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Sleep abnormality

MedGen UID:
52372
Concept ID:
C0037317
Sign or Symptom
Synonyms: sleep difficulties; Sleep disturbance
SNOMED CT: Disturbance in sleep behavior (53888004)
 
HPO: HP:0002360

Definition

An abnormal pattern in the quality, quantity, or characteristics of sleep. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSleep abnormality

Conditions with this feature

Lipomatosis dolorosa
MedGen UID:
1757
Concept ID:
C0001529
Disease or Syndrome
Adiposis dolorosa, also known as Dercum disease, is characterized by generalized obesity and pronounced, disabling, and chronic pain in the adipose tissue of the proximal extremities, trunk, pelvic area, and buttocks; the face and hands are usually spared. There are a number of associated symptoms, including multiple lipomas, generalized weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, constipation, and psychiatric abnormalities. It is 5 to 30 times more common in women than men, and usually presents between 35 and 50 years of age (summary by Campen et al., 2001; review by Hansson et al., 2012). Based on a review of the literature and studies of 111 patients, Hansson et al. (2012) proposed a classification of Dercum disease into 4 types: (I) generalized diffuse form without clear lipomas, (II) generalized nodular form with multiple lipomas, (III) localized nodular form, and (IV) juxtaarticular form with solitary fatty deposits near joints.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Tourette syndrome
MedGen UID:
21219
Concept ID:
C0040517
Disease or Syndrome
Tourette syndrome is a neurobehavioral disorder manifest particularly by motor and vocal tics and associated with behavioral abnormalities. Tics are sudden, brief, intermittent, involuntary or semi-voluntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (phonic or vocal tics). They typically consist of simple, coordinated, repetitive movements, gestures, or utterances that mimic fragments of normal behavior. Motor tics may range from simple blinking, nose twitching, and head jerking to more complex throwing, hitting, or making rude gestures. Phonic tics include sniffling, throat clearing, blowing, coughing, echolalia, or coprolalia. Males are affected about 3 times more often than females, and onset usually occurs between 3 and 8 years of age. By age 18 years, more than half of affected individuals are free of tics, but they may persist into adulthood (review by Jankovic, 2001).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-A
MedGen UID:
39264
Concept ID:
C0086647
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-B
MedGen UID:
88601
Concept ID:
C0086648
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-C
MedGen UID:
39477
Concept ID:
C0086649
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D
MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Dopa-responsive dystonia due to sepiapterin reductase deficiency
MedGen UID:
120642
Concept ID:
C0268468
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of sepiapterin reductase deficiency (SRD), which ranges from significant motor and cognitive deficits to only minimal findings, has not been completely elucidated. Clinical features in the majority of affected individuals include motor and speech delay, axial hypotonia, dystonia, weakness, and oculogyric crises; symptoms show diurnal fluctuation and sleep benefit. Other common features include parkinsonian signs (tremor, bradykinesia, masked facies, rigidity), limb hypertonia, hyperreflexia, intellectual disability, psychiatric and/or behavioral abnormalities, autonomic dysfunction, and sleep disturbances (hypersomnolence, difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, and drowsiness). Most affected individuals have nonspecific features in infancy including developmental delays and axial hypotonia; other features develop over time.
Kleefstra syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
208639
Concept ID:
C0795833
Disease or Syndrome
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, autistic-like features, childhood hypotonia, and distinctive facial features. The majority of individuals function in the moderate-to-severe spectrum of intellectual disability although a few individuals have mild delay and total IQ within low-normal range. While most have severe expressive speech delay with little speech development, general language development is usually at a higher level, making nonverbal communication possible. A complex pattern of other findings can also be observed; these include heart defects, renal/urologic defects, genital defects in males, severe respiratory infections, epilepsy / febrile seizures, psychiatric disorders, and extreme apathy or catatonic-like features after puberty.
Smith-Magenis syndrome
MedGen UID:
162881
Concept ID:
C0795864
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive physical features (particularly coarse facial features that progress with age), developmental delay, cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, and childhood-onset abdominal obesity. Infants have feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, prolonged napping or need to be awakened for feeds, and generalized lethargy. The majority of individuals function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. The behavioral phenotype, including significant sleep disturbance, stereotypies, and maladaptive and self-injurious behaviors, is generally not recognized until age 18 months or older and continues to change until adulthood. Sensory issues are frequently noted; these may include avoidant behavior, as well as repetitive seeking of textures, sounds, and experiences. Toileting difficulties are common. Significant anxiety is common as are problems with executive functioning, including inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Maladaptive behaviors include frequent outbursts / temper tantrums, attention-seeking behaviors, opposition, aggression, and self-injurious behaviors including self-hitting, self-biting, skin picking, inserting foreign objects into body orifices (polyembolokoilamania), and yanking fingernails and/or toenails (onychotillomania). Among the stereotypic behaviors described, the spasmodic upper-body squeeze or "self-hug" seems to be highly associated with SMS. An underlying developmental asynchrony, specifically emotional maturity delayed beyond intellectual functioning, may also contribute to maladaptive behaviors in people with SMS.
Primrose syndrome
MedGen UID:
162911
Concept ID:
C0796121
Disease or Syndrome
Primrose syndrome is characterized by macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability with expressive speech delay, behavioral issues, a recognizable facial phenotype, radiographic features, and altered glucose metabolism. Additional features seen in adults: sparse body hair, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, high anterior hairline, deeply set eyes, ptosis, downslanted palpebral fissures, high palate with torus palatinus, broad jaw, and large ears with small or absent lobes. Radiographic features include calcification of the external ear cartilage, multiple Wormian bones, platybasia, bathrocephaly, slender bones with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and spondylar dysplasia. Additional features include hearing impairment, ocular anomalies, cryptorchidism, and nonspecific findings on brain MRI.
Deficiency of aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
MedGen UID:
220945
Concept ID:
C1291564
Disease or Syndrome
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error in neurotransmitter metabolism that leads to combined serotonin and catecholamine deficiency (Abeling et al., 2000). The disorder is clinically characterized by vegetative symptoms, oculogyric crises, dystonia, and severe neurologic dysfunction, usually beginning in infancy or childhood (summary by Brun et al., 2010).
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
320559
Concept ID:
C1835265
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or impaired intellectual development (MCLMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves an overlapping but variable spectrum of central nervous system and ocular developmental anomalies. Microcephaly ranges from mild to severe and is often associated with mild to moderate developmental delay and a characteristic facial phenotype with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nose with rounded tip, long philtrum with thin upper lip, prominent chin, and prominent ears. Chorioretinopathy is the most common eye abnormality, but retinal folds, microphthalmia, and myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism have also been reported, and some individuals have no overt ocular phenotype. Congenital lymphedema, when present, is typically confined to the dorsa of the feet, and lymphoscintigraphy reveals the absence of radioactive isotope uptake from the webspaces between the toes (summary by Ostergaard et al., 2012). Robitaille et al. (2014) found that MCLMR includes a broader spectrum of ocular disease, including retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, and noted phenotypic overlap with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR; see EVR1, 133780). Birtel et al. (2017) observed intrafamilial and intraindividual variability in retinal phenotype, and noted that syndromic manifestations in some patients are too subtle to be detected during a routine ophthalmologic evaluation. Variable expressivity and reduced penetrance have also been observed in some families (Jones et al., 2014; Li et al., 2016). Autosomal recessive forms of microcephaly with chorioretinopathy have been reported (see 251270). See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive microcephaly with pigmentary retinopathy and impaired intellectual development; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 7
MedGen UID:
325457
Concept ID:
C1838571
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL, or CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally (summary by Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A
MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH1D (618065), caused by mutation in the EXOSC9 gene (606180); PCH1E (619303), caused by mutation in the SLC25A46 gene (610826); PCH1F (619304), caused by mutation in the EXOSC1 gene (606493); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757); PCH11 (617695), caused by mutation in the TBC1D23 gene (617687); PCH12 (618266), caused by mutation in the COASY gene (609855); PCH13 (618606), caused by mutation in the VPS51 gene (615738); PCH14 (619301), caused by mutation in the PPIL1 gene (601301); PCH15 (619302), caused by mutation in the CDC40 gene (605585); PCH16 (619527), caused by mutation in the MINPP1 gene (605391); and PCH17 (619909), caused by mutation in the PRDM13 gene (616741) on chromosome 6q16.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type
MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1
MedGen UID:
340540
Concept ID:
C1850451
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment pattern seen most often in CLN1 is referred to as granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD). The patterns most often observed in CLN2 and CLN3 are 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles, respectively. CLN4, CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, and CLN8 show mixed combinations of granular, curvilinear, fingerprint, and rectilinear profiles. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). Zeman and Dyken (1969) referred to these conditions as the 'neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.' Goebel (1995) provided a comprehensive review of the NCLs and noted that they are possibly the most common group of neurodegenerative diseases in children. Mole et al. (2005) provided a detailed clinical and genetic review of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis See also CLN2 (204500), caused by mutation in the TPP1 gene (607998) on chromosome 11p15; CLN3 (204200), caused by mutation in the CLN3 gene (607042) on 16p12; CLN4 (162350), caused by mutation in the DNAJC5 gene (611203) on 20q13; CLN5 (256731), caused by mutation in the CLN5 gene (608102) on 13q22; CLN6A (601780) and CLN6B (204300), both caused by mutation in the CLN6 gene (606725) on 15q21; CLN7 (610951), caused by mutation in the MFSD8 gene (611124) on 4q28; CLN8 (600143) and the Northern epilepsy variant of CLN8 (610003), both caused by mutation in the CLN8 gene (607837) on 8p23; CLN10 (610127), caused by mutation in the CTSD gene (116840) on 11p15; CLN11 (614706), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on 17q21; CLN13 (615362), caused by mutation in the CTSF gene (603539) on 11q13; and CLN14 (611726), caused by mutation in the KCTD7 gene (611725) on 7q11. CLN9 (609055) has not been molecularly characterized. A disorder that was formerly designated neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-12 (CLN12) is now considered to be a variable form of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693).
Phelan-McDermid syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior.
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome
MedGen UID:
340266
Concept ID:
C1854630
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS) is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features, with or without additional congenital anomalies. The facial features include thick eyebrows with lateral flare, vertically narrow and downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long eyelashes, wide nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and thick scalp hair. About 60% of affected individuals have hypertrichosis cubiti ("hairy elbows"), which was once thought to be pathognomic for the syndrome, with a majority having hypertrichosis of other body parts. Other clinical features include feeding difficulties, prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, epilepsy, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, hand anomalies (such as brachydactyly and clinodactyly), hypotonia, vertebral anomalies (especially fusion anomalies of the cervical spine), renal and uterine anomalies, immune dysfunction, brain malformations, and dental anomalies.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to 16p13.3 microdeletion
MedGen UID:
350477
Concept ID:
C1864648
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 16p13.3deletion syndrome is a chromosome abnormality that can affect many parts of the body. People with this condition are missing a small piece (deletion) of chromosome 16 at a location designated p13.3. Although once thought to be a severe form of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, it is now emerging as a unique syndrome. Signs and symptoms may include failure to thrive, hypotonia (reduced muscle tone), short stature, microcephaly (unusually small head), characteristic facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, organ anomalies (i.e. heart and/or kidney problems), and vulnerability to infections. Chromosome testing of both parents can provide information about whether the deletion was inherited. In most cases, parents do not have any chromosome abnormalities. However, sometimes one parent has a balanced translocation where a piece of a chromosome has broken off and attached to another one with no gain or loss of genetic material. The balanced translocation normally does not cause signs or symptoms, but it increases the risk for having a child with a chromosome abnormality like a deletion. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person.To learn more about chromosome abnormalities in general, view our GARD fact sheet on Chromosome Disorders.
Perry syndrome
MedGen UID:
357007
Concept ID:
C1868594
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of DCTN1-related neurodegeneration includes Perry syndrome, distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type 7B (dHMN7B), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), motor neuron disease / amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and progressive supranuclear palsy. Some individuals present with overlapping phenotypes (e.g., FTD-ALS, Perry syndrome-dHMN7B). Perry syndrome (the most common of the phenotypes associated with DCTN1) is characterized by parkinsonism, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hypoventilation, and weight loss. The mean age of onset in those with Perry syndrome is 49 years (range: 35-70 years), and the mean disease duration is five years (range: 2-14 years). In most affected persons, the reported cause/circumstance of death relates to sudden death/hypoventilation or suicide.
Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 1
MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease is the second most common neurogenic disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50. Clinical manifestations include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600.
Restless legs syndrome, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
360293
Concept ID:
C1876177
Finding
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurologic sleep/wake disorder characterized by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs that appear at rest, usually at night, inducing an irresistible desire to move the legs. The disorder results in nocturnal insomnia and chronic sleep deprivation (Bonati et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Restless Legs Syndrome RLS1 has been mapped to chromosome 12q. Other susceptibility loci for RLS include RLS2 (608831) on chromosome 14q13-q31; RLS3 (610438) on chromosome 9p24-p22; RLS4 (610439) on chromosome 2q33; RLS5 (611242) on chromosome 20p13; RLS6 (611185) on chromosome 6p21; RLS7 (612853) on chromosome 2p14; and RLS8 (615197) on chromosome 5q31.
Brain-lung-thyroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
369694
Concept ID:
C1970269
Disease or Syndrome
NKX2-1-related disorders range from benign hereditary chorea (BHC) to choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress (also known as brain-lung-thyroid syndrome). Childhood-onset chorea, the hallmark of NKX2-1-related disorders, may or may not be associated with respiratory distress syndrome or congenital hypothyroidism. Chorea generally begins in early infancy or about age one year (most commonly) or in late childhood or adolescence, and progresses into the second decade after which it remains static or (rarely) remits. Pulmonary disease, the second most common manifestation, can include respiratory distress syndrome in neonates, interstitial lung disease in young children, and pulmonary fibrosis in older persons. The risk for pulmonary carcinoma is increased in young adults with an NKX2-1-related disorder. Thyroid dysfunction, the result of dysembryogenesis, can present as congenital hypothyroidism or compensated hypothyroidism. The risk for thyroid cancer is unknown and may not be increased. In one review, 50% of affected individuals had the full brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, 30% had involvement of brain and thyroid only, and 13% had isolated chorea only.
Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Christianson syndrome
MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
Christianson syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorder, and neurologic findings (e.g., seizures, ataxia, postnatal microcephaly, and eye movement abnormalities). Males with CS typically present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for severe intellectual disability (ID). Behaviorally, autism spectrum disorder and hyperactivity are common, and may resemble the behaviors observed in Angelman syndrome. Hypotonia and oropharyngeal dysphagia in infancy may result in failure to thrive. Seizures, typically beginning before age three years, can include infantile spasms and tonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Subsequently, regression (e.g., loss of ambulation and ability to feed independently) may occur. Manifestations in heterozygous females range from asymptomatic to mild ID and/or behavioral issues.
Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
416385
Concept ID:
C2750805
Disease or Syndrome
A rare partial autosomal trisomy/tetrasomy characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, muscular hypotonia, macrocephaly and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, low set, dysplastic ears, short or shallow philtrum, high arched or narrow palate, micrognathia). Other associated clinical features include sleep disturbances, seizures, aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, skeletal abnormalities (large hands and feet, long fingers and toes, talipes).
Potocki-Lupski syndrome
MedGen UID:
444010
Concept ID:
C2931246
Disease or Syndrome
Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and medical manifestations. Cognitively, most individuals present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for moderate intellectual disability. Behaviorally, issues with attention, hyperactivity, withdrawal, and anxiety may be seen. Some individuals meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Medically, hypotonia, oropharyngeal dysphagia leading to failure to thrive, congenital heart disease, hypoglycemia associated with growth hormone deficiency, and mildly dysmorphic facial features are observed. Medical manifestations typically lead to identification of PTLS in infancy; however, those with only behavioral and cognitive manifestations may be identified in later childhood.
Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
419169
Concept ID:
C2931817
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome show highly variable clinical manifestations likely resulting from different deletion sizes and deletions of different genes. Variable clinical features included brachydactyly type E (BDE), affecting the metacarpals and metatarsals (in about 50% of patients), short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. However, many individuals with deletions do not show cognitive deficits (summary by Villavicencio-Lorini et al., 2013, Wheeler et al., 2014, Jean-Marcais et al., 2015).
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
Chromosome 17p13.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462419
Concept ID:
C3151069
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D
MedGen UID:
462490
Concept ID:
C3151140
Disease or Syndrome
PCH2D is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, postnatal onset of progressive atrophy of the cerebrum and cerebellum, profound mental retardation, spasticity, and variable seizures (summary by Ben-Zeev et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
CK syndrome
MedGen UID:
463131
Concept ID:
C3151781
Disease or Syndrome
The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported.
Parkinson disease, late-onset
MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 18
MedGen UID:
481895
Concept ID:
C3280265
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRT18 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development with or without epilepsy. Other features may include spasticity, congenital heart disease, brain abnormalities, and atypical electroencephalography (summary by Trehan et al., 2015).
Lipoic acid synthetase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482517
Concept ID:
C3280887
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperglycinemia, lactic acidosis, and seizures (HGCLAS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia and seizures associated with increased serum glycine and lactate in the first days of life. Affected individuals develop an encephalopathy or severely delayed psychomotor development, which may result in death in childhood. The disorder represents a form of 'variant' nonketotic hyperglycinemia and is distinct from classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH, or GCE; 605899), which is characterized by significantly increased CSF glycine. Several forms of 'variant' NKH, including HGCLAS, appear to result from defects of mitochondrial lipoate biosynthesis (summary by Baker et al., 2014).
Intellectual developmental disorder with autism and macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
767287
Concept ID:
C3554373
Disease or Syndrome
CHD8-related neurodevelopmental disorder with overgrowth (CHD8-NDD) is characterized by generalized overgrowth, developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neuropsychiatric issues, neurologic problems, sleep disturbance, and gastrointestinal issues The most common findings are the development of macrocephaly (most often during infancy) and tall stature (most typically during puberty), which is often accompanied by ASD and/or DD/ID. Most, if not all, affected individuals have some degree of DD, most commonly speech and motor delays. When present, ID is most often in the mild-to-moderate range. Sleep disturbance is characterized by difficulty with both initiation (delayed sleep onset) and maintenance (frequent night awakenings) of sleep. The most common gastrointestinal issue is constipation with or without periods of diarrhea. Less common features are hypotonia (about 30% of affected individuals), seizures (10%-15%), dystonia (rare), and Chiari I malformation (rare).
Intellectual disability-hypotonia-spasticity-sleep disorder syndrome
MedGen UID:
816002
Concept ID:
C3809672
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by variable degrees of intellectual disability, behavioral problems (including attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and aggressiveness), an altered sleeping pattern, and delayed speech and language development associated with disruption of ankyrin-3 (<i>ANK3</i> gene). Additional features observed may include muscular hypotonia and spasticity. Epilepsy, chronic hunger, and dysmorphic facial features have been reported.
Severe intellectual disability-short stature-behavioral abnormalities-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
816183
Concept ID:
C3809853
Disease or Syndrome
Severe intellectual disability-short stature-behavioral abnormalities-facial dysmorphism syndrome is a rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability with limited or absent speech and language, short stature, acquired microcephaly, kyphoscoliosis or scoliosis, and behavioral disturbances that include hyperactivity, stereotypy and aggressiveness. Facial dysmorphism, that typically includes sloping forehead, mild synophrys, deep-set eyes, strabismus, anteverted large ears, prominent nose and dental malposition, is also characteristic.
Warburg micro syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816595
Concept ID:
C3810265
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 24
MedGen UID:
862851
Concept ID:
C4014414
Disease or Syndrome
Vulto-van Silfout-de Vries syndrome (VSVS) is an intellectual developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor expressive speech, and behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features and poor eye contact. Most patients have additional nonspecific features, including hypotonia and gait abnormalities, seizures, which may be refractory, high pain threshold, and sleep disturbances (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2019).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 9
MedGen UID:
863690
Concept ID:
C4015253
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial complex III deficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UQCC3 gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 46
MedGen UID:
863720
Concept ID:
C4015283
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NDST1 gene.
PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
894862
Concept ID:
C4225255
Disease or Syndrome
Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. The disorder comprises features of both demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A; 118220), which results from duplication of the PMP22 gene on 17p12, and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; 610883), which results from duplication of a slightly proximal region on 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. These 2 loci are about 2.5 Mb apart. The resultant YUHAL phenotype may be more severe in comparison to the individual contributions of each gene, with particularly early onset of peripheral neuropathy and features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement (summary by Yuan et al., 2015).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 38
MedGen UID:
895359
Concept ID:
C4225343
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the EEF1A2 gene.
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Band heterotopia of brain
MedGen UID:
924885
Concept ID:
C4284594
Disease or Syndrome
Band heterotopia (BH) is a neuronal migration disorder in which aberrantly located neurons, in the form of a band in the brain white matter, are present below a cortex that appears relatively normal by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinically, patients show severe developmental delay with intellectual disability, seizures, hypotonia, and hydrocephalus (Kielar et al., 2014, Shaheen et al., 2017).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 48
MedGen UID:
934604
Concept ID:
C4310637
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-48 (DEE48) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and absent speech; poor, if any, motor development; and onset of seizures usually in the first year of life, although later onset has been reported. Affected individuals have poor eye contact and may develop microcephaly and abnormal movements (summary by Assoum et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual disability-epilepsy-extrapyramidal syndrome
MedGen UID:
934650
Concept ID:
C4310683
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and impaired expressive language and with or without seizures (NEDHELS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypotonia, poor feeding, and global developmental delay apparent from infancy. Most patients have poor overall growth, poor eye contact, sleep disturbances, and severely impaired expressive language. Affected individuals also tend to have behavioral problems, microcephaly, and variable dysmorphic features; many develop seizures. Brain imaging may show enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum and brainstem, and white matter abnormalities. The phenotype is variable (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 43
MedGen UID:
934679
Concept ID:
C4310712
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-43 (DEE43) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures usually in the first year of life. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from the neonatal period to about 12 months of age. Later onset may rarely occur. Seizure types include febrile, infantile spasms, focal, tonic-clonic, and myoclonic; they tend to be refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with mild to moderate intellectual disability, although some may have normal early development before the onset of seizures. EEG shows focal, multifocal, or generalized sharp waves associated with seizures, sometimes with hypsarrhythmia. Additional more variable features include tube feeding, hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, ataxia, dyskinesia, and behavioral difficulties, including aggression, ADHD, stereotypic, and impulsive behavior (summary by the Epi4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
934706
Concept ID:
C4310739
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (OCNDS) frequently have nonspecific clinical features, delayed language development, motor delay, intellectual disability (typically in the mild-to-moderate range), generalized hypotonia starting in infancy, difficulty feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Developmental delay affects all areas of development, but language is more impaired than gross motor skills in most individuals. Intellectual disability has been reported in about three quarters of individuals. Less common findings may include kyphoscoliosis, postnatal short stature, disrupted circadian rhythm leading to sleep disturbance, seizures, and poor coordination.
TELO2-related intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder
MedGen UID:
934745
Concept ID:
C4310778
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of global developmental delay and intellectual disability, infantile hypotonia, microcephaly, movement disorder and impaired balance. Variable manifestations include hearing loss, cortical visual impairment, abnormalities of fingers and/or toes, congenital cardiac anomalies, kyphoscoliosis, dysmorphic facial features, abnormal sleep pattern and seizures.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Dias-Logan syndrome
MedGen UID:
934800
Concept ID:
C4310833
Disease or Syndrome
BCL11A-related intellectual disability (BCL11A-ID) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability of variable degree, neonatal hypotonia, microcephaly, distinctive but variable facial characteristics, behavior problems, and asymptomatic persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Growth delay, seizures, and autism spectrum disorder have also been reported in some affected individuals.
Xq25 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
935016
Concept ID:
C4311049
Disease or Syndrome
Xq25 duplication syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed development and intellectual disability associated with abnormal behavior and dysmorphic facial features. Additional variable features may include thin corpus callosum on brain imaging and sleep disturbances. Carrier females may be mildly affected (summary by Leroy et al., 2016).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 36
MedGen UID:
1382656
Concept ID:
C4317295
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-36 (DEE36) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of seizures at a mean age of 6.5 months. Most patients present with infantile spasms associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, although some patients may respond to benzodiazepines or a ketogenic diet. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development with poor motor function, severe intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and limited eye contact. More variable features include feeding difficulties sometimes requiring tube feeding, ocular defects including cortical visual impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis or osteopenia. The vast majority of patients reported have been females, although rare affected males with a similar phenotype have been described. Most patients show normal N-glycosylation on transferrin isoelectric focusing, but some show abnormal N-glycosylation consistent with CDG type I (summary by Ng et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, cataracts, feeding difficulties, and delayed brain myelination
MedGen UID:
1377894
Concept ID:
C4479333
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, cataracts, feeding difficulties, and delayed brain myelination is a syndromic form of severe to profound intellectual disability with onset of delayed psychomotor development and seizures in infancy. Affected children have hypotonia, feeding difficulties resulting in failure to thrive, and inability to speak or walk, and they tend to show repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy and delayed myelination (summary by Schoch et al., 2017).
Lopes-Maciel-Rodan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1379711
Concept ID:
C4479491
Disease or Syndrome
Gabriele de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
1375401
Concept ID:
C4479652
Disease or Syndrome
Gabriele-de Vries syndrome is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals and a wide spectrum of functional and morphologic abnormalities. Intrauterine growth restriction or low birth weight and feeding difficulties are common. Congenital brain, eye, heart, kidney, genital, and/or skeletal system anomalies have also been reported. About half of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations, including hypotonia and gait abnormalities. Behavioral issues can include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, autism or autistic behavior, and schizoaffective disorder.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 45
MedGen UID:
1616472
Concept ID:
C4539848
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 48
MedGen UID:
1619532
Concept ID:
C4540321
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay and moderate to severe intellectual disability, as well as variable other manifestations, such as macro- or microcephaly, epilepsy, hypotonia, behavioral problems, stereotypic movements, and facial dysmorphism (including arched eyebrows, long palpebral fissures, prominent nasal bridge, upturned nose, dysplastic ears, and broad mouth), among others. Brain imaging may show cerebellar anomalies, hypoplastic corpus callosum, enlarged ventricles, polymicrogyria, or white matter abnormalities.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 52
MedGen UID:
1615839
Concept ID:
C4540478
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 54
MedGen UID:
1614787
Concept ID:
C4540484
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with severe motor impairment and absent language
MedGen UID:
1622162
Concept ID:
C4540496
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
NEDMIAL is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and hypotonia apparent from early infancy, resulting in feeding difficulties, ataxic gait or inability to walk, delayed or absent speech development, and impaired intellectual development, sometimes with behavioral abnormalities, such as hand-flapping. Additional common features may include sleep disorder, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, and joint hyperlaxity (summary by Lessel et al., 2017 and Mannucci et al., 2021).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy due to GLUT1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1645412
Concept ID:
C4551966
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 59
MedGen UID:
1633749
Concept ID:
C4693550
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-59 (DEE59) is characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent in infancy with onset of various types of seizures in the first months of life (range 3 to 11 months). The seizures are usually refractory and are often associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, although brain imaging is usually normal. More severely affected individuals may be unable to speak or walk, have poor interaction, and require a feeding tube (summary by the EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Parkinsonism-dystonia, infantile, 2
MedGen UID:
1648382
Concept ID:
C4747991
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset parkinsonism-dystonia-2 (PKDYS2) is an autosomal recessive complex infantile-onset neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal movements, including parkinsonism, dystonia, and poor fine motor skills, as well as autonomic dysfunction, including abnormal sweating, cold extremities, and poor sleep. Some patients have variable degrees of developmental delay. Features of the disorder are consistent with decreased levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, although levels of these in the spinal fluid are normal (summary by Rilstone et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PKDYS, see 613135.
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648498
Concept ID:
C4748135
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 67
MedGen UID:
1648350
Concept ID:
C4749019
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1674560
Concept ID:
C5193043
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects combined with renal-glomerular disease manifest as nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria. Most patients with GAMOS6 also have growth deficiency with variable microcephaly, and the renal disease may be age-dependent. Additional variable endocrine abnormalities have also been reported (summary by Braun et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1679527
Concept ID:
C5193054
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1676192
Concept ID:
C5193092
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities (DDVIBA) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. Most patients have impaired intellectual development with speech difficulties, and many have behavioral abnormalities, most commonly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), defects in attention, and/or hyperactivity. Many patients have dysmorphic features, although there is not a consistent gestalt. Additional more variable features may include hypotonia, somatic overgrowth with macrocephaly, mild distal skeletal anomalies, sleep disturbances, movement disorders, and gastrointestinal issues, such as constipation. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Vetrini et al., 2019 and Torti et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with coarse facies and mild distal skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1682403
Concept ID:
C5193134
Disease or Syndrome
Stolerman neurodevelopmental syndrome (NEDSST) is a highly variable disorder characterized by developmental delay, often with motor and speech delay, mildly impaired intellectual development (in most patients), learning difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder. Psychosis is observed in a small percentage of individuals over the age of 12 years. Most individuals have nonspecific and mild dysmorphic facial features without a common gestalt. A subset of patients may have involvement of other organ systems, including gastrointestinal with poor early feeding or gastroesophageal reflux, distal skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Most mutations occur de novo, but rare autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance has been observed (Stolerman et al., 2019; Rots et al., 2023).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and variable intellectual and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684818
Concept ID:
C5231423
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and variable intellectual and behavioral abnormalities (NEDHIB) is characterized by early-onset hypotonia, delayed walking, poor speech, and impaired intellectual development. Additional features may include feeding difficulties, dysmorphic features, and visual defects. Brain imaging tends to show delayed myelination, thin corpus callosum, and/or enlarged ventricles. The severity of the disorder is highly variable; initial evidence suggests that the severity may depend on the type of mutation (summary by Haijes et al., 2019).
Snijders blok-fisher syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684801
Concept ID:
C5231424
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Fisher syndrome (SNIBFIS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, hypotonia, variable impaired intellectual development, and specifically impaired speech and language acquisition. Patients achieve independent ambulation and most have mildly to moderately impaired cognition with autistic features, although a few may develop seizures and have a more severe phenotype. Dysmorphic features include abnormal, cupped, or prominent ears and ocular anomalies. Mutations usually occur de novo, although 1 family with autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2019).
Catifa syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684686
Concept ID:
C5231492
Disease or Syndrome
CATIFA syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development ranging from mild to severe, with most patients exhibiting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients show an elongated face with long philtrum and small ears. Ocular anomalies include congenital cataracts, strabismus, and amblyopia, which may be associated with reduced vision; other anomalies include cleft lip and/or palate and misaligned teeth with extensive caries (Unlu et al., 2020).
Nizon-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1715748
Concept ID:
C5394350
Disease or Syndrome
Nizon-Isidor syndrome (NIZIDS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mildly delayed walking, poor speech and language, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some patients may have additional features, including nonspecific facial dysmorphism, gastrointestinal difficulties, distal hand anomalies, and thin corpus callosum on brain imaging (summary by Nizon et al., 2019).
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718781
Concept ID:
C5394425
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome (MDBH) is a multisystem disorder with clinical variability. Affected individuals show cognitive and motor disabilities, as well as some degree of fine, brittle hair with microscopic shaft abnormalities. Other shared features include failure to thrive in early childhood and short stature, with some patients exhibiting feeding difficulties and hepatic steatosis (Kuo et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with autistic features and language delay, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1715081
Concept ID:
C5394447
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with autistic features and language delay, with or without seizures (IDDALDS), is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, variable intellectual disability, impaired speech development, and behavioral abnormalities, most commonly on the autism spectrum. About half of patients develop seizures; brain imaging is typically normal. Additional features are highly variable, but may include chronic constipation, walking difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Vissers-Bodmer syndrome
MedGen UID:
1776566
Concept ID:
C5436647
Disease or Syndrome
Vissers-Bodmer syndrome (VIBOS) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, motor delay, and behavioral abnormalities apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: some individuals have only mild learning difficulties, whereas others have severe cognitive impairment with IQ in the 50s. Many patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADD, ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and impulsivity. Other common features include growth impairment abnormalities, hypotonia, and distal skeletal defects, such as foot and hand deformities. Less common features include seizures, brain abnormalities on MRI, feeding problems, and joint hypermobility. Most individuals have dysmorphic facial features, but there is no recognizable gestalt (summary by Vissers et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1758434
Concept ID:
C5436699
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies (NEDSID) is characterized by developmental delay associated with mild to moderately impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral or psychiatric abnormalities, and delayed speech and language acquisition. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal problems or feeding difficulties, and hypotonia. The phenotypic features and severity of the disorder are variable (summary by Kummeling et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1777442
Concept ID:
C5436821
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities (NEDFASB) is a syndromic disorder with multisystemic involvement. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent language, behavioral abnormalities, seizures, and sleep disturbances. Craniofacial dysmorphisms, while variable, include round face, prognathism, depressed nasal bridge, and cleft or high-arched palate. Brain imaging shows dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Additional features may include genitourinary tract anomalies, hearing loss, and mild distal skeletal defects (summary by Humbert et al., 2020).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Developmental delay with dysmorphic facies and dental anomalies
MedGen UID:
1785587
Concept ID:
C5543197
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with dysmorphic facies and dental anomalies (DEFDA) is characterized by generally mild global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, walking by 2 to 3 years, and slow language acquisition. The severity of the disorder ranges from moderate cognitive deficits to mild learning difficulties or behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often with abnormal dentition and nonspecific visual defects, such as myopia, astigmatism, and strabismus. Although rare, involvement of other systems, such as skeletal, cardiac, and gastrointestinal, may be present (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1787991
Concept ID:
C5543226
Disease or Syndrome
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities (GDSBA) is characterized by developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have mildly delayed fine and motor skills with walking by 3 years of age, mildly impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities, mostly autism and ADHD. Some patients may have additional nonspecific features, such as facial dysmorphism, myopia or strabismus, and skeletal defects, including joint hypermobility, pes planus, or slender fingers (summary by Granadillo et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebral atrophy and variable facial dysmorphism
MedGen UID:
1786662
Concept ID:
C5543228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebral atrophy and facial dysmorphism (NEDCAFD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia with inability to walk and severely impaired intellectual development with absent language. Most patients have variable dysmorphic facial features including prominent eyes, protruding and low-set ears, and thin upper lip. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and a simplified gyral pattern (summary by Rasheed et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures
MedGen UID:
1784197
Concept ID:
C5543268
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures (NEDDFAS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in early childhood. Patients have mildly impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay or behavioral abnormalities. Some may have seizures. Most have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Additional findings may include brain imaging abnormalities, mild skeletal defects, and renal abnormalities, although the renal anomalies may be unrelated (summary by Shao et al., 2021).
Cerebellar hypoplasia-intellectual disability-congenital microcephaly-dystonia-anemia-growth retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
1780242
Concept ID:
C5543287
Disease or Syndrome
CIMDAG syndrome (CIMDAG) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by severely impaired psychomotor development and hematologic abnormalities apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals show poor overall growth with microcephaly, impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, poor eye contact, and motor problems, such as inability to walk, hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging typically shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination. The associated hematologic abnormalities are variable, but are mostly consistent with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) (summary by Rodger et al., 2020 and Seu et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1790413
Concept ID:
C5551361
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and thin corpus callosum (NEDDFAC) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and decreased white matter volume. Additional features such as seizures, cardiac defects, and behavioral abnormalities may also occur. The phenotype is variable (summary by Bina et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies
MedGen UID:
1794140
Concept ID:
C5561930
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies (MRXSPF) is characterized by a phenotypic triad of severe developmental delay, coarse facial dysmorphisms, and Blaschkoid pigmentary mosaicism. Additional clinical features may include epilepsy, orthopedic abnormalities, hypotonia, and growth abnormalities. The disorder affects both males and females (Villegas et al., 2019; Diaz et al., 2020).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
1794176
Concept ID:
C5561966
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-9 (AGS9) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration. Patients present in infancy with irritability and spasticity. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification. Premature death has been associated with renal and/or hepatic failure (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2V
MedGen UID:
1800473
Concept ID:
C5569050
Disease or Syndrome
A rare axonal hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by adult onset of recurrent pain in legs with or without cramps, progressive loss of deep tendon reflexes and vibration sense, paresthesia in the feet and later in the hands. Patients often experience sleep disturbances and mild sensory ataxia.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1807420
Concept ID:
C5676944
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDCHF) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, distinctive facial features, scoliosis, delayed closure of the anterior fontanel, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Wakeling et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 75, with neuropsychiatric features and variant lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
1808159
Concept ID:
C5676961
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-75 with neuropsychiatric features and variant lissencephaly (MRT75) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood and moderate to profoundly impaired intellectual development. Most affected individuals have behavioral abnormalities, including aggression and ADHD; a few have psychiatric manifestations, including psychosis. More variable additional features include well-controlled seizures and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging often shows frontal predominant pachygyria or other gyri/sulci abnormalities, consistent with a variant of lissencephaly and a malformation of cortical development (MCD) (summary by Zaki et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 67
MedGen UID:
1805690
Concept ID:
C5677006
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-67 (MRD67) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy or early childhood. Additional features may include behavioral abnormalities, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD, as well as language and sleeping difficulties. Brain imaging is normal (Ismail et al., 2022).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 76
MedGen UID:
1808571
Concept ID:
C5677007
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-76 (MRT76) is characterized by impaired intellectual development, absent speech, poor sleep, abnormal EEG with seizures, normal brain imaging, and precocious puberty (Ismail et al., 2022).
Chromosome Xq13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
1809227
Concept ID:
C5677057
Disease or Syndrome
DeSanto-Shinawi syndrome due to WAC point mutation
MedGen UID:
1841517
Concept ID:
C5681129
Disease or Syndrome
WAC-related intellectual disability (ID) is typically characterized by variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. Behavioral abnormalities including anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism spectrum disorder are observed in the majority of older children and adults. Most affected infants have significant but nonspecific features at birth such as neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems. Some affected individuals come to medical attention with respiratory or vision problems. Facial features may be mildly dysmorphic, but are nonspecific. To date, 18 individuals have been identified with WAC-related ID.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1823981
Concept ID:
C5774208
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures (NEDMIMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development, progressive microcephaly, and early-onset seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Affected individuals have poor overall growth and may have various movement abnormalities, including hypo- and hypertonia. Behavioral problems may also be observed (Klockner et al., 2022).
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders
MedGen UID:
1823997
Concept ID:
C5774224
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders (DEDBANP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild global developmental delay and normal or variably impaired intellectual development. Most individuals have behavioral or neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and executive functioning deficits. Additional features may include speech delay, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, and seizures (Vitobello et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
1824001
Concept ID:
C5774228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties (NEDSFF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features, multisystem dysfunction, profound neurodevelopmental delays, and neonatal death (Shankar et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824024
Concept ID:
C5774251
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities (NEDGFC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these cardinal features apparent from infancy. There is phenotypic variability both in disease manifestations and severity. More severely affected individuals are unable to walk independently, are nonverbal, and may have other anomalies, including congenital heart defects, feeding difficulties, or skeletal defects, whereas others show mildly delayed motor and speech acquisition with mild or borderline intellectual disability (summary by von Elsner et al., 2022).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 112
MedGen UID:
1840225
Concept ID:
C5829589
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disorder-112 (XLID112) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, with speech delay more prominent than motor delay, autism or autism traits, and variable dysmorphic features. Affected females have been reported, which appears to be related to skewed X-inactivation (summary by Hiatt et al., 2023).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1840909
Concept ID:
C5830273
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and behavioral abnormalities (NEDGBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, often with absent speech, and behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, short attention span, and ADHD. Affected individuals show failure to thrive with poor overall growth; some have microcephaly. Additional features may include nonspecific facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties (Vogt et al., 2022; Meng et al., 2023).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent speech and movement and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1840955
Concept ID:
C5830319
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent speech and movement and behavioral abnormalities (NEDSMB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severely impaired intellectual development with aggressive behavior. Mild dysmorphic features and hypodontia are also present (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with language delay and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841001
Concept ID:
C5830365
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with language delay and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures (NEDLBAS), is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have significant speech delay, and most demonstrate behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features. About half of patients develop seizures, which may be controlled or refractory. More variable features include hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and subtle facial dysmorphism (Schalk et al., 2022).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 71, with behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841073
Concept ID:
C5830437
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-71 with behavioral abnormalities (MRD71) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, speech delay, and variably impaired cognitive development. Almost all affected individuals show marked behavioral manifestations, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, hypersensitivity, and aggression. Many have dysmorphic features, although there is not a common gestalt (Harris et al., 2021).
Spastic paraplegia 90A, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1841210
Concept ID:
C5830574
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia-90A (SPG90A) is characterized by motor impairment and progressive lower extremity spasticity as well as neurologic findings, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss (Srivastava et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant SPG, see SPG3A (182600).
Spastic paraplegia 90B, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1841214
Concept ID:
C5830578
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-90B (SPG90B) is characterized by motor impairment and progressive lower extremity spasticity as well as neurologic findings, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss (Srivastava et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gilfillan M, Bhandari A, Bhandari V
BMJ 2021 Oct 20;375:n1974. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1974. PMID: 34670756
Crook H, Raza S, Nowell J, Young M, Edison P
BMJ 2021 Jul 26;374:n1648. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1648. PMID: 34312178
Dalrymple SN, Lewis SH, Philman S
Am Fam Physician 2021 Jun 1;103(11):663-671. PMID: 34060792

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Valenzuela PL, Santos-Lozano A, Torres-Barrán A, Morales JS, Castillo-García A, Ruilope LM, Ríos-Insua D, Ordovás JM, Lucia A
Eur J Clin Invest 2022 May;52(5):e13738. Epub 2022 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/eci.13738. PMID: 34958676
Bloomgarden Z, Ning G
J Diabetes 2018 Jan;10(1):4-5. Epub 2017 Nov 7 doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12609. PMID: 28940787
Altman MT, Knauert MP, Pisani MA
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Sep;14(9):1457-1468. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201702-148SR. PMID: 28644698Free PMC Article
Patel SR, Blackwell T, Ancoli-Israel S, Stone KL; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men-MrOS Research Group
Sleep 2012 May 1;35(5):641-8. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1822. PMID: 22547890Free PMC Article
Sabry AA, Abo-Zenah H, Wafa E, Mahmoud K, El-Dahshan K, Hassan A, Abbas TM, Saleh Ael-B, Okasha K
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010 Mar;21(2):300-5. PMID: 20228517

Diagnosis

Kozu KT, Casella CB, Strabelli CAA, Aikawa NE, Campos LMA, Elias AM, Miguel EC, Polanczyk GV, Silva CA
J Clin Rheumatol 2022 Mar 1;28(2):e506-e510. doi: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001782. PMID: 34371514
Bloomgarden Z, Ning G
J Diabetes 2018 Jan;10(1):4-5. Epub 2017 Nov 7 doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12609. PMID: 28940787
Steinan MK, Morken G, Lagerberg TV, Melle I, Andreassen OA, Vaaler AE, Scott J
J Affect Disord 2016 Feb;191:156-63. Epub 2015 Nov 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.025. PMID: 26655861
Joo EY, Hong SB, Sohn YB, Kwak MJ, Kim SJ, Choi YO, Kim SW, Paik KH, Jin DK
J Sleep Res 2010 Mar;19(1 Pt 2):248-54. Epub 2009 Nov 11 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00786.x. PMID: 19912511
Ming X, Walters AS
Curr Opin Pulm Med 2009 Nov;15(6):578-84. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283319a9a. PMID: 19713848

Therapy

Bloomgarden Z, Ning G
J Diabetes 2018 Jan;10(1):4-5. Epub 2017 Nov 7 doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12609. PMID: 28940787
Altman MT, Knauert MP, Pisani MA
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Sep;14(9):1457-1468. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201702-148SR. PMID: 28644698Free PMC Article
Steinan MK, Morken G, Lagerberg TV, Melle I, Andreassen OA, Vaaler AE, Scott J
J Affect Disord 2016 Feb;191:156-63. Epub 2015 Nov 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.025. PMID: 26655861
Shokrollahi M, Krishnan S
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013;2013:4318-21. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610501. PMID: 24110688
Sabry AA, Abo-Zenah H, Wafa E, Mahmoud K, El-Dahshan K, Hassan A, Abbas TM, Saleh Ael-B, Okasha K
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010 Mar;21(2):300-5. PMID: 20228517

Prognosis

Burgess JL, Bradley AJ, Anderson KN, Gallagher P, McAllister-Williams RH
Psychol Med 2022 Feb;52(3):467-475. Epub 2020 Jun 29 doi: 10.1017/S003329172000210X. PMID: 32597742
Nakase-Richardson R, Sherer M, Barnett SD, Yablon SA, Evans CC, Kretzmer T, Schwartz DJ, Modarres M
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2013 May;94(5):875-82. Epub 2013 Jan 4 doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.01.001. PMID: 23296143
Patel SR, Blackwell T, Ancoli-Israel S, Stone KL; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men-MrOS Research Group
Sleep 2012 May 1;35(5):641-8. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1822. PMID: 22547890Free PMC Article
Newton JL, Gibson GJ, Tomlinson M, Wilton K, Jones D
Hepatology 2006 Jul;44(1):91-8. doi: 10.1002/hep.21230. PMID: 16800007
Thase ME, Simons AD, Reynolds CF 3rd
Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996 Feb;53(2):99-108. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830020013003. PMID: 8629894

Clinical prediction guides

Valenzuela PL, Santos-Lozano A, Torres-Barrán A, Morales JS, Castillo-García A, Ruilope LM, Ríos-Insua D, Ordovás JM, Lucia A
Eur J Clin Invest 2022 May;52(5):e13738. Epub 2022 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/eci.13738. PMID: 34958676
Burgess JL, Bradley AJ, Anderson KN, Gallagher P, McAllister-Williams RH
Psychol Med 2022 Feb;52(3):467-475. Epub 2020 Jun 29 doi: 10.1017/S003329172000210X. PMID: 32597742
Altman MT, Knauert MP, Pisani MA
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Sep;14(9):1457-1468. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201702-148SR. PMID: 28644698Free PMC Article
Patel SR, Blackwell T, Ancoli-Israel S, Stone KL; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men-MrOS Research Group
Sleep 2012 May 1;35(5):641-8. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1822. PMID: 22547890Free PMC Article
Joo EY, Hong SB, Sohn YB, Kwak MJ, Kim SJ, Choi YO, Kim SW, Paik KH, Jin DK
J Sleep Res 2010 Mar;19(1 Pt 2):248-54. Epub 2009 Nov 11 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00786.x. PMID: 19912511

Recent systematic reviews

Schmidlin PR, Khademi A, Fakheran O
Clin Oral Investig 2020 Oct;24(10):3335-3345. Epub 2020 Jul 31 doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03475-2. PMID: 32734481
Altman MT, Knauert MP, Pisani MA
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Sep;14(9):1457-1468. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201702-148SR. PMID: 28644698Free PMC Article

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