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White lesion of the oral mucosa

MedGen UID:
1370926
Concept ID:
C4476601
Finding
HPO: HP:0025125

Definition

White lesions of the oral mucosa are generally caused by a condition that increases the thickness of the epithelium. This increases the distance to the vascular bed and thereby tends to change the usual reddish color of the oral mucosa to white. Common causes include hyperkeratosis (thickening of the keratin layer), acanthosis (thickening of the spinous cell layer), increased edema in the epithelium (leukoedema), and reduced vascularity of the underlying lamina propria. Additionally, fibrin caps or surface ulcerations and collapsed bullae can appear white. [from HPO]

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Woods TR, White J, Koutlas I
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2023 May;35(2):271-281. Epub 2023 Feb 15 doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2022.10.004. PMID: 36805904
Mohamed AA, Lu XL, Mounmin FA
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;2019:3585136. Epub 2019 Oct 20 doi: 10.1155/2019/3585136. PMID: 31772927Free PMC Article
Usatine RP, Tinitigan M
Am Fam Physician 2011 Jul 1;84(1):53-60. PMID: 21766756

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Khamis A, Salzer L, Schiegnitz E, Stauber RH, Gül D
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Oct 11;24(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms242015058. PMID: 37894739Free PMC Article
Mohamed AA, Lu XL, Mounmin FA
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;2019:3585136. Epub 2019 Oct 20 doi: 10.1155/2019/3585136. PMID: 31772927Free PMC Article
Pinna R, Cocco F, Campus G, Conti G, Milia E, Sardella A, Cagetti MG
Periodontol 2000 2019 Jun;80(1):12-27. doi: 10.1111/prd.12261. PMID: 31090139
Schafer DR, Glass SH
Head Neck Pathol 2019 Mar;13(1):33-46. Epub 2019 Jan 31 doi: 10.1007/s12105-018-0977-4. PMID: 30693453Free PMC Article
Tamiolakis P, Theofilou VI, Tosios KI, Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou A
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2018 Jul 1;23(4):e429-e435. doi: 10.4317/medoral.22342. PMID: 29924759Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Woods TR, White J, Koutlas I
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2023 May;35(2):271-281. Epub 2023 Feb 15 doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2022.10.004. PMID: 36805904
González-Moles MÁ, Warnakulasuriya S, González-Ruiz I, González-Ruiz L, Ayén Á, Lenouvel D, Ruiz-Ávila I, Ramos-García P
Oral Dis 2021 May;27(4):813-828. Epub 2020 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/odi.13323. PMID: 32144836
Mohamed AA, Lu XL, Mounmin FA
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;2019:3585136. Epub 2019 Oct 20 doi: 10.1155/2019/3585136. PMID: 31772927Free PMC Article
Müller S
Head Neck Pathol 2019 Mar;13(1):16-24. Epub 2019 Jan 22 doi: 10.1007/s12105-018-0986-3. PMID: 30671762Free PMC Article
Bhattacharyya I, Chehal HK
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2011 Feb;44(1):109-31, vi. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2010.09.009. PMID: 21093626

Therapy

Petruzzelli CJ, Varano A, Desrosiers A, Hossler EW, Mowad CM
Dermatol Online J 2023 Jun 15;29(3) doi: 10.5070/D329361430. PMID: 37591270
Dogenski LC, de Figueiredo Ribeiro S, Gambin DJ, Maso PC, Linden MSS, Trentin MS, Zoehler B, Crivelini MM, De Carli JP
Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr;25(4):1859-1867. Epub 2020 Aug 6 doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03488-x. PMID: 32761445
Mohamed AA, Lu XL, Mounmin FA
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;2019:3585136. Epub 2019 Oct 20 doi: 10.1155/2019/3585136. PMID: 31772927Free PMC Article
Müller S
Head Neck Pathol 2019 Mar;13(1):16-24. Epub 2019 Jan 22 doi: 10.1007/s12105-018-0986-3. PMID: 30671762Free PMC Article
Sitheeque MA, Samaranayake LP
Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003;14(4):253-67. doi: 10.1177/154411130301400403. PMID: 12907694

Prognosis

Khamis A, Salzer L, Schiegnitz E, Stauber RH, Gül D
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Oct 11;24(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms242015058. PMID: 37894739Free PMC Article
Siddiqui HK, Khan FR, Sadiq A, Hashmi U, Qaiser Z
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jul;59(6):690-694. Epub 2020 Sep 11 doi: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2020.09.005. PMID: 34078553
Dogenski LC, de Figueiredo Ribeiro S, Gambin DJ, Maso PC, Linden MSS, Trentin MS, Zoehler B, Crivelini MM, De Carli JP
Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr;25(4):1859-1867. Epub 2020 Aug 6 doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03488-x. PMID: 32761445
Mohamed AA, Lu XL, Mounmin FA
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;2019:3585136. Epub 2019 Oct 20 doi: 10.1155/2019/3585136. PMID: 31772927Free PMC Article
Munde A, Karle R
J Cancer Res Ther 2016 Apr-Jun;12(2):469-73. doi: 10.4103/0973-1482.151443. PMID: 27461595

Clinical prediction guides

Khamis A, Salzer L, Schiegnitz E, Stauber RH, Gül D
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Oct 11;24(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms242015058. PMID: 37894739Free PMC Article
Santana T, Queiroz A, Gonçales LMC, Andrade NS, Trierveiler M
Oral Dis 2023 Oct;29(7):2723-2733. Epub 2023 Jan 4 doi: 10.1111/odi.14482. PMID: 36565435
Ferreira LDS, Calderipe CB, Maass JB, Carrard VC, Martins MD, Abreu LG, Schuch LF, Uchoa Vasconcelos AC
Oral Dis 2022 Apr;28(3):531-540. Epub 2021 Jan 16 doi: 10.1111/odi.13769. PMID: 33394507
Mohamed AA, Lu XL, Mounmin FA
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;2019:3585136. Epub 2019 Oct 20 doi: 10.1155/2019/3585136. PMID: 31772927Free PMC Article
Munde A, Karle R
J Cancer Res Ther 2016 Apr-Jun;12(2):469-73. doi: 10.4103/0973-1482.151443. PMID: 27461595

Recent systematic reviews

Santana NCM, de Sena ACVP, Rocha PADS, de Arruda JAA, Torres-Pereira CC, Abreu LG, Fournier BPJ, Warnakulasuriya S, Silva TA
Oral Oncol 2024 Mar;150:106699. Epub 2024 Feb 3 doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2024.106699. PMID: 38309198
Ferreira LDS, Calderipe CB, Maass JB, Carrard VC, Martins MD, Abreu LG, Schuch LF, Uchoa Vasconcelos AC
Oral Dis 2022 Apr;28(3):531-540. Epub 2021 Jan 16 doi: 10.1111/odi.13769. PMID: 33394507
Herzum A, Burlando M, Cozzani E, Parodi A
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211052437. doi: 10.1177/20587384211052437. PMID: 34666534Free PMC Article
Costa MC, de Carvalho MM, Sperandio FF, Ribeiro Junior NV, Hanemann JAC, Pigossi SC, de Carli ML
Mycoses 2021 Feb;64(2):108-122. Epub 2020 Oct 25 doi: 10.1111/myc.13194. PMID: 33031605
González-Moles MÁ, Warnakulasuriya S, González-Ruiz I, González-Ruiz L, Ayén Á, Lenouvel D, Ruiz-Ávila I, Ramos-García P
Oral Dis 2021 May;27(4):813-828. Epub 2020 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/odi.13323. PMID: 32144836

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