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Mesomelia

MedGen UID:
107808
Concept ID:
C0549306
Congenital Abnormality
Synonym: Mesomelic limb shortening
 
HPO: HP:0003027

Definition

Shortening of the middle parts of the limbs (forearm and lower leg) in relation to the upper and terminal segments. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 6 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
44252
Concept ID:
C0024507
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Pallister-Hall syndrome
MedGen UID:
120514
Concept ID:
C0265220
Disease or Syndrome
GLI3-related Pallister-Hall syndrome (GLI3-PHS) is characterized by a spectrum of anomalies ranging from polydactyly, asymptomatic bifid epiglottis, and hypothalamic hamartoma at the mild end to laryngotracheal cleft with neonatal lethality at the severe end. Individuals with mild GLI3-PHS may be incorrectly diagnosed as having isolated postaxial polydactyly type A. Individuals with GLI3-PHS can have pituitary insufficiency and may die as neonates from undiagnosed and untreated adrenal insufficiency.
Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis
MedGen UID:
75562
Concept ID:
C0265309
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of SHOX deficiency disorders, caused by haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX), ranges from Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) at the severe end of the spectrum to nonspecific short stature at the mild end of the spectrum. In adults with SHOX deficiency, the proportion of LWD versus short stature without features of LWD is not well defined. In LWD the classic clinical triad is short stature, mesomelia, and Madelung deformity. Mesomelia, in which the middle portion of a limb is shortened in relation to the proximal portion, can be evident first in school-aged children and increases with age in frequency and severity. Madelung deformity (abnormal alignment of the radius, ulna, and carpal bones at the wrist) typically develops in mid-to-late childhood and is more common and severe in females. The phenotype of short stature caused by SHOX deficiency in the absence of mesomelia and Madelung deformity (called SHOX-deficient short stature in this GeneReview) is highly variable, even within the same family.
Langer mesomelic dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
96585
Concept ID:
C0432230
Disease or Syndrome
Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) is characterized by severe limb aplasia or severe hypoplasia of the ulna and fibula, and a thickened and curved radius and tibia. These changes can result in displacement deformities of the hands and feet. Hypoplasia of the mandible is also observed (Langer, 1967). See also Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (127300), a less severe phenotype that results from heterozygous defect in the SHOX or SHOXY genes.
Mesomelic dwarfism, Nievergelt type
MedGen UID:
98478
Concept ID:
C0432231
Disease or Syndrome
A rare primary bone dysplasia characterized by severe mesomelic shortness particularly of the lower limbs with distinctive triangular or rhomboid-shaped tibiae and fibulae, accompanied by bony protuberances and skin dimples. Additional manifestations include radioulnar synostosis, dislocation of the radial head, abnormalities of the hands (such as oligosyndactyly or fusiform-shaped fingers) and feet (pes equinovarus, synostoses of tarsals/metatarsals and phalanges), and dysmorphic facial features.
Sponastrime dysplasia
MedGen UID:
266247
Concept ID:
C1300260
Disease or Syndrome
Sponastrime dysplasia is an autosomal recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) named for characteristic clinical and radiographic findings, including spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, and striation of the metaphyses. Additional features include disproportionate short stature with exaggerated lumbar lordosis, scoliosis, coxa vara, limited elbow extension, small dysplastic epiphyses, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Radiographically, the abnormalities of the lumbar vertebral bodies are suggested to be the most specific finding because the characteristic metaphyseal striations may not be apparent at young ages. Striking clinical variability in presentation, severity, and associated features has been observed (summary by Burrage et al., 2019).
Lethal short-limb skeletal dysplasia, Al Gazali type
MedGen UID:
330467
Concept ID:
C1832435
Disease or Syndrome
Ophthalmomandibulomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
331604
Concept ID:
C1833872
Disease or Syndrome
Complete blindness due to corneal opacities, difficult mastication due to temporomandibular fusion and anomalies of the arms. Micrognathia, shortening and bowing of the forearm, ulnar deviation and bowed radius, short fibula, genu valgum and coxa vara have been reported. Intelligence is normal. The causative gene has not yet been identified. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been suggested.
Mesomelic dysplasia, Kantaputra type
MedGen UID:
331880
Concept ID:
C1835009
Disease or Syndrome
Kantaputra mesomelic dysplasia (MMDK) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disease characterized by symmetric marked shortening of the upper and lower limbs. The ulnae are very short and the radii are bowed. The distal humerus has a dumbbell shape, whereas the hands are relatively normal but show progressive flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints. Carpal and tarsal synostoses are observed in some individuals. In the lower limbs, the feet are fixed in plantar flexion with the sole facing backward, causing 'ballerina-like standing.' The prominent distal fibula (ventral aspect) is considered to be the signature finding of the syndrome. The calcaneus is small or missing, and a small fibula and talus as well as fibulocalcaneal synostosis are characteristic features. The tibial bony knot articulates with the proximal end of the fibula (summary by Kantaputra et al., 2010). Mesomelia and synostosis are also cardinal features of the mesomelia-synostoses syndrome (600383). See 613681 for discussion of the chromosome 2q31.1 duplication syndrome, which shows cytogenetic and phenotypic overlap with MMDK.
Mesomelia-synostoses syndrome
MedGen UID:
324959
Concept ID:
C1838162
Disease or Syndrome
The Verloes-David-Pfeiffer mesomelia-synostoses syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of mesomelic dysplasia comprising typical acral synostoses combined with ptosis, hypertelorism, palatal abnormality, congenital heart disease, and ureteral anomalies (summary by Isidor et al., 2009). Mesomelia and synostoses are also cardinal features of the Kantaputra type of mesomelic dysplasia (156232).
Pelviscapular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342400
Concept ID:
C1850040
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of pelviscapular dysplasia with epiphyseal abnormalities, congenital dwarfism and facial dysmorphism. The facial dysmorphism has manifestations of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, narrow palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, strabismus, low-set posteriorly rotated and malformed ears, dysplasia of conchae, a small chin, a short neck with redundant skin folds, and a low hairline. Intelligence may vary from normal to moderately impaired. Radiographic features comprise aplasia of the body of the scapula, hypoplasia of the iliac bone, humeroradial synostosis, dislocation of the femoral heads, and moderate brachydactyly. Mutations in the TBX15 gene have been identified as potentially causative. Pelviscapular dysplasia is phenotypically similar to pelvis-shoulder dysplasia.
Osebold-Remondini syndrome
MedGen UID:
350598
Concept ID:
C1862130
Disease or Syndrome
The Osebold-Remondini syndrome is a bone dysplasia with mesomelic shortness of limbs and, hence, shortness of stature, absence or hypoplasia of second phalanges with synostosis of the remaining phalanges, carpal and tarsal coalitions, and apparently no other anomalies (summary by Opitz and Gilbert, 1985). See 602875 for a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive acromesomelic dysplasia.
Weyers ulnar ray/oligodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
356030
Concept ID:
C1865566
Disease or Syndrome
Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
370804
Concept ID:
C1970005
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Severe achondroplasia-developmental delay-acanthosis nigricans syndrome
MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
SADDAN dysplasia (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by the constellation of these features. Radiology reveals 'ram's horn' shaped clavicles and reverse bowing of lower limbs. Approximately half of patients die before the fourth week of life secondary to respiratory failure (summary by Zankl et al., 2008).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, aggrecan type
MedGen UID:
411237
Concept ID:
C2748544
Disease or Syndrome
A new form of skeletal dysplasia with manifestations of severe short stature, facial dysmorphism and characteristic radiographic findings. To date, three cases have been described, all originating from the same family. The disease results from a missense mutation affecting the C-type lectin domain of aggrecan (AGC1 gene; chromosome 15) which regulates endochondral ossification. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Greenberg dysplasia
MedGen UID:
418969
Concept ID:
C2931048
Disease or Syndrome
Greenberg dysplasia (GRBGD), also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten (HEM) skeletal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by gross fetal hydrops, severe shortening of all long bones with a moth-eaten radiographic appearance, platyspondyly, disorganization of chondroosseous calcification, and ectopic ossification centers. It is lethal in utero. Patient fibroblasts show increased levels of cholesta-8,14-dien-3-beta-ol, suggesting a defect of sterol metabolism (summary by Konstantinidou et al., 2008). Herman (2003) reviewed the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and 6 disorders involving enzyme defects in postsqualene cholesterol biosynthesis: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; 270400), desmosterolosis (602398), X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2; 302960), CHILD syndrome (308050), lathosterolosis (607330), and HEM skeletal dysplasia.
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 7 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
481422
Concept ID:
C3279792
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 16
MedGen UID:
864047
Concept ID:
C4015610
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XVI (OI16) is characterized by prenatal onset of multiple fractures of ribs and long bones, blue sclerae, decreased ossification of the skull, and severe demineralization. Heterozygous family members may exhibit recurrent fractures with minimal trauma, osteopenia, and blue sclerae (Keller et al., 2018; Lindahl et al., 2018).
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
907878
Concept ID:
C4225164
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Microcephaly, short stature, and limb abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1613834
Concept ID:
C4539873
Disease or Syndrome
MISSLA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, variable short stature, and limb abnormalities mainly affecting the upper limb and radial ray. Affected individuals typically have mild intellectual disability, but may have normal development (summary by Reynolds et al., 2017).
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641736
Concept ID:
C4551475
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Krakow type
MedGen UID:
1648323
Concept ID:
C4748455
Disease or Syndrome
Krakow-type spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia is characterized by severe skeletal dysplasia, severe immunodeficiency, and developmental delay (Csukasi et al., 2018).
Robinow syndrome, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
1676687
Concept ID:
C5193143
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome-2 (RRS2) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by postnatal mesomelic short stature and relative macrocephaly as well as dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, wide short nose with anteverted nares, and triangular mouth. Variable other congenital anomalies may be present, including omphalocele, ventral hernia, and cardiac anomalies (White et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome, see RRS1 (268310).
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome
MedGen UID:
1770070
Concept ID:
C5399974
Disease or Syndrome
ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood.
Odontochondrodysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
1784281
Concept ID:
C5542277
Disease or Syndrome
Odontochondrodysplasia-1 (ODCD1) is characterized by mesomelic shortening of tubular bones, ligamentous laxity, and scoliosis, in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta involving both primary and secondary dentition. Affected individuals show variable severity. Radiologic features include trident pelvis, posteriorly flattened vertebrae, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses (Maroteaux et al., 1996). Clinical variability and extraskeletal manifestations have been observed (Wehrle et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Odontochondrodysplasia Odontochondrodysplasia-2 with hearing loss and diabetes (ODCD2; 619269) is caused by mutation in the TANGO1 gene (MIA3; 613455) on chromosome 1q41.
KINSSHIP syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Acromesomelic dysplasia 4
MedGen UID:
1794238
Concept ID:
C5562028
Disease or Syndrome
Acromesomelic dysplasia-4 (AMD4) is characterized by disproportionate short stature due to mesomelic shortening of the limbs. Radiographic hallmarks include mild to moderate platyspondyly, moderate brachydactyly, iliac flaring, and metaphyseal alterations of the long bones that progressively increase with age (Diaz-Gonzalez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875).

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Guzmán-Huerta ME, Morales AS, Benavides-Serralde A, Camargo-Marín L, Velázquez-Torres B, Gallardo-Gaona JM, Acevedo-Gallegos S, Martínez-Juárez A, Ramírez-Calvo JA
Rev Invest Clin 2012 Sep-Oct;64(5):429-36. PMID: 23544305
Song SH, Balce GC, Agashe MV, Lee H, Hong SJ, Park YE, Kim SG, Song HR
Am J Med Genet A 2012 Oct;158A(10):2456-62. Epub 2012 Aug 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35564. PMID: 22903874
Binder G
Horm Res Paediatr 2011 Feb;75(2):81-9. Epub 2011 Feb 4 doi: 10.1159/000324105. PMID: 21325865

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Willison C, Ramachandran V, Chandler NJ, Hillman S, Ashraf T
Prenat Diagn 2023 Dec;43(13):1674-1677. Epub 2023 Dec 7 doi: 10.1002/pd.6485. PMID: 38059661
Lee JS, Kim HY, Lee YA, Lee SY, Cho TJ, Ko JM
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2021 Aug;129(8):611-620. Epub 2020 Sep 15 doi: 10.1055/a-1247-4863. PMID: 32932528
Kaissi AA, Kenis V, Shboul M, Grill F, Ganger R, Kircher SG
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2020 Jan-Dec;8:2324709620911771. doi: 10.1177/2324709620911771. PMID: 32172608Free PMC Article
Ullah A, Umair M, Muhammad D, Bilal M, Lee K, Leal SM, Ahmad W
Ann Hum Genet 2018 May;82(3):129-134. Epub 2018 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/ahg.12233. PMID: 29322508Free PMC Article
Agarwal VK, Lachman RS, Rimoin DL, Wilcox WR
Am J Med Genet A 2005 Jul 30;136(3):233-41. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30805. PMID: 15954110

Diagnosis

Willison C, Ramachandran V, Chandler NJ, Hillman S, Ashraf T
Prenat Diagn 2023 Dec;43(13):1674-1677. Epub 2023 Dec 7 doi: 10.1002/pd.6485. PMID: 38059661
Abu-Ghname A, Trost J, Davis MJ, Sutton VR, Zhang C, Guillen DE, Carvalho CMB, Maricevich RS
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Dec;185(12):3584-3592. Epub 2020 Sep 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61884. PMID: 32974972
Tamhankar PM, Vasudevan L, Kondurkar S, Yashaswini K, Agarwalla SK, Nair M, Ramkumar TV, Chaubal N, Chennuri VS
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2014;6(2):79-83. doi: 10.4274/Jcrpe.1233. PMID: 24932600Free PMC Article
Honório JC, Bruns RF, Gründtner LF, Raskin S, Ferrari LP, Araujo Júnior E, Nardozza LM
Sao Paulo Med J 2013;131(2):127-32. doi: 10.1590/s1516-31802013000100024. PMID: 23657516Free PMC Article
Binder G
Horm Res Paediatr 2011 Feb;75(2):81-9. Epub 2011 Feb 4 doi: 10.1159/000324105. PMID: 21325865

Therapy

Joustra SD, Kamp GA, Stalman SE, Donze SH, Losekoot M, Kant SG, de Bruin C, Oostdijk W, Wit JM
Horm Res Paediatr 2019;92(6):372-381. Epub 2020 Apr 28 doi: 10.1159/000507215. PMID: 32344414
Binder G
Horm Res Paediatr 2011 Feb;75(2):81-9. Epub 2011 Feb 4 doi: 10.1159/000324105. PMID: 21325865

Prognosis

Yang L, Shannon P, Silver R, Roifman M, Yates C, Chitayat D
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Honório JC, Bruns RF, Gründtner LF, Raskin S, Ferrari LP, Araujo Júnior E, Nardozza LM
Sao Paulo Med J 2013;131(2):127-32. doi: 10.1590/s1516-31802013000100024. PMID: 23657516Free PMC Article
Isidor B, Hamel A, Plasschaert F, Claus L, Mercier JM, Mortier GR, Leroy JG, Verloes A, David A
Am J Med Genet A 2009 Oct;149A(10):2220-5. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32926. PMID: 19725128
Agarwal VK, Lachman RS, Rimoin DL, Wilcox WR
Am J Med Genet A 2005 Jul 30;136(3):233-41. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30805. PMID: 15954110
Argo KM, Toriello HV, Jelsema RD, Zuidema LJ
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996 Nov;8(5):350-4. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-0705.1996.08050350.x. PMID: 8978012

Clinical prediction guides

Yang L, Shannon P, Silver R, Roifman M, Yates C, Chitayat D
Prenat Diagn 2024 May;44(5):653-656. Epub 2024 Mar 19 doi: 10.1002/pd.6543. PMID: 38504427
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Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2021 Aug;129(8):611-620. Epub 2020 Sep 15 doi: 10.1055/a-1247-4863. PMID: 32932528
Danyel M, Kortüm F, Dathe K, Kutsche K, Horn D
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Apr;176(4):992-996. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38635. PMID: 29575616
Ullah A, Umair M, Muhammad D, Bilal M, Lee K, Leal SM, Ahmad W
Ann Hum Genet 2018 May;82(3):129-134. Epub 2018 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/ahg.12233. PMID: 29322508Free PMC Article
Ross JL, Scott C Jr, Marttila P, Kowal K, Nass A, Papenhausen P, Abboudi J, Osterman L, Kushner H, Carter P, Ezaki M, Elder F, Wei F, Chen H, Zinn AR
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001 Dec;86(12):5674-80. doi: 10.1210/jcem.86.12.8125. PMID: 11739418

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