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Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies(GDACCF)

MedGen UID:
934611
Concept ID:
C4310644
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: GDACCF
 
Gene (location): ZNF148 (3q21.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014994
OMIM®: 617260

Definition

GDACCF is an intellectual disability syndrome apparent soon after birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and respiratory insufficiency followed by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability with poor speech. Brain imaging shows aplasia or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals have variable dysmorphic facial features, and some may have dysplastic, cystic kidneys or mild cardiac defects (summary by Stevens et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Renal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
760690
Concept ID:
C3536714
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the kidney.
Renal cyst
MedGen UID:
854361
Concept ID:
C3887499
Disease or Syndrome
A fluid filled sac in the kidney.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Mitral stenosis
MedGen UID:
44466
Concept ID:
C0026269
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Colpocephaly
MedGen UID:
98131
Concept ID:
C0431384
Congenital Abnormality
Colpocephaly is an anatomic finding in the brain manifested by occipital horns that are disproportionately enlarged in comparison with other parts of the lateral ventricles.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
EEG with burst suppression
MedGen UID:
369943
Concept ID:
C1969156
Finding
The burst suppression pattern in electroencephalography refers to a characteristic periodic pattern of low voltage (<10 microvolts) suppressed background and a relatively shorter pattern of higher amplitude slow, sharp, and spiking complexes.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Respiratory insufficiency
MedGen UID:
11197
Concept ID:
C0035229
Pathologic Function
Impairment of gas exchange within the lungs secondary to a disease process, neoplasm, or trauma, possibly resulting in hypoxia, hypercarbia, or both, but not requiring intubation or mechanical ventilation. Patients are normally managed with pharmaceutical therapy, supplemental oxygen, or both.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Short palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98067
Concept ID:
C0423112
Finding
Distance between the medial and lateral canthi is more than 2 SD below the mean for age (objective); or, apparently reduced length of the palpebral fissures.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Deep philtrum
MedGen UID:
374311
Concept ID:
C1839797
Finding
Accentuated, prominent philtral ridges giving rise to an exaggerated groove in the midline between the nasal base and upper vermillion border.
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Low hanging columella
MedGen UID:
344656
Concept ID:
C1856119
Finding
Columella extending inferior to the level of the nasal base, when viewed from the side.
Decreased response to growth hormone stimulation test
MedGen UID:
1784655
Concept ID:
C5539399
Finding
Insufficient responses to growth hormone (GH) provocation tests. GH deficiency is defined as a serum peak GH concentration less than 10 ng/mL on provocation with a combination of at least two separate stimulation tests.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Szakszon K, Lourenco CM, Callewaert BL, Geneviève D, Rouxel F, Morin D, Denommé-Pichon AS, Vitobello A, Patterson WG, Louie R, Pinto E Vairo F, Klee E, Kaiwar C, Gavrilova RH, Agre KE, Jacquemont S, Khadijé J, Giltay J, van Gassen K, Merő G, Gerkes E, Van Bon BW, Rinne T, Pfundt R, Brunner HG, Caluseriu O, Grasshoff U, Kehrer M, Haack TB, Khelifa MM, Bergmann AK, Cueto-González AM, Martorell AC, Ramachandrappa S, Sawyer LB, Fasel P, Braun D, Isis A, Superti-Furga A, McNiven V, Chitayat D, Ahmed SA, Brennenstuhl H, Schwaibolf EM, Battisti G, Parmentier B, Stevens SJC
J Med Genet 2024 Jan 19;61(2):132-141. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2022-109030. PMID: 37580113
Dawood M, Akay G, Mitani T, Marafi D, Fatih JM, Gezdirici A, Najmabadi H, Kahrizi K, Punetha J, Grochowski CM, Du H, Jolly A, Li H, Coban-Akdemir Z, Sedlazeck FJ, Hunter JV, Jhangiani SN, Muzny D, Pehlivan D, Posey JE, Carvalho CMB, Gibbs RA, Lupski JR
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Mar;191(3):794-804. Epub 2023 Jan 4 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63080. PMID: 36598158Free PMC Article
Casteels I, Spileers W, Demaerel P, Casaer P, De Cock P, Dralands L, Missotten L
Neuropediatrics 1996 Aug;27(4):189-93. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-973785. PMID: 8892367

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lecca M, Pehlivan D, Suñer DH, Weiss K, Coste T, Zweier M, Oktay Y, Danial-Farran N, Rosti V, Bonasoni MP, Malara A, Contrò G, Zuntini R, Pollazzon M, Pascarella R, Neri A, Fusco C, Marafi D, Mitani T, Posey JE, Bayramoglu SE, Gezdirici A, Hernandez-Rodriguez J, Cladera EA, Miravet E, Roldan-Busto J, Ruiz MA, Bauzá CV, Ben-Sira L, Sigaudy S, Begemann A, Unger S, Güngör S, Hiz S, Sonmezler E, Zehavi Y, Jerdev M, Balduini A, Zuffardi O, Horvath R, Lochmüller H, Rauch A, Garavelli L, Tournier-Lasserve E, Spiegel R, Lupski JR, Errichiello E
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Apr 6;110(4):681-690. Epub 2023 Mar 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.03.005. PMID: 36996813Free PMC Article
Miyake N, Silva S, Troncoso M, Okamoto N, Andachi Y, Kato M, Iwabuchi C, Hirose M, Fujita A, Uchiyama Y, Matsumoto N
Clin Genet 2022 Mar;101(3):359-363. Epub 2021 Dec 13 doi: 10.1111/cge.14097. PMID: 34866177
Kortüm F, Jamra RA, Alawi M, Berry SA, Borck G, Helbig KL, Tang S, Huhle D, Korenke GC, Hebbar M, Shukla A, Girisha KM, Steinlin M, Waldmeier-Wilhelm S, Montomoli M, Guerrini R, Lemke JR, Kutsche K
Eur J Hum Genet 2018 May;26(5):695-708. Epub 2018 Feb 20 doi: 10.1038/s41431-018-0098-2. PMID: 29463858Free PMC Article
Fernandez E, Bischoff A, Dickie BH, Frischer J, Hall J, Peña A
Pediatr Surg Int 2014 Aug;30(8):767-71. Epub 2014 Jul 4 doi: 10.1007/s00383-014-3531-9. PMID: 24993283
Tullu MS, Muranjan MN, Kondurkar PP, Bharucha BA
Indian Pediatr 2000 Sep;37(9):939-46. PMID: 10992329

Diagnosis

Szakszon K, Lourenco CM, Callewaert BL, Geneviève D, Rouxel F, Morin D, Denommé-Pichon AS, Vitobello A, Patterson WG, Louie R, Pinto E Vairo F, Klee E, Kaiwar C, Gavrilova RH, Agre KE, Jacquemont S, Khadijé J, Giltay J, van Gassen K, Merő G, Gerkes E, Van Bon BW, Rinne T, Pfundt R, Brunner HG, Caluseriu O, Grasshoff U, Kehrer M, Haack TB, Khelifa MM, Bergmann AK, Cueto-González AM, Martorell AC, Ramachandrappa S, Sawyer LB, Fasel P, Braun D, Isis A, Superti-Furga A, McNiven V, Chitayat D, Ahmed SA, Brennenstuhl H, Schwaibolf EM, Battisti G, Parmentier B, Stevens SJC
J Med Genet 2024 Jan 19;61(2):132-141. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2022-109030. PMID: 37580113
Marafi D, Fatih JM, Kaiyrzhanov R, Ferla MP, Gijavanekar C, Al-Maraghi A, Liu N, Sites E, Alsaif HS, Al-Owain M, Zakkariah M, El-Anany E, Guliyeva U, Guliyeva S, Gaba C, Haseeb A, Alhashem AM, Danish E, Karageorgou V, Beetz C, Subhi AA, Mullegama SV, Torti E, Sebastin M, Breilyn MS, Duberstein S, Abdel-Hamid MS, Mitani T, Du H, Rosenfeld JA, Jhangiani SN, Coban Akdemir Z, Gibbs RA, Taylor JC, Fakhro KA, Hunter JV, Pehlivan D, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Maroofian R, Houlden H, Posey JE, Sutton VR, Alkuraya FS, Elsea SH, Lupski JR
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):909-924. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab369. PMID: 34605855Free PMC Article
Phelan MC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 May 27;3:14. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-14. PMID: 18505557Free PMC Article
Phelan MC, Rogers RC, Saul RA, Stapleton GA, Sweet K, McDermid H, Shaw SR, Claytor J, Willis J, Kelly DP
Am J Med Genet 2001 Jun 15;101(2):91-9. doi: 10.1002/1096-8628(20010615)101:2<91::aid-ajmg1340>3.0.co;2-c. PMID: 11391650
Tullu MS, Muranjan MN, Kondurkar PP, Bharucha BA
Indian Pediatr 2000 Sep;37(9):939-46. PMID: 10992329

Therapy

Rizvi M, Truong TK, Zhou J, Batta M, Moran ES, Pappas J, Chu ML, Caluseriu O, Evrony GD, Leslie EM, Cordat E
Hum Mol Genet 2023 Apr 20;32(9):1552-1564. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddac309. PMID: 36611016
Watanabe N, Kitada K, Santostefano KE, Yokoyama A, Waldrop SM, Heldermon CD, Tachibana D, Koyama M, Meacham AM, Pacak CA, Terada N
Cell Reprogram 2020 Aug;22(4):179-188. Epub 2020 Jun 30 doi: 10.1089/cell.2020.0012. PMID: 32608992Free PMC Article
Pearson TS, Gilbert L, Opladen T, Garcia-Cazorla A, Mastrangelo M, Leuzzi V, Tay SKH, Sykut-Cegielska J, Pons R, Mercimek-Andrews S, Kato M, Lücke T, Oppebøen M, Kurian MA, Steel D, Manti F, Meeks KD, Jeltsch K, Flint L
J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 Sep;43(5):1121-1130. Epub 2020 May 14 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12247. PMID: 32369189Free PMC Article
Banka S, de Goede C, Yue WW, Morris AA, von Bremen B, Chandler KE, Feichtinger RG, Hart C, Khan N, Lunzer V, Mataković L, Marquardt T, Makowski C, Prokisch H, Debus O, Nosaka K, Sonwalkar H, Zimmermann FA, Sperl W, Mayr JA
Mol Genet Metab 2014 Dec;113(4):301-6. Epub 2014 Oct 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.09.010. PMID: 25458521
Schmidt H, Kern W, Giese R, Hallschmid M, Enders A
J Med Genet 2009 Apr;46(4):217-22. Epub 2008 Oct 23 doi: 10.1136/jmg.2008.062141. PMID: 18948358

Prognosis

Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Marafi D, Fatih JM, Kaiyrzhanov R, Ferla MP, Gijavanekar C, Al-Maraghi A, Liu N, Sites E, Alsaif HS, Al-Owain M, Zakkariah M, El-Anany E, Guliyeva U, Guliyeva S, Gaba C, Haseeb A, Alhashem AM, Danish E, Karageorgou V, Beetz C, Subhi AA, Mullegama SV, Torti E, Sebastin M, Breilyn MS, Duberstein S, Abdel-Hamid MS, Mitani T, Du H, Rosenfeld JA, Jhangiani SN, Coban Akdemir Z, Gibbs RA, Taylor JC, Fakhro KA, Hunter JV, Pehlivan D, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Maroofian R, Houlden H, Posey JE, Sutton VR, Alkuraya FS, Elsea SH, Lupski JR
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):909-924. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab369. PMID: 34605855Free PMC Article
Fernandez E, Bischoff A, Dickie BH, Frischer J, Hall J, Peña A
Pediatr Surg Int 2014 Aug;30(8):767-71. Epub 2014 Jul 4 doi: 10.1007/s00383-014-3531-9. PMID: 24993283
Phelan MC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 May 27;3:14. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-14. PMID: 18505557Free PMC Article
Tullu MS, Muranjan MN, Kondurkar PP, Bharucha BA
Indian Pediatr 2000 Sep;37(9):939-46. PMID: 10992329

Clinical prediction guides

Szakszon K, Lourenco CM, Callewaert BL, Geneviève D, Rouxel F, Morin D, Denommé-Pichon AS, Vitobello A, Patterson WG, Louie R, Pinto E Vairo F, Klee E, Kaiwar C, Gavrilova RH, Agre KE, Jacquemont S, Khadijé J, Giltay J, van Gassen K, Merő G, Gerkes E, Van Bon BW, Rinne T, Pfundt R, Brunner HG, Caluseriu O, Grasshoff U, Kehrer M, Haack TB, Khelifa MM, Bergmann AK, Cueto-González AM, Martorell AC, Ramachandrappa S, Sawyer LB, Fasel P, Braun D, Isis A, Superti-Furga A, McNiven V, Chitayat D, Ahmed SA, Brennenstuhl H, Schwaibolf EM, Battisti G, Parmentier B, Stevens SJC
J Med Genet 2024 Jan 19;61(2):132-141. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2022-109030. PMID: 37580113
Lecca M, Pehlivan D, Suñer DH, Weiss K, Coste T, Zweier M, Oktay Y, Danial-Farran N, Rosti V, Bonasoni MP, Malara A, Contrò G, Zuntini R, Pollazzon M, Pascarella R, Neri A, Fusco C, Marafi D, Mitani T, Posey JE, Bayramoglu SE, Gezdirici A, Hernandez-Rodriguez J, Cladera EA, Miravet E, Roldan-Busto J, Ruiz MA, Bauzá CV, Ben-Sira L, Sigaudy S, Begemann A, Unger S, Güngör S, Hiz S, Sonmezler E, Zehavi Y, Jerdev M, Balduini A, Zuffardi O, Horvath R, Lochmüller H, Rauch A, Garavelli L, Tournier-Lasserve E, Spiegel R, Lupski JR, Errichiello E
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Apr 6;110(4):681-690. Epub 2023 Mar 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.03.005. PMID: 36996813Free PMC Article
Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
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