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Cone-rod dystrophy 21(CORD21)

MedGen UID:
891534
Concept ID:
C4049066
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Retinal dystrophy with early macular involvement
 
Gene (location): DRAM2 (1p13.3)
 
HPO: HP:0030635
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014669
OMIM®: 616502

Definition

Any cone-rod dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DRAM2 gene. [from MONDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Photophobia
MedGen UID:
43220
Concept ID:
C0085636
Sign or Symptom
Excessive sensitivity to light with the sensation of discomfort or pain in the eyes due to exposure to bright light.
Night blindness
MedGen UID:
10349
Concept ID:
C0028077
Disease or Syndrome
Inability to see well at night or in poor light.
Reduced visual acuity
MedGen UID:
65889
Concept ID:
C0234632
Finding
Diminished clarity of vision.
Macular atrophy
MedGen UID:
140841
Concept ID:
C0423421
Finding
Well-demarcated area(s) of partial or complete depigmentation in the macula, reflecting atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with associated retinal photoreceptor loss.
Retinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
208903
Concept ID:
C0854723
Finding
Retinal dystrophy is an abnormality of the retina associated with a hereditary process. Retinal dystrophies are defined by their predominantly monogenic inheritance and they are frequently associated with loss or dysfunction of photoreceptor cells as a primary or secondary event.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCone-rod dystrophy 21

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Stingl K, Kempf M, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Dimopoulos S, Reichel F, Jung R, Kelbsch C, Kohl S, Kortüm FC, Nasser F, Peters T, Wilhelm B, Wissinger B, Wozar F, Zrenner E, Fischer MD, Stingl K
Br J Ophthalmol 2022 Jun;106(6):831-838. Epub 2021 Jan 20 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-318286. PMID: 33472769Free PMC Article
Yi Z, Sun W, Xiao X, Li S, Jia X, Li X, Yu B, Wang P, Zhang Q
Exp Eye Res 2021 Jul;208:108637. Epub 2021 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108637. PMID: 34048777
Talib M, van Schooneveld MJ, Wijnholds J, van Genderen MM, Schalij-Delfos NE, Talsma HE, Florijn RJ, Ten Brink JB, Cremers FPM, Thiadens AAHJ, van den Born LI, Hoyng CB, Meester-Smoor MA, Bergen AA, Boon CJF
Acta Ophthalmol 2021 May;99(3):e402-e414. Epub 2021 Feb 2 doi: 10.1111/aos.14597. PMID: 33528094Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Georgiou M, Fujinami K, Robson AG, Fujinami-Yokokawa Y, Shakarchi AF, Ji MH, Uwaydat SH, Kim A, Kolesnikova M, Arno G, Pontikos N, Mahroo OA, Tsang SH, Webster AR, Michaelides M
Am J Ophthalmol 2024 Feb;258:119-129. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2023.09.025. PMID: 37806543Free PMC Article
Daich Varela M, Conti GM, Malka S, Vaclavik V, Mahroo OA, Webster AR, Tran V, Michaelides M
Ophthalmology 2023 Dec;130(12):1327-1335. Epub 2023 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.07.027. PMID: 37544434Free PMC Article
Zobor D, Brühwiler B, Zrenner E, Weisschuh N, Kohl S
Int J Mol Sci 2023 May 17;24(10) doi: 10.3390/ijms24108915. PMID: 37240262Free PMC Article
Raming K, Gliem M, Charbel Issa P, Birtel J, Herrmann P, Holz FG, Pfau M, Hess K
Am J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;234:274-284. Epub 2021 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.07.032. PMID: 34352251
Nassisi M, Smirnov VM, Solis Hernandez C, Mohand-Saïd S, Condroyer C, Antonio A, Kühlewein L, Kempf M, Kohl S, Wissinger B, Nasser F, Ragi SD, Wang NK, Sparrow JR, Greenstein VC, Michalakis S, Mahroo OA, Ba-Abbad R, Michaelides M, Webster AR, Degli Esposti S, Saffren B, Capasso J, Levin A, Hauswirth WW, Dhaenens CM, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Tsang SH, Zrenner E, Sahel JA, Petersen-Jones SM, Zeitz C, Audo I
Hum Mutat 2021 Jun;42(6):641-666. Epub 2021 May 16 doi: 10.1002/humu.24205. PMID: 33847019Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Georgiou M, Fujinami K, Robson AG, Fujinami-Yokokawa Y, Shakarchi AF, Ji MH, Uwaydat SH, Kim A, Kolesnikova M, Arno G, Pontikos N, Mahroo OA, Tsang SH, Webster AR, Michaelides M
Am J Ophthalmol 2024 Feb;258:119-129. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2023.09.025. PMID: 37806543Free PMC Article
Daich Varela M, Conti GM, Malka S, Vaclavik V, Mahroo OA, Webster AR, Tran V, Michaelides M
Ophthalmology 2023 Dec;130(12):1327-1335. Epub 2023 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.07.027. PMID: 37544434Free PMC Article
Zobor D, Brühwiler B, Zrenner E, Weisschuh N, Kohl S
Int J Mol Sci 2023 May 17;24(10) doi: 10.3390/ijms24108915. PMID: 37240262Free PMC Article
Raming K, Gliem M, Charbel Issa P, Birtel J, Herrmann P, Holz FG, Pfau M, Hess K
Am J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;234:274-284. Epub 2021 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.07.032. PMID: 34352251
Roosing S, Thiadens AA, Hoyng CB, Klaver CC, den Hollander AI, Cremers FP
Prog Retin Eye Res 2014 Sep;42:1-26. Epub 2014 May 22 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2014.05.001. PMID: 24857951

Therapy

Talib M, van Schooneveld MJ, Wijnholds J, van Genderen MM, Schalij-Delfos NE, Talsma HE, Florijn RJ, Ten Brink JB, Cremers FPM, Thiadens AAHJ, van den Born LI, Hoyng CB, Meester-Smoor MA, Bergen AA, Boon CJF
Acta Ophthalmol 2021 May;99(3):e402-e414. Epub 2021 Feb 2 doi: 10.1111/aos.14597. PMID: 33528094Free PMC Article
Charng J, Lamey TM, Thompson JA, McLaren TL, Attia MS, McAllister IL, Constable IJ, Mackey DA, De Roach JN, Chen FK
Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020 Sep;9(10):9. Epub 2020 Sep 9 doi: 10.1167/tvst.9.10.9. PMID: 32974081Free PMC Article
Hassall MM, McClements ME, Barnard AR, Patricio MÍ, Aslam SA, Maclaren RE
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 22;21(17) doi: 10.3390/ijms21176055. PMID: 32842706Free PMC Article
Meire FM, Van Genderen MM, Lemmens K, Ens-Dokkum MH
Ophthalmic Genet 2000 Dec;21(4):243-50. PMID: 11135496

Prognosis

Georgiou M, Fujinami K, Robson AG, Fujinami-Yokokawa Y, Shakarchi AF, Ji MH, Uwaydat SH, Kim A, Kolesnikova M, Arno G, Pontikos N, Mahroo OA, Tsang SH, Webster AR, Michaelides M
Am J Ophthalmol 2024 Feb;258:119-129. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2023.09.025. PMID: 37806543Free PMC Article
Daich Varela M, Conti GM, Malka S, Vaclavik V, Mahroo OA, Webster AR, Tran V, Michaelides M
Ophthalmology 2023 Dec;130(12):1327-1335. Epub 2023 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.07.027. PMID: 37544434Free PMC Article
Raming K, Gliem M, Charbel Issa P, Birtel J, Herrmann P, Holz FG, Pfau M, Hess K
Am J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;234:274-284. Epub 2021 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.07.032. PMID: 34352251
Khateb S, Mohand-Saïd S, Nassisi M, Bonnet C, Roux AF, Andrieu C, Antonio A, Condroyer C, Zeitz C, Devisme C, Loundon N, Marlin S, Petit C, Bodaghi B, Sahel JA, Audo I
Retina 2020 Aug;40(8):1603-1615. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002636. PMID: 31479088
Malm E, Ponjavic V, Möller C, Kimberling WJ, Stone ES, Andréasson S
Eur J Ophthalmol 2011 Jan-Feb;21(1):30-8. doi: 10.5301/ejo.2010.5433. PMID: 20544672

Clinical prediction guides

Georgiou M, Fujinami K, Robson AG, Fujinami-Yokokawa Y, Shakarchi AF, Ji MH, Uwaydat SH, Kim A, Kolesnikova M, Arno G, Pontikos N, Mahroo OA, Tsang SH, Webster AR, Michaelides M
Am J Ophthalmol 2024 Feb;258:119-129. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2023.09.025. PMID: 37806543Free PMC Article
Daich Varela M, Conti GM, Malka S, Vaclavik V, Mahroo OA, Webster AR, Tran V, Michaelides M
Ophthalmology 2023 Dec;130(12):1327-1335. Epub 2023 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.07.027. PMID: 37544434Free PMC Article
Raming K, Gliem M, Charbel Issa P, Birtel J, Herrmann P, Holz FG, Pfau M, Hess K
Am J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;234:274-284. Epub 2021 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.07.032. PMID: 34352251
Khateb S, Mohand-Saïd S, Nassisi M, Bonnet C, Roux AF, Andrieu C, Antonio A, Condroyer C, Zeitz C, Devisme C, Loundon N, Marlin S, Petit C, Bodaghi B, Sahel JA, Audo I
Retina 2020 Aug;40(8):1603-1615. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002636. PMID: 31479088
Baig S, Paisey R, Dawson C, Barrett T, Maffei P, Hodson J, Rambhatla SB, Chauhan P, Bolton S, Dassie F, Francomano C, Marshall RP, Belal M, Skordilis K, Hayer M, Price AM, Cramb R, Edwards N, Steeds RP, Geberhiwot T
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Jun 1;35(6):994-1001. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy293. PMID: 30307515

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