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Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 45(MRD45)

MedGen UID:
1616472
Concept ID:
C4539848
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 45; MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 45
 
Gene (location): CIC (19q13.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030910
OMIM®: 617600

Clinical features

From HPO
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally long and slender fingers ("spider fingers").
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Heart murmur
MedGen UID:
9171
Concept ID:
C0018808
Finding
An extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat caused vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis), below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis), or above the pulmonary valve (supravalvar stenosis).
Slender build
MedGen UID:
376828
Concept ID:
C1850573
Finding
Asthenic habitus refers to a slender build with long limbs, an angular profile, and prominent muscles or bones.
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Cerebral palsy
MedGen UID:
854
Concept ID:
C0007789
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior, by epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems.
Chorea
MedGen UID:
3420
Concept ID:
C0008489
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea (Greek for 'dance') refers to widespread arrhythmic involuntary movements of a forcible, jerky and restless fashion. It is a random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Movements appear random because of variability in timing, duration or location. Each movement may have a distinct start and end. However, movements may be strung together and thus may appear to flow randomly from one muscle group to another. Chorea can involve the trunk, neck, face, tongue, and extremities.
Myoclonus
MedGen UID:
10234
Concept ID:
C0027066
Finding
Very brief, involuntary random muscular contractions occurring at rest, in response to sensory stimuli, or accompanying voluntary movements.
Sleep abnormality
MedGen UID:
52372
Concept ID:
C0037317
Sign or Symptom
An abnormal pattern in the quality, quantity, or characteristics of sleep.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Perseverative thought
MedGen UID:
66686
Concept ID:
C0233651
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Manifestations of perseverative thoughts are behaviors that do not meet the demands of the situation, are not the product of deliberation, and may unfold despite counter intention.
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Recurrent hand flapping
MedGen UID:
867996
Concept ID:
C4022387
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A type of repetitive behavior in which the affected individual repeatedly waves the hands and/or arms rhythmically.
Generalized non-motor (absence) seizure
MedGen UID:
1385688
Concept ID:
C4316903
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized non-motor (absence) seizure is a type of a type of dialeptic seizure that is of electrographically generalized onset. It is a generalized seizure characterized by an interruption of activities, a blank stare, and usually the person will be unresponsive when spoken to. Any ictal motor phenomena are minor in comparison to these non-motor features.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Skin rash
MedGen UID:
1830322
Concept ID:
C5779628
Sign or Symptom
A red eruption of the skin.
Neonatal hypoglycemia
MedGen UID:
57646
Concept ID:
C0158986
Finding
Blood glucose concentration below the lower limit of established reference ranges in a newborn.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Wu C, Maegawa GHB, Zhang H
Brain Dev 2023 Oct;45(9):495-504. Epub 2023 Jun 9 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2023.05.006. PMID: 37302973
Ng SY, Luk HM, Hau EW, Cheng SS, Yu KP, Ho S, Mok MT, Lo IF
Eur J Med Genet 2022 Oct;65(10):104573. Epub 2022 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104573. PMID: 35918040
Lin L, Zhang Y, Pan H, Wang J, Qi Y, Ma Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Nov 11;15(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01599-y. PMID: 33176815Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Lin L, Zhang Y, Pan H, Wang J, Qi Y, Ma Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Nov 11;15(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01599-y. PMID: 33176815Free PMC Article
Jones AC, Daniells CE, Snell RG, Tachataki M, Idziaszczyk SA, Krawczak M, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP
Hum Mol Genet 1997 Nov;6(12):2155-61. doi: 10.1093/hmg/6.12.2155. PMID: 9328481
Hagberg BA, Blennow G, Kristiansson B, Stibler H
Pediatr Neurol 1993 Jul-Aug;9(4):255-62. doi: 10.1016/0887-8994(93)90060-p. PMID: 8216537
Hennekam RC, Stevens CA, Van de Kamp JJ
Am J Med Genet Suppl 1990;6:56-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320370610. PMID: 2118780

Diagnosis

Nagarajan B, Gowda VK, Yoganathan S, Sharawat IK, Srivastava K, Vora N, Badheka R, Danda S, Kalane U, Kaur A, Madaan P, Mehta S, Negi S, Panda PK, Rajadhyaksha S, Saini AG, Saini L, Shah S, Srinivasan VM, Suthar R, Thomas M, Vyas S, Sankhyan N, Sahu JK
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1383-1404. Epub 2023 Aug 25 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12811. PMID: 37583270Free PMC Article
Wu C, Maegawa GHB, Zhang H
Brain Dev 2023 Oct;45(9):495-504. Epub 2023 Jun 9 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2023.05.006. PMID: 37302973
Ng SY, Luk HM, Hau EW, Cheng SS, Yu KP, Ho S, Mok MT, Lo IF
Eur J Med Genet 2022 Oct;65(10):104573. Epub 2022 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104573. PMID: 35918040
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Lin L, Zhang Y, Pan H, Wang J, Qi Y, Ma Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Nov 11;15(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01599-y. PMID: 33176815Free PMC Article

Therapy

Jones AC, Daniells CE, Snell RG, Tachataki M, Idziaszczyk SA, Krawczak M, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP
Hum Mol Genet 1997 Nov;6(12):2155-61. doi: 10.1093/hmg/6.12.2155. PMID: 9328481

Prognosis

Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Lin L, Zhang Y, Pan H, Wang J, Qi Y, Ma Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Nov 11;15(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01599-y. PMID: 33176815Free PMC Article
Boese EA, Tollefson MR, Schnieders MJ, Darbro BW, Alward WLM, Fingert JH
Curr Eye Res 2020 Jan;45(1):91-96. Epub 2019 Aug 14 doi: 10.1080/02713683.2019.1649704. PMID: 31361967Free PMC Article
Jones AC, Daniells CE, Snell RG, Tachataki M, Idziaszczyk SA, Krawczak M, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP
Hum Mol Genet 1997 Nov;6(12):2155-61. doi: 10.1093/hmg/6.12.2155. PMID: 9328481
Hennekam RC, Stevens CA, Van de Kamp JJ
Am J Med Genet Suppl 1990;6:56-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320370610. PMID: 2118780

Clinical prediction guides

Nagarajan B, Gowda VK, Yoganathan S, Sharawat IK, Srivastava K, Vora N, Badheka R, Danda S, Kalane U, Kaur A, Madaan P, Mehta S, Negi S, Panda PK, Rajadhyaksha S, Saini AG, Saini L, Shah S, Srinivasan VM, Suthar R, Thomas M, Vyas S, Sankhyan N, Sahu JK
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1383-1404. Epub 2023 Aug 25 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12811. PMID: 37583270Free PMC Article
Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Ng SY, Luk HM, Hau EW, Cheng SS, Yu KP, Ho S, Mok MT, Lo IF
Eur J Med Genet 2022 Oct;65(10):104573. Epub 2022 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104573. PMID: 35918040
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Boese EA, Tollefson MR, Schnieders MJ, Darbro BW, Alward WLM, Fingert JH
Curr Eye Res 2020 Jan;45(1):91-96. Epub 2019 Aug 14 doi: 10.1080/02713683.2019.1649704. PMID: 31361967Free PMC Article

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