterior- posterior chest x-rays. Right ventricular hypertrophy is commonly associated with any form of right ventricular outflow obstruction or pulmonary hypertension, which may in turn owe its origin to left-sided disease. The echocardiographic signs are thickening of the anterior right ventricular wall and the septum. Cavity size is usually normal, or slightly enlarged. In many cases there is associated volume overload present due to tricuspid regurgitation, in the absence of this, septal motion is normal.
Iliac artery aneurysm
MedGen UID:
58002
Concept ID:
C0162870
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the iliac artery.
Epidural hemorrhage
MedGen UID:
66764
Concept ID:
C0238154
Finding
Hemorrhage occurring between the dura mater and the skull.
Right ventricular dilatation
MedGen UID:
138012
Concept ID:
C0344893
Congenital Abnormality
Enlargement of the chamber of the right ventricle.
Ascending tubular aorta aneurysm
MedGen UID:
163631
Concept ID:
C0856747
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the tubular part of the ascending aorta.
Aortic root aneurysm
MedGen UID:
720712
Concept ID:
C1298820
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the aortic root.
Carotid artery tortuosity
MedGen UID:
724577
Concept ID:
C1303076
Finding
Abnormal tortuous (i.e., twisted) form of the carotid arteries.
Tortuous cerebral arteries
MedGen UID:
373178
Concept ID:
C1836791
Finding
Excessive bending, twisting, and winding of a cerebral artery.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
MedGen UID:
425404
Concept ID:
C2973725
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary hypertension is defined mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25mmHg or more and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15mmHg or less when measured by right heart catheterisation at rest and in a supine position.
Arterial tortuosity
MedGen UID:
480821
Concept ID:
C3279191
Finding
Abnormal tortuous (i.e., twisted) form of arteries.
Left aortic arch with retroesophageal right subclavian artery
MedGen UID:
868867
Concept ID:
C4023278
Anatomical Abnormality
Aortic arch crosses the left mainstem bronchus. The first branch is the right carotid artery, the second branch is the left carotid artery, the third branch is the subclavian artery, the fourth branch is the right subclavian artery arising from the posteromedial aspect of the distal aortic arch and continuing posterior to the esophagus to the right hand side of the body.
Abnormal branching pattern of the aortic arch
MedGen UID:
868871
Concept ID:
C4023282
Anatomical Abnormality
A deviance from the norm of the origin or course of the right brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, the left subclavian artery or the proximal vertebral arteries.
Aortic tortuosity
MedGen UID:
870555
Concept ID:
C4025003
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal tortuous (i.e., twisted) form of the aorta.
Dilatation of the cerebral artery
MedGen UID:
1386760
Concept ID:
C4476540
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of a localized dilatation or ballooning of a cerebral artery.
Carotid artery dilatation
MedGen UID:
1393749
Concept ID:
C4476554
Anatomical Abnormality
A dilatation (balooning or bulging out of the vessel wall) of a carotid artery.
Coronary sinus enlargement
MedGen UID:
1613847
Concept ID:
C4531220
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal increase in size of the coronary sinus.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Abdominal distention
MedGen UID:
34
Concept ID:
C0000731
Finding
Distention of the abdomen.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Duodenitis
MedGen UID:
4419
Concept ID:
C0013298
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the lining of the upper small intestine (duodenum).
Chronic gastritis
MedGen UID:
39089
Concept ID:
C0085695
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic form of gastritis.
Intestinal malrotation
MedGen UID:
113153
Concept ID:
C0221210
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the intestinal rotation and fixation that normally occurs during the development of the gut. This can lead to volvulus, or twisting of the intestine that causes obstruction and necrosis.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Chronic constipation
MedGen UID:
98325
Concept ID:
C0401149
Sign or Symptom
Constipation for longer than three months with fewer than 3 bowel movements per week, straining, lumpy or hard stools, and a sensation of anorectal obstruction or incomplete defecation.
Chronic diarrhea
MedGen UID:
96036
Concept ID:
C0401151
Finding
The presence of chronic diarrhea, which is usually taken to mean diarrhea that has persisted for over 4 weeks.
Malposition of the stomach
MedGen UID:
853264
Concept ID:
C1402983
Pathologic Function
Abnormal anatomical location of the stomach. This feature may be due to intestinal malrotation.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Cupped ear
MedGen UID:
335186
Concept ID:
C1845447
Congenital Abnormality
Laterally protruding ear that lacks antihelical folding (including absence of inferior and superior crura).
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
42455
Concept ID:
C0019554
Injury or Poisoning
Displacement of the femur from its normal location in the hip joint.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Exostosis of external ear canal
MedGen UID:
56363
Concept ID:
C0155411
Disease or Syndrome
A benign bony growth projecting outward from a bone surface within the external auditory canal.
Recurrent joint dislocation
MedGen UID:
102356
Concept ID:
C0158100
Injury or Poisoning
Dislocation of a given joint repeated times.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Microretrognathia
MedGen UID:
326907
Concept ID:
C1839546
Finding
A form of developmental hypoplasia of the mandible in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Butterfly vertebrae
MedGen UID:
1744309
Concept ID:
C5438458
Congenital Abnormality
A butterfly vertebra (sagittal cleft vertebra or anterior rachischisis) is a sagittal defect in the vertebral body caused by failure of fusion of the two lateral chondrification centers during embryogenesis. The name is based on the appearance of the two hemivertebrae emerging as butterfly wings from the central cleft on x-ray.
Dyspnea
MedGen UID:
3938
Concept ID:
C0013404
Sign or Symptom
Difficult or labored breathing. Dyspnea is a subjective feeling only the patient can rate, e.g., on a Borg scale.
Pneumothorax
MedGen UID:
19365
Concept ID:
C0032326
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of air in the pleural cavity leading to a partially or completely collapsed lung.
Emphysema
MedGen UID:
18764
Concept ID:
C0034067
Disease or Syndrome
A subcategory of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It occurs in people who smoke and suffer from chronic bronchitis. It is characterized by inflation of the alveoli, alveolar wall damage, and reduction in the number of alveoli, resulting in difficulty breathing.
Asthma
MedGen UID:
2109
Concept ID:
C0004096
Disease or Syndrome
Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to multiple stimuli, leading to narrowing of the air passages with resultant dyspnea, cough, and wheezing.
Celiac disease
MedGen UID:
3291
Concept ID:
C0007570
Disease or Syndrome
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain and distension, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, iron deficiency anemia, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Atopic eczema
MedGen UID:
41502
Concept ID:
C0011615
Disease or Syndrome
Atopic dermatitis (ATOD), also known as eczema, is a common chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disease with a strong genetic component. Onset typically occurs during the first 2 years of life (review by Soderhall et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Atopic Dermatitis Many inflammatory diseases, such as atopic eczema, are genetically complex, with multiple alleles at several loci thought to be involved in their pathogenesis. Several susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis have been identified: ATOD1 on chromosome 3q21, ATOD2 (605803) on chromosome 1q21, ATOD3 (605804) on chromosome 20p, ATOD4 (605805) on chromosome 17q25.3, ATOD5 (603165) on chromosome 13q12-q14, ATOD6 (605845) on chromosome 5q31-q33, ATOD7 (613064) on chromosome 11q13.5, ATOD8 (613518) on chromosome 4q22.1, and ATOD9 (613519) on chromosome 3p24.
Drug allergy
MedGen UID:
41663
Concept ID:
C0013182
Pathologic Function
Hypersensitivity in form of an adverse immune reaction against drugs.
Decreased circulating IgA level
MedGen UID:
57934
Concept ID:
C0162538
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA).
Increased circulating IgE level
MedGen UID:
116018
Concept ID:
C0236175
Finding
An abnormally increased overall level of immunoglobulin E in blood.
Hypereosinophilia
MedGen UID:
148170
Concept ID:
C0745091
Disease or Syndrome
A severely increased count of eosinophils in the blood defined as a blood eosinophil count of at least 1.5 billion cells per liter.
Increased circulating IgG level
MedGen UID:
347032
Concept ID:
C1858977
Finding
An abnormally increased level of immunoglobulin G in blood.
Ectropion
MedGen UID:
4448
Concept ID:
C0013592
Disease or Syndrome
An outward turning (eversion) or rotation of the eyelid margin.
Macroglossia
MedGen UID:
44236
Concept ID:
C0024421
Disease or Syndrome
Increased length and width of the tongue.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Bifid tongue
MedGen UID:
82731
Concept ID:
C0266111
Congenital Abnormality
Tongue with a median apical indentation or fork.
Cleft soft palate
MedGen UID:
98471
Concept ID:
C0432098
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft of the soft palate (also known as the velum, or muscular palate) as a result of a developmental defect occurring between the 7th and 12th week of pregnancy. Cleft soft palate can cause functional abnormalities of the Eustachian tube with resulting middle ear anomalies and hearing difficulties, as well as speech problems associated with hypernasal speech due to velopharyngeal insufficiency.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Sparse scalp hair
MedGen UID:
346499
Concept ID:
C1857042
Finding
Decreased number of hairs per unit area of skin of the scalp.
Broad uvula
MedGen UID:
786050
Concept ID:
C3693299
Finding
Increased width of the uvula (subjective finding).
Submucous cleft soft palate
MedGen UID:
868770
Concept ID:
C4023175
Congenital Abnormality
A cleft of the muscular (soft) portion of the palate that is covered by mucous membrane. Soft-palate submucous clefts are characterized by a midline deficiency or lack of muscle tissue.
Bifid uvula
MedGen UID:
1646931
Concept ID:
C4551488
Congenital Abnormality
Uvula separated into two parts most easily seen at the tip.
Alopecia
MedGen UID:
7982
Concept ID:
C0002170
Finding
A noncongenital process of hair loss, which may progress to partial or complete baldness.
Cutis laxa
MedGen UID:
8206
Concept ID:
C0010495
Disease or Syndrome
Wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin.
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Hyperextensible skin
MedGen UID:
66023
Concept ID:
C0241074
Finding
A condition in which the skin can be stretched beyond normal, and then returns to its initial position.
Bruising susceptibility
MedGen UID:
140849
Concept ID:
C0423798
Finding
An ecchymosis (bruise) refers to the skin discoloration caused by the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels. This term refers to an abnormally increased susceptibility to bruising. The corresponding phenotypic abnormality is generally elicited on medical history as a report of frequent ecchymoses or bruising without adequate trauma.
Prominent superficial blood vessels
MedGen UID:
376437
Concept ID:
C1848771
Finding
Fetal distress
MedGen UID:
5164
Concept ID:
C0015930
Pathologic Function
An intrauterine state characterized by suboptimal values in the fetal heart rate, oxygenation of fetal blood, or other parameters indicative of compromise of the fetus. Signs of fetal distress include repetitive variable decelerations, fetal tachycardia or bradycardia, late decelerations, or low biophysical profile.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
6991
Concept ID:
C0020676
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Retinal detachment
MedGen UID:
19759
Concept ID:
C0035305
Disease or Syndrome
Primary or spontaneous detachment of the retina occurs due to underlying ocular disease and often involves the vitreous as well as the retina. The precipitating event is formation of a retinal tear or hole, which permits fluid to accumulate under the sensory layers of the retina and creates an intraretinal cleavage that destroys the neurosensory process of visual reception. Vitreoretinal degeneration and tear formation are painless phenomena, and in most cases, significant vitreoretinal pathology is found only after detachment of the retina starts to cause loss of vision or visual field. Without surgical intervention, retinal detachment will almost inevitably lead to total blindness (summary by McNiel and McPherson, 1971).
High myopia
MedGen UID:
78759
Concept ID:
C0271183
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of myopia with greater than -6.00 diopters.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Blue sclerae
MedGen UID:
154236
Concept ID:
C0542514
Finding
An abnormal bluish coloration of the sclera.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chilcote D, Sriram A, Slovis J, Morgan RW, Schaubel DE, Connelly J, Berg RA, Keim G, Yehya N, Kilbaugh T, Himebauch AS
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2024 Jan 1;25(1):e41-e46. Epub 2023 Jul 18 doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003325. PMID: 37462429Free PMC Article
Ten Brink AF, Proulx MJ, Bultitude JH
Perception 2021 May;50(5):399-417. Epub 2021 Mar 31 doi: 10.1177/03010066211005327. PMID: 33789541

Diagnosis

Ten Brink AF, Proulx MJ, Bultitude JH
Perception 2021 May;50(5):399-417. Epub 2021 Mar 31 doi: 10.1177/03010066211005327. PMID: 33789541
Eren OE, Ruscheweyh R, Straube A, Schankin CJ
Cephalalgia 2020 Apr;40(4):393-398. Epub 2019 Dec 22 doi: 10.1177/0333102419896780. PMID: 31865761

Clinical prediction guides

Chilcote D, Sriram A, Slovis J, Morgan RW, Schaubel DE, Connelly J, Berg RA, Keim G, Yehya N, Kilbaugh T, Himebauch AS
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2024 Jan 1;25(1):e41-e46. Epub 2023 Jul 18 doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003325. PMID: 37462429Free PMC Article
Ten Brink AF, Proulx MJ, Bultitude JH
Perception 2021 May;50(5):399-417. Epub 2021 Mar 31 doi: 10.1177/03010066211005327. PMID: 33789541
Eren OE, Ruscheweyh R, Straube A, Schankin CJ
Cephalalgia 2020 Apr;40(4):393-398. Epub 2019 Dec 22 doi: 10.1177/0333102419896780. PMID: 31865761

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