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RAB23-related Carpenter syndrome(CRPT1)

MedGen UID:
1644017
Concept ID:
C4551510
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: ACPS 2; ACPS II; Acrocephalopolysyndactyly type 2; Acrocephalopolysyndactyly Type II; Carpenter syndrome 1
 
Gene (location): RAB23 (6p12.1-11.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008710
OMIM®: 201000

Definition

Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of acrocephaly with variable synostosis of the sagittal, lambdoid, and coronal sutures; peculiar facies; brachydactyly of the hands with syndactyly; preaxial polydactyly and syndactyly of the feet; congenital heart defects; growth retardation; mental retardation; hypogenitalism; and obesity. In addition, cerebral malformations, oral and dental abnormalities, coxa valga, genu valgum, hydronephrosis, precocious puberty, and hearing loss may be observed (summary by Altunhan et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Carpenter Syndrome Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2; 614976), in which the features of Carpenter syndrome are sometimes associated with defective lateralization, is caused by mutation in the MEGF8 gene (604267). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Hydroureter
MedGen UID:
101073
Concept ID:
C0521620
Anatomical Abnormality
The distention of the ureter with urine.
External genital hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
344478
Concept ID:
C1855333
Finding
Underdevelopment of part or all of the external reproductive organs.
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used here to describe a series distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here.
Coxa valga
MedGen UID:
116080
Concept ID:
C0239137
Finding
Coxa valga is a deformity of the hip in which the angle between the femoral shaft and the femoral neck is increased compared to age-adjusted values (about 150 degrees in newborns gradually reducing to 120-130 degrees in adults).
Toe syndactyly
MedGen UID:
75581
Concept ID:
C0265660
Congenital Abnormality
Webbing or fusion of the toes, involving soft parts only or including bone structure. Bony fusions are referred to as "bony" Syndactyly if the fusion occurs in a radio-ulnar axis. Fusions of bones of the toes in a proximo-distal axis are referred to as "Symphalangism".
Postaxial hand polydactyly
MedGen UID:
609221
Concept ID:
C0431904
Congenital Abnormality
Supernumerary digits located at the ulnar side of the hand (that is, on the side with the fifth finger).
Genu varum
MedGen UID:
154257
Concept ID:
C0544755
Finding
A positional abnormality marked by outward bowing of the legs in which the knees stay wide apart when a person stands with the feet and ankles together.
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Shallow acetabular fossae
MedGen UID:
344384
Concept ID:
C1854910
Finding
Lateral displacement of patellae
MedGen UID:
348552
Concept ID:
C1860156
Finding
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the middle phalanges of the hand
MedGen UID:
354674
Concept ID:
C1862152
Finding
Preaxial foot polydactyly
MedGen UID:
389171
Concept ID:
C2112942
Finding
Duplication of all or part of the first ray.
Pseudoepiphyses of the proximal phalanges of the hand
MedGen UID:
869498
Concept ID:
C4023926
Anatomical Abnormality
A secondary ossification center in the proximal phalanges of the hand that is distinct from the normal epiphysis that does not contribute to the longitudinal growth of a tubular bone.
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the middle phalanges of the toes
MedGen UID:
869548
Concept ID:
C4023976
Finding
Duplication of the proximal phalanx of the hallux
MedGen UID:
869626
Concept ID:
C4024054
Anatomical Abnormality
Partial or complete duplication of the proximal phalanx of big toe.
Complete duplication of proximal phalanx of the thumb
MedGen UID:
869842
Concept ID:
C4024273
Anatomical Abnormality
Complete duplication of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. On x-ray two separate bones appear side to side. In contrast to the proximal phalanges of the digits 2-5, the proximal phalanx of the thumb is embryologically equivalent to the middle phalanges of the other digits, whereas the first metacarpal is embryologically of phalangeal origin and as such equivalent to the proximal phalanges of the other digits.
Metatarsus adductus
MedGen UID:
898667
Concept ID:
C4082169
Anatomical Abnormality
The metatarsals are deviated medially (tibially), that is, the bones in the front half of the foot bend or turn in toward the body.
Deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
1680949
Concept ID:
C4759671
Anatomical Abnormality
Deviated fingers is a term that should be used if one or more fingers of the hand are deviated from their normal position, either to the radial or ulnar side. A deviation of a finger can be caused by an abnormal form of one or more of the phalanges of the affected finger, or by a deviation or displacement of one or more phalanges.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Tetralogy of Fallot
MedGen UID:
21498
Concept ID:
C0039685
Congenital Abnormality
Each of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.\n\nSome people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.\n\nAlthough babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.\n\nCritical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.\n\nPeople with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.
Transposition of the great arteries
MedGen UID:
21245
Concept ID:
C0040761
Congenital Abnormality
People with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.\n\nCritical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.\n\nAlthough babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.\n\nSome people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.\n\nEach of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis), below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis), or above the pulmonary valve (supravalvar stenosis).
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of substantial excess body fat.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Abnormal pinna morphology
MedGen UID:
167800
Concept ID:
C0857379
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the pinna, which is also referred to as the auricle or external ear.
Spina bifida occulta
MedGen UID:
36380
Concept ID:
C0080174
Congenital Abnormality
The closed form of spina bifida with incomplete closure of a vertebral body with intact overlying skin.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
354608
Concept ID:
C1861866
Finding
Absence or underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Sagittal craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
140921
Concept ID:
C0432123
Congenital Abnormality
A kind of craniosynostosis affecting the sagittal suture.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Congenital omphalocele
MedGen UID:
162756
Concept ID:
C0795690
Congenital Abnormality
An omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect limited to an open umbilical ring, and is characterized by the herniation of membrane-covered internal organs into the open base of the umbilical cord. Omphalocele is distinguished from gastroschisis (230750), in which the abdominal wall defect is located laterally to a normally closed umbilical ring with herniation of organs that are uncovered by membranes (summary by Bugge, 2010). On the basis of clinical manifestations, epidemiologic characteristics, and the presence of additional malformations, Yang et al. (1992) concluded that omphalocele and gastroschisis are casually and pathogenetically distinct abdominal wall defects. Omphalocele can be a feature of genetic disorders, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (130650) and the Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (182210).
Craniosynostosis 4
MedGen UID:
322167
Concept ID:
C1833340
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4) includes lambdoid, sagittal, metopic, coronal, and multisuture forms. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
Large foramen magnum
MedGen UID:
336194
Concept ID:
C1844508
Finding
An abnormal increase in the size of the foramen magnum.
Coronal craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
344694
Concept ID:
C1856266
Congenital Abnormality
Premature closure of the coronal suture of skull.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Flared iliac wing
MedGen UID:
356097
Concept ID:
C1865841
Finding
Widening of the ilium ala, that is of the wing of the ilium, combined with external rotation, leading to a flared appearance of the iliac wing.
Polysplenia
MedGen UID:
383959
Concept ID:
C1856659
Congenital Abnormality
Polysplenia is a congenital disease manifested by multiple small accessory spleens.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Persistence of primary teeth
MedGen UID:
75597
Concept ID:
C0266050
Disease or Syndrome
Persistence of the primary teeth beyond the age by which they normally are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Agenesis of permanent teeth
MedGen UID:
224851
Concept ID:
C1290511
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital defect characterized by the absence of one or more permanent teeth, including oligodontia, hypodontia, and adontia of the of permanent teeth.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Underdeveloped supraorbital ridges
MedGen UID:
349384
Concept ID:
C1861869
Congenital Abnormality
Flatness of the supraorbital portion of the frontal bones.
Preauricular pit
MedGen UID:
120587
Concept ID:
C0266610
Congenital Abnormality
Small indentation anterior to the insertion of the ear.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A cutaneous indentation resulting from tethering of the skin to underlying structures (bone) of the intergluteal cleft.
Precocious puberty
MedGen UID:
18752
Concept ID:
C0034013
Disease or Syndrome
The onset of secondary sexual characteristics before a normal age. Although it is difficult to define normal age ranges because of the marked variation with which puberty begins in normal children, precocious puberty can be defined as the onset of puberty before the age of 8 years in girls or 9 years in boys.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Microcornea
MedGen UID:
78610
Concept ID:
C0266544
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cornea in which the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye are smaller than normal. The horizontal diameter of the cornea does not reach 10 mm even in adulthood.
Opacification of the corneal stroma
MedGen UID:
602191
Concept ID:
C0423250
Finding
Reduced transparency of the stroma of cornea.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Rubio EI, Blask A, Bulas DI
Pediatr Radiol 2016 May;46(5):709-18. Epub 2016 Feb 25 doi: 10.1007/s00247-016-3550-x. PMID: 26914936

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Odegaard KE, Gallegos G, Koul S, Schaal VL, Vellichirammal NN, Guda C, Dutoit AP, Lisco SJ, Yelamanchili SV, Pendyala G
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Wémeau JL, Proust-Lemoine E, Ryndak A, Vanhove L
Hormones (Athens) 2013 Jan-Mar;12(1):39-45. doi: 10.1007/BF03401285. PMID: 23624130
Jenkins D, Baynam G, De Catte L, Elcioglu N, Gabbett MT, Hudgins L, Hurst JA, Jehee FS, Oley C, Wilkie AO
Hum Mutat 2011 Apr;32(4):E2069-78. Epub 2011 Feb 8 doi: 10.1002/humu.21457. PMID: 21412941Free PMC Article
Hidestrand P, Vasconez H, Cottrill C
J Craniofac Surg 2009 Jan;20(1):254-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318184357a. PMID: 19165041
Biesecker LG
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 Apr 24;3:10. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-10. PMID: 18435847Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Sáenz SS, Arias B, Hosomichi K, Romero VI
Hum Genomics 2021 Aug 4;15(1):49. doi: 10.1186/s40246-021-00348-x. PMID: 34348791Free PMC Article
Dias MS, Samson T, Rizk EB, Governale LS, Richtsmeier JT; SECTION ON NEUROLOGIC SURGERY, SECTION ON PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY
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Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Rac MWF, McKinney J, Gandhi M
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Dec;221(6):B13-B15. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.09.023. PMID: 31787158
Rubio EI, Blask A, Bulas DI
Pediatr Radiol 2016 May;46(5):709-18. Epub 2016 Feb 25 doi: 10.1007/s00247-016-3550-x. PMID: 26914936
Cohen MM Jr
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Therapy

Mircevsk V, Zogovska E, Chaparoski A, Micunovic M, Filipce V, Mirchevski MM, Kostov M, Мicunovic L
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) 2017 Mar 1;38(1):35-40. doi: 10.1515/prilozi-2017-0004. PMID: 28593893
Zanzottera C, Milani D, Alfei E, Rizzo A, D'Arrigo S, Esposito S, Pantaleoni C
Am J Med Genet A 2017 May;173(5):1358-1363. Epub 2017 Mar 27 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38155. PMID: 28345801

Prognosis

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Rac MWF, McKinney J, Gandhi M
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Dec;221(6):B13-B15. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.09.023. PMID: 31787158
Wémeau JL, Proust-Lemoine E, Ryndak A, Vanhove L
Hormones (Athens) 2013 Jan-Mar;12(1):39-45. doi: 10.1007/BF03401285. PMID: 23624130
Hidestrand P, Vasconez H, Cottrill C
J Craniofac Surg 2009 Jan;20(1):254-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318184357a. PMID: 19165041
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Salyer KE, Por YC, Genecov DG, Barcelo CR
J Craniofac Surg 2008 Mar;19(2):369-76. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318163e3b9. PMID: 18362713

Clinical prediction guides

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May M, Hwang KS, Miles J, Williams C, Niranjan T, Kahler SG, Chiurazzi P, Steindl K, Van Der Spek PJ, Swagemakers S, Mueller J, Stefl S, Alexov E, Ryu JI, Choi JH, Kim HT, Tarpey P, Neri G, Holloway L, Skinner C, Stevenson RE, Dorsky RI, Wang T, Schwartz CE, Kim CH
Hum Mol Genet 2015 Sep 1;24(17):4848-61. Epub 2015 Jun 8 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddv208. PMID: 26056227Free PMC Article
Haye D, Collet C, Sembely-Taveau C, Haddad G, Denis C, Soulé N, Suc AL, Listrat A, Toutain A
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Nov;164A(11):2926-30. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36726. PMID: 25168863
Wémeau JL, Proust-Lemoine E, Ryndak A, Vanhove L
Hormones (Athens) 2013 Jan-Mar;12(1):39-45. doi: 10.1007/BF03401285. PMID: 23624130
Jenkins D, Baynam G, De Catte L, Elcioglu N, Gabbett MT, Hudgins L, Hurst JA, Jehee FS, Oley C, Wilkie AO
Hum Mutat 2011 Apr;32(4):E2069-78. Epub 2011 Feb 8 doi: 10.1002/humu.21457. PMID: 21412941Free PMC Article

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