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Coxa valga

MedGen UID:
116080
Concept ID:
C0239137
Anatomical Abnormality; Finding
Synonyms: Coxa Valga; Coxa Valgas; Coxa Valgus; Valga, Coxa; Valgas, Coxa; Valgus, Coxa
SNOMED CT: Coxa valga (299236004); Hip joint valgus deformity (299236004)
 
HPO: HP:0002673

Definition

Coxa valga is a deformity of the hip in which the angle between the femoral shaft and the femoral neck is increased compared to age-adjusted values (about 150 degrees in newborns gradually reducing to 120-130 degrees in adults). [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Langer-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
6009
Concept ID:
C0023003
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome
MedGen UID:
6222
Concept ID:
C0024814
Disease or Syndrome
Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is characterized by cerebellar ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, dysarthria, nystagmus, early-onset (not necessarily congenital) cataracts, myopathy, muscle weakness, and hypotonia. Additional features may include psychomotor delay, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, short stature, and various skeletal abnormalities. Children with MSS usually present with muscular hypotonia in early infancy; distal and proximal muscular weakness is noticed during the first decade of life. Later, cerebellar findings of truncal ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, nystagmus, and dysarthria become apparent. Motor function worsens progressively for some years, then stabilizes at an unpredictable age and degree of severity. Cataracts can develop rapidly and typically require lens extraction in the first decade of life. Although many adults have severe disabilities, life span in MSS appears to be near normal.
Melnick-Needles syndrome
MedGen UID:
6292
Concept ID:
C0025237
Disease or Syndrome
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A
MedGen UID:
43375
Concept ID:
C0086651
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA typically have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum (knock-knee), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence, often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and eventually to disabling pain and arthritis. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly. Compression of the spinal cord is a common complication that results in neurologic impairment. Children with MPS IVA have normal intellectual abilities at the outset of the disease.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-B
MedGen UID:
43376
Concept ID:
C0086652
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Radial aplasia-thrombocytopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
61235
Concept ID:
C0175703
Disease or Syndrome
Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by bilateral absence of the radii with the presence of both thumbs, and thrombocytopenia that is generally transient. Thrombocytopenia may be congenital or may develop within the first few weeks to months of life; in general, thrombocytopenic episodes decrease with age. Cow's milk allergy is common and can be associated with exacerbation of thrombocytopenia. Other anomalies of the skeleton (upper and lower limbs, ribs, and vertebrae), heart, and genitourinary system (renal anomalies and agenesis of uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina) can occur.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive subtype of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC6 gene, encoding DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6.
Weaver syndrome
MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency.
Marshall syndrome
MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
Marshall syndrome (MRSHS) is characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, cleft palate, ocular anomalies including high myopia and cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and arthropathy. In contrast to Stickler syndrome type II, it has less severe eye findings but striking ocular hypertelorism, more pronounced maxillary hypoplasia, and ectodermal abnormalities (summary by Shanske et al., 1997 and Ala-Kokko and Shanske, 2009).
Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I
MedGen UID:
78542
Concept ID:
C0265251
Disease or Syndrome
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome
MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild-to-moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males.
Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis
MedGen UID:
75562
Concept ID:
C0265309
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of SHOX deficiency disorders, caused by haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX), ranges from Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) at the severe end of the spectrum to nonspecific short stature at the mild end of the spectrum. In adults with SHOX deficiency, the proportion of LWD versus short stature without features of LWD is not well defined. In LWD the classic clinical triad is short stature, mesomelia, and Madelung deformity. Mesomelia, in which the middle portion of a limb is shortened in relation to the proximal portion, can be evident first in school-aged children and increases with age in frequency and severity. Madelung deformity (abnormal alignment of the radius, ulna, and carpal bones at the wrist) typically develops in mid-to-late childhood and is more common and severe in females. The phenotype of short stature caused by SHOX deficiency in the absence of mesomelia and Madelung deformity (called SHOX-deficient short stature in this GeneReview) is highly variable, even within the same family.
GM1 gangliosidosis type 2
MedGen UID:
120625
Concept ID:
C0268272
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Cutis laxa, X-linked
MedGen UID:
82793
Concept ID:
C0268353
Congenital Abnormality
Occipital horn syndrome (OHS) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by hyperelastic and bruisable skin, hernias, bladder diverticula, hyperextensible joints, varicosities, and multiple skeletal abnormalities. The disorder is sometimes accompanied by mild neurologic impairment, and bony abnormalities of the occiput are a common feature, giving rise to the name (summary by Das et al., 1995).
Wolcott-Rallison dysplasia
MedGen UID:
140926
Concept ID:
C0432217
Disease or Syndrome
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by permanent neonatal or early infancy insulin-dependent diabetes. Epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation develop at a later age. Other frequent multisystem manifestations include hepatic and renal dysfunction, mental retardation, and cardiovascular abnormalities (summary by Delepine et al., 2000).
Hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia Cantu type
MedGen UID:
208647
Concept ID:
C0795905
Disease or Syndrome
Cantú syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis; distinctive coarse facial features (including broad nasal bridge, wide mouth with full lips and macroglossia); enlarged heart with enhanced systolic function or pericardial effusion and in many, a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring repair; and skeletal abnormalities (thickening of the calvaria, broad ribs, scoliosis, and flaring of the metaphyses). Other cardiovascular abnormalities may include dilated aortic root and ascending aorta with rare aortic aneurysm, tortuous vascularity involving brain and retinal vasculature, and pulmonary arteriovenous communications. Generalized edema (which may be present at birth) spontaneously resolves; peripheral edema of the lower extremities (and sometimes arms and hands) may develop at adolescence. Developmental delays are common, but intellect is typically normal; behavioral problems can include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic dysplasia, Saul-Wilson type
MedGen UID:
722057
Concept ID:
C1300285
Disease or Syndrome
Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by profound short stature, distinctive craniofacial features, short distal phalanges of fingers and toes, and often clubfoot. Early development (primarily speech and motor) is delayed; cognition is normal. Other findings can include hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), lamellar cataracts, and/or rod-cone retinal dystrophy. To date, 16 affected individuals have been reported.
Holoprosencephaly-craniosynostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
330464
Concept ID:
C1832424
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-craniosynostosis syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome characterized by the association of primary craniosynostosis (usually involving the coronal and metopic sutures) with holoprosencephaly (ranging from alobar to, most commonly, semilobar) and various skeletal anomalies (typically, hand and feet anomalies including fifth digit clinodactyly, hypoplastic phalanges and cone-shaped epiphyses, small vertebral bodies, scoliosis, coxa valga and/or flexion deformities of hips). Craniofacial asymmetry, microcephaly, brachy/plagiocephaly, short stature and psychomotor delay are additional common features.
Ophthalmomandibulomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
331604
Concept ID:
C1833872
Disease or Syndrome
Complete blindness due to corneal opacities, difficult mastication due to temporomandibular fusion and anomalies of the arms. Micrognathia, shortening and bowing of the forearm, ulnar deviation and bowed radius, short fibula, genu valgum and coxa vara have been reported. Intelligence is normal. The causative gene has not yet been identified. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been suggested.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, A4 type
MedGen UID:
324620
Concept ID:
C1836862
Disease or Syndrome
The spondylometaphyseal dysplasias are a relatively common, heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by spinal and metaphyseal changes of variable pattern and severity. The classification of spondylometaphyseal dysplasias of Maroteaux and Spranger (1991) was based on changes of the femoral neck and the shape of vertebral anomalies. In this classification, type A4 referred to a form with severe metaphyseal changes of the femoral neck and ovoid, flattened vertebral bodies with anterior tongue-like deformities.
Prieto syndrome
MedGen UID:
374294
Concept ID:
C1839730
Disease or Syndrome
Prieto syndrome (PRS) is an X-linked intellectual developmental disorder characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development, developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, or neuropsychiatric symptoms, variably accompanied by speech delay, epilepsy, microcephaly, structural brain defects, and minor facial anomalies (summary by Kury et al., 2022).
Alpha thalassemia-X-linked intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants.
X-linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
376281
Concept ID:
C1848097
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder with characteristics of disproportionate short stature with mesomelic short limbs, leg bowing, lumbar lordosis, brachydactyly, joint laxity and a waddling gait. Radiographs show platyspondyly with central protrusion of anterior vertebral bodies, kyphotic angulation and very short long bones with dysplastic epiphyses and flared, irregular, cupped metaphyses.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, Kohn type
MedGen UID:
338603
Concept ID:
C1849053
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, Kohn type is characterized by short trunk dwarfism, progressive involvement of the spine and epiphyses and mild-to-moderate intellectual deficit.
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, Beighton type
MedGen UID:
377049
Concept ID:
C1851536
Disease or Syndrome
A rare primary bone dysplasia characterized by the association of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, visual impairment (with early-onset progressive myopia, retinal thinning, and cataracts), and conductive hearing loss. Patients are of short stature and present brachydactyly, genu valgus deformity, and joint pain.
Macular coloboma-cleft palate-hallux valgus syndrome
MedGen UID:
341812
Concept ID:
C1857619
Disease or Syndrome
Macular coloboma-cleft palate-hallux valgus syndrome is characterised by the association of bilateral macular coloboma, cleft palate, and hallux valgus. It has been described in a brother and sister. Pelvic, limb and digital anomalies were also reported. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Ulna metaphyseal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
348149
Concept ID:
C1860615
Disease or Syndrome
Ulna metaphyseal dysplasia syndrome is a rare primary bone dysplasia characterized by dysplasia of the distal ulnar metaphyses, as well as metacarpal/metatarsal dysplasia and metaphyseal changes resembling enchondromata. Patients usually present bony swelling of the wrists with or without pain (knees and ankles may also be affected). Other variably associated features include platyspondyly, skeletal development delay, short stature and coxa valga.
Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with partially absent eye muscles, distinctive face, hydrocephaly, and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
349489
Concept ID:
C1862373
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive, 2
MedGen UID:
442380
Concept ID:
C2750078
Disease or Syndrome
Researchers have described several forms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, which are distinguished by their pattern of inheritance and genetic cause. The most common form of the disorder is known as X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). It has an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance. X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder are much rarer.\n\nAnother rare type of the disorder is known as hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH). In addition to hypophosphatemia, this condition is characterized by the excretion of high levels of calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria).\n\nOther signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets can include premature fusion of the skull bones (craniosynostosis) and dental abnormalities. The disorder may also cause abnormal bone growth where ligaments and tendons attach to joints (enthesopathy). In adults, hypophosphatemia is characterized by a softening of the bones known as osteomalacia.\n\nIn most cases, the signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets begin in early childhood. The features of the disorder vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Mildly affected individuals may have hypophosphatemia without other signs and symptoms. More severely affected children experience slow growth and are shorter than their peers. They develop bone abnormalities that can interfere with movement and cause bone pain. The most noticeable of these abnormalities are bowed legs or knock knees. These abnormalities become apparent with weight-bearing activities such as walking. If untreated, they tend to worsen with time.\n\nHereditary hypophosphatemic rickets is a disorder related to low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia). Phosphate is a mineral that is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth.
MGAT2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2Z (620201), and CDG2AA (620454) to CDG2BB (620546).
Familial clubfoot due to 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication
MedGen UID:
462230
Concept ID:
C3150880
Disease or Syndrome
17q23.1-q23.2 microduplication is a newly described cause of familial isolated clubfoot.
Geleophysic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
479777
Concept ID:
C3278147
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Malan overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
766574
Concept ID:
C3553660
Disease or Syndrome
Malan syndrome (MALNS) is clinically characterized by overgrowth, advanced bone age, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Patients develop marfanoid habitus, with long and slender body, very low body mass, long narrow face, and arachnodactyly, with age. Impaired intellectual development and behavior anomalies are present (summary by Martinez et al., 2015).
Developmental dysplasia of the hip 2
MedGen UID:
811575
Concept ID:
C3715079
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a debilitating condition characterized by incomplete formation of the acetabulum leading to dislocation of the femur, suboptimal joint function, and accelerated wear of the articular cartilage, resulting in arthritis. Undetected hip dysplasia is the leading cause of osteoarthritis of the hip in young individuals, causing over 40% of cases in that age group (summary by Feldman et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental dysplasia of the hip, see DDH1 (142700).
Desbuquois dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
860583
Concept ID:
C4012146
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia belonging to the multiple dislocation group and characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation (stature less than -5 SD), joint laxity, short extremities, and progressive scoliosis. The main radiologic features are short long bones with metaphyseal splay, a 'Swedish key' appearance of the proximal femur (exaggerated trochanter), and advanced carpal and tarsal bone age with a delta phalanx (summary by Huber et al., 2009). Desbuquois dysplasia is clinically and radiographically heterogeneous, and had been classified into 2 types based on the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of characteristic hand anomalies, including an extra ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, delta phalanx, bifid distal thumb phalanx, and dislocation of the interphalangeal joints (Faivre et al., 2004). However, patients with and without these additional hand anomalies have been reported to have mutations in the same gene (see, e.g., CANT1); thus, these features are not distinctive criteria to predict the molecular basis of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). In addition, Kim et al. (2010) described another milder variant of DBQD with almost normal outwardly appearing hands, but significant radiographic changes, including short metacarpals, elongated phalanges, and remarkably advanced carpal bone age. However, there is no accessory ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, and patients do not have thumb anomalies. Similar changes occur in the feet. These patients also tend to develop precocious osteoarthritis of the hand and spine with age. This phenotype is sometimes referred to as the 'Kim variant' of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Desbuquois Dysplasia DBQD2 (615777) is caused by mutation in the XYLT1 gene (608124) on chromosome 16p12. Two unrelated patients with immunodeficiency-23 (IMD23; 615816), due to mutation in the PGM3 gene (172100), were reported to have skeletal features reminiscent of DBQD.
Desbuquois dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
862731
Concept ID:
C4014294
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia, which belongs to the multiple dislocation group of disorders, is characterized by dislocations of large joints, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, joint laxity, and flat face with prominent eyes. Radiologic features include short long bones with an exaggerated trochanter that gives a 'monkey wrench' appearance to the proximal femur, and advanced carpal and tarsal ossification (summary by Bui et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Desbuquois dysplasia, see DBQD1 (251450).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 1, with or without fractures
MedGen UID:
865814
Concept ID:
C4017377
Disease or Syndrome
Any spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the B3GALT6 gene.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Stanescu type
MedGen UID:
905084
Concept ID:
C4225273
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with accumulation of glycoprotein in chondrocytes has been designated the 'Stanescu type.' Clinical hallmarks include progressive joint contracture with premature degenerative joint disease, particularly in the knee, hip, and finger joints. Interphalangeal joints of the hands are swollen due to osseous distention of the metaphyseal ends of the phalanges. Affected individuals may be relatively tall despite the presence of a short trunk. Radiologically, there is generalized platyspondyly with mild modification of the endplates, hypoplastic pelvis, epiphyseal flattening with metaphyseal splaying of the long bones, and enlarged phalangeal epimetaphyses of the hands. In addition, the proximal femora are characteristically broad and elongated with striking coxa valga (summary by Nishimura et al., 1998).
Au-Kline syndrome
MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. There is frequently variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating). Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are also reported in the majority of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies.
Singleton-Merten syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
899946
Concept ID:
C4225427
Disease or Syndrome
Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT) is an uncommon autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities of blood vessels, teeth, and bone. Calcifications of the aorta and aortic and mitral valves occur in childhood or puberty and can lead to early death. Dental findings include delayed primary tooth exfoliation and permanent tooth eruption, truncated tooth root formation, early-onset periodontal disease, and severe root and alveolar bone resorption associated with dysregulated mineralization, leading to tooth loss. Osseous features consist of osteoporosis, either generalized or limited to distal extremities, distal limb osteolysis, widened medullary cavities, and easy tearing of tendons from bone. Less common features are mild facial dysmorphism (high anterior hair line, broad forehead, smooth philtrum, thin upper vermilion border), generalized muscle weakness, psoriasis, early-onset glaucoma, and recurrent infections. The disorder manifests with variable inter- and intrafamilial phenotypes (summary by Rutsch et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Singleton-Merten Syndrome An atypical form of Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT2; 616298) is caused by mutation in the DDX58 gene (609631) on chromosome 9p21.
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
923943
Concept ID:
C4281559
Congenital Abnormality
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Short stature, rhizomelic, with microcephaly, micrognathia, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
934653
Concept ID:
C4310686
Disease or Syndrome
The core features of short stature-micrognathia syndrome (SSMG) are intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), postnatal short stature that is often rhizomelic, and micrognathia. Other common features include preterm birth, microcephaly, developmental delay, and genitourinary malformations in males. Transient liver dysfunction and glycosylation abnormalities during illness, giant cell hepatitis, hepatoblastoma, and cataracts have also been observed. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic severity varies greatly, from a relatively mild disorder to intrauterine death or stillbirth (Ritter et al., 2022).
Trichothiodystrophy 6, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
934752
Concept ID:
C4310785
Disease or Syndrome
About half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.\n\nTrichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.\n\nIntellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.\n\nMothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. \n\nThe signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.\n\nIn people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."\n\nTrichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken. 
Anauxetic dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
1384439
Concept ID:
C4479357
Disease or Syndrome
Anauxetic dysplasia is a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by severe short stature of prenatal onset, very short adult height (less than 1 meter), hypodontia, midface hypoplasia, and mild intellectual disability. Vertebrae are ovoid with concave dorsal surfaces in the lumbar region and show delayed bone maturation. Femoral heads and necks are hypoplastic, as are the iliac bodies. Long bones show irregular mineralization of the metaphyses. The first and fifth metacarpals are short and wide with small, late-ossifying epiphyses and bullet-shaped middle phalanges (summary by Barraza-Garcia et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of anauxetic dysplasia, see ANXD1 (607095).
Immunoskeletal dysplasia with neurodevelopmental abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1381460
Concept ID:
C4479452
Disease or Syndrome
Cohen-Gibson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1386939
Concept ID:
C4479654
Disease or Syndrome
EED-related overgrowth is characterized by fetal or early childhood overgrowth (tall stature, macrocephaly, large hands and feet, and advanced bone age) and intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe. To date, EED-related overgrowth has been reported in eight individuals.
Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia wormian bone type
MedGen UID:
1382152
Concept ID:
C4510809
Disease or Syndrome
Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CRMDD) is characterized clinically by macrocephaly with frontal prominence, dental hypoplasia, and increased bone fragility. Diagnostic radiologic features include thin bones in the superior part of calvaria with prominent wormian bones, diaphyseal widening of the long tubular bones in early childhood with wide undermineralized metaphyses in older individuals, widened ribs and clavicles, and broadening of short tubular bones with increased transparency and thin cortices (summary by Dhar et al., 2010).
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1647990
Concept ID:
C4551479
Disease or Syndrome
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by muscle stiffness (myotonia) and chondrodysplasia. Affected individuals usually present in childhood with permanent muscle stiffness or bone deformities. Common clinical features include mask-like facies (narrow palpebral fissures, blepharospasm, and pursed lips); permanent muscle stiffness with continuous skeletal muscle activity recorded on electromyography; dwarfism; pectus carinatum; kyphoscoliosis; bowing of long bones; and epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and hip dysplasia. The disorder is slowly progressive but does not appear to alter life span (summary by Stum et al., 2006).
RAB23-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
1644017
Concept ID:
C4551510
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of acrocephaly with variable synostosis of the sagittal, lambdoid, and coronal sutures; peculiar facies; brachydactyly of the hands with syndactyly; preaxial polydactyly and syndactyly of the feet; congenital heart defects; growth retardation; mental retardation; hypogenitalism; and obesity. In addition, cerebral malformations, oral and dental abnormalities, coxa valga, genu valgum, hydronephrosis, precocious puberty, and hearing loss may be observed (summary by Altunhan et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Carpenter Syndrome Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2; 614976), in which the features of Carpenter syndrome are sometimes associated with defective lateralization, is caused by mutation in the MEGF8 gene (604267).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641240
Concept ID:
C4552001
Disease or Syndrome
The Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, bilateral microtia, and aplasia or hypoplasia of the patellae (summary by Shalev and Hall, 2003). While almost all cases have primordial dwarfism with substantial prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, not all cases have microcephaly, and microtia and absent/hypoplastic patella are absent in some. Despite the presence of microcephaly, intellect is usually normal (Bicknell et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Meier-Gorlin Syndrome Most forms of Meier-Gorlin syndrome are autosomal recessive disorders, including Meier-Gorlin syndrome-1; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-2 (613800), caused by mutation in the ORC4 gene (603056) on chromosome 2q23; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-3 (613803), caused by mutation in the ORC6 gene (607213) on chromosome 16q11; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-4 (613804), caused by mutation in the CDT1 gene (605525) on chromosome 16q24; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-5 (613805), caused by mutation in the CDC6 gene (602627) on chromosome 17q21; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-7 (617063), caused by mutation in the CDC45L gene (603465) on chromosome 22q11; and Meier-Gorlin syndrome-8 (617564), caused by mutation in the MCM5 gene (602696) on chromosome 22q12. An autosomal dominant form of the disorder, Meier-Gorlin syndrome-6 (616835), is caused by mutation in the GMNN gene (602842) on chromosome 6p22.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 1
MedGen UID:
1646889
Concept ID:
C4552003
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 1 (EDSSPD1) is characterized by short stature, developmental anomalies of the forearm bones and elbow, and bowing of extremities, in addition to the classic stigmata of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, including joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, and poor wound healing. Significant developmental delay is not a consistent feature (Guo et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Spondylodysplastic Type See EDSSPD2 (615349), caused by mutation in the B3GALT6 gene (615291), and EDSSPD3 (612350), caused by mutation in the SLC39A13 gene (608735).
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1676818
Concept ID:
C5193055
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis (SSASKS)is characterized by disproportionate short stature, defective tooth enamel formation, and skeletal dysplasia with severe scoliosis in some patients. Variable features include facial dysmorphism, moderate hearing impairment, and mildly impaired intellectual development (Ashikov et al., 2018).
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
1757618
Concept ID:
C5399785
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies with mandibular hypoplasia, skeletal abnormalities with progressive osteolysis of the distal phalanges and clavicles, and pigmentary skin changes. The lipodystrophy is characterized by a marked acral loss of fatty tissue with normal or increased fatty tissue in the neck and trunk. Some patients may show progeroid features. Metabolic complications can arise due to insulin resistance and diabetes (Young et al., 1971; Simha and Garg, 2002; summary by Garavelli et al., 2009). See also MAD type B (MADB; 608612), which is caused by mutation in the ZMPSTE24 gene (606480).
Kilquist syndrome
MedGen UID:
1742639
Concept ID:
C5436756
Disease or Syndrome
Kilquist syndrome (KILQS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by neurologic, gastrointestinal, and secretory dysfunction. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, mild dysmorphic features, and sensorineural hearing loss. They show poor overall growth associated with gastrointestinal anomalies such as gastroesophageal reflux or midgut malrotation, as well as profound global developmental delay with inability to sit or speak. Tear, sweat, and saliva production is also impaired, causing dry mouth and recurrent bronchial mucus plugging. Some of the clinical features are reminiscent of cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700) (summary by Stodberg et al., 2020).
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 21
MedGen UID:
1723598
Concept ID:
C5436875
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XXI (OI21) is a progressively deforming disorder, characterized by multiple fractures that often occur after minor trauma. Fractures may be present at birth in some affected individuals. Patients exhibit disproportionate short stature and scoliosis, and are often wheelchair-bound by adulthood (van Dijk et al., 2020).
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
KINSSHIP syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022).
Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
1843450
Concept ID:
C5680251
Disease or Syndrome
Kagami-Ogata syndrome (KOS) is a rare imprinting disorder characterized prenatally by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, and placentomegaly. After birth, infants often have respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and postnatal growth retardation. Thoracic abnormalities include small bell-shaped thorax, 'coat-hanger' ribs, narrow chest wall, and cardiac anomalies. Abdominal wall defects include omphalocele, diastasis recti, and inguinal hernias. Hepatoblastoma is present in some patients. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, hairy forehead, anteverted nares, micrognathia, and a short neck. Developmental findings include hypotonia, speech and/or motor delays, and normal to mildly impaired intellectual development (summary by Prasasya et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824004
Concept ID:
C5774231
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities (NEDDFSB) is a multisystemic developmental disorder characterized by feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with moderate to severely impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features and skeletal defects, mainly affecting the distal extremities. More variable additional findings include hypotonia, seizures, and ocular defects. Brain imaging tends to show structural defects of the corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia (Duijkers et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects
MedGen UID:
1824008
Concept ID:
C5774235
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects (NEDCDS) is characterized by global developmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, characteristic facial features, and variable skeletal abnormalities. Additional features include feeding difficulties, inability to walk or walking with an abnormal gait, and cerebellar or other abnormalities on brain imaging (Reichert et al., 2020).
Cleidocranial dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
1824016
Concept ID:
C5774243
Disease or Syndrome
Cleidocranial dysplasia-2 (CLCD2) is characterized by clavicular anomalies, ranging from unilateral 'clavicula bipartita' to bilateral clavicular aplasia, and dental anomalies, including delayed or absent eruption of deciduous teeth and supernumerary teeth. Skull abnormalities such as delayed closure of fontanels have been reported; other skeletal features include delayed bone age, short distal phalanges, and pseudoepiphyses of the metacarpals and/or metatarsals. Phenotypic variability, including intrafamilial, has been observed (Beyltjens et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cleidocranial dysplasia, see CLCD1 (119600).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 26, with chondrodysplasia
MedGen UID:
1840948
Concept ID:
C5830312
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-26 with chondrodysplasia (HLD26) is characterized by severe psychomotor delay, predominantly involving motor and expressive language development, with cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and corpus callosum hypoplasia. In addition, patients show pre- and postnatal growth retardation, early-onset scoliosis, and dislocations of large joints (Guasto et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see HLD1 (312080).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Yuskiv N, Higaki K, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 30;21(23) doi: 10.3390/ijms21239121. PMID: 33266180Free PMC Article
Siebenrock KA, Steppacher SD, Albers CE, Haefeli PC, Tannast M
J Bone Joint Surg Am 2013 Apr 17;95(8):748-55. doi: 10.2106/00004623-201304170-00012. PMID: 23776944

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hung TY, Wu KW, Lee CC, Lin SC, Kuo KN, Wang TM
J Pediatr Orthop 2023 Jan 1;43(1):e67-e73. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000002296. PMID: 36509457
Zhang Y, Su Q, Zhang Y, Ge H, Wei W, Cheng B
BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 19;22(1):561. doi: 10.1186/s12891-021-04447-7. PMID: 34147092Free PMC Article
Vera AM, Nho SJ, Mather RC, Wuerz TH, Harris JD
J Dance Med Sci 2021 Sep 15;25(3):176-190. Epub 2021 Jun 3 doi: 10.12678/1089-313X.091521c. PMID: 34082862
Hsieh HC, Wang TM, Kuo KN, Huang SC, Wu KW
Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Nov;477(11):2568-2576. doi: 10.1097/CORR.0000000000000903. PMID: 31425278Free PMC Article
Borgo A, Cossio A, Gallone D, Vittoria F, Carbone M
Ital J Pediatr 2018 Nov 16;44(Suppl 2):123. doi: 10.1186/s13052-018-0557-y. PMID: 30442173Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

DiGiovanna JJ, Randall G, Edelman A, Allawh R, Xiong M, Tamura D, Khan SG, Rizza ERH, Reynolds JC, Paul SM, Hill SC, Kraemer KH
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Dec;188(12):3448-3462. Epub 2022 Sep 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62962. PMID: 36103153Free PMC Article
Borgo A, Cossio A, Gallone D, Vittoria F, Carbone M
Ital J Pediatr 2018 Nov 16;44(Suppl 2):123. doi: 10.1186/s13052-018-0557-y. PMID: 30442173Free PMC Article
Peracha H, Sawamoto K, Averill L, Kecskemethy H, Theroux M, Thacker M, Nagao K, Pizarro C, Mackenzie W, Kobayashi H, Yamaguchi S, Suzuki Y, Orii K, Orii T, Fukao T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2018 Sep;125(1-2):18-37. Epub 2018 May 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.05.004. PMID: 29779902Free PMC Article
Khan S, Alméciga-Díaz CJ, Sawamoto K, Mackenzie WG, Theroux MC, Pizarro C, Mason RW, Orii T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2017 Jan-Feb;120(1-2):78-95. Epub 2016 Nov 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2016.11.007. PMID: 27979613Free PMC Article
Tomatsu S, Yasuda E, Patel P, Ruhnke K, Shimada T, Mackenzie WG, Mason R, Thacker MM, Theroux M, Montaño AM, Alméciga-Díaz CJ, Barrera LA, Chinen Y, Sly WS, Rowan D, Suzuki Y, Orii T
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2014 Sep;12 Suppl 1(0 1):141-51. PMID: 25345096Free PMC Article

Therapy

Woo H, Kim BR, Yoon JA, Jung Han H, Yoon YI, Lee SU, Cho S, Shin YB, Lee HJ, Suh JH, Lim J, Beom J, Park Y, Ryu JS
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Oct 27;102(43):e35696. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000035696. PMID: 37904376Free PMC Article
Danişman M, Özdemir E, Dursun G, Ayvaz M, Yilmaz G
J Pediatr Orthop 2022 Sep 1;42(8):e828-e832. Epub 2022 Jul 14 doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000002207. PMID: 35834366
Morris WZ, Fowers CA, Weinberg DS, Millis MB, Tu LA, Liu RW
Hip Int 2019 May;29(3):322-327. Epub 2018 May 29 doi: 10.1177/1120700018779906. PMID: 29808721
Khan S, Alméciga-Díaz CJ, Sawamoto K, Mackenzie WG, Theroux MC, Pizarro C, Mason RW, Orii T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2017 Jan-Feb;120(1-2):78-95. Epub 2016 Nov 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2016.11.007. PMID: 27979613Free PMC Article
Tomatsu S, Yasuda E, Patel P, Ruhnke K, Shimada T, Mackenzie WG, Mason R, Thacker MM, Theroux M, Montaño AM, Alméciga-Díaz CJ, Barrera LA, Chinen Y, Sly WS, Rowan D, Suzuki Y, Orii T
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2014 Sep;12 Suppl 1(0 1):141-51. PMID: 25345096Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Hung TY, Wu KW, Lee CC, Lin SC, Kuo KN, Wang TM
J Pediatr Orthop 2023 Jan 1;43(1):e67-e73. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000002296. PMID: 36509457
Hsieh HC, Wang TM, Kuo KN, Huang SC, Wu KW
Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Nov;477(11):2568-2576. doi: 10.1097/CORR.0000000000000903. PMID: 31425278Free PMC Article
Peracha H, Sawamoto K, Averill L, Kecskemethy H, Theroux M, Thacker M, Nagao K, Pizarro C, Mackenzie W, Kobayashi H, Yamaguchi S, Suzuki Y, Orii K, Orii T, Fukao T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2018 Sep;125(1-2):18-37. Epub 2018 May 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.05.004. PMID: 29779902Free PMC Article
Wang YZ, Park KW, Oh CS, Ahn YS, Kang QL, Jung ST, Song HR
BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2015 Mar 15;16:54. doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0514-5. PMID: 25888017Free PMC Article
Birnbaum K, Prescher A, Niethard FU
J Pediatr Orthop B 2010 Mar;19(2):140-9. doi: 10.1097/BPB.0b013e328332355e. PMID: 20090561

Clinical prediction guides

Hung TY, Wu KW, Lee CC, Lin SC, Kuo KN, Wang TM
J Pediatr Orthop 2023 Jan 1;43(1):e67-e73. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000002296. PMID: 36509457
DiGiovanna JJ, Randall G, Edelman A, Allawh R, Xiong M, Tamura D, Khan SG, Rizza ERH, Reynolds JC, Paul SM, Hill SC, Kraemer KH
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Dec;188(12):3448-3462. Epub 2022 Sep 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62962. PMID: 36103153Free PMC Article
Vera AM, Nho SJ, Mather RC, Wuerz TH, Harris JD
J Dance Med Sci 2021 Sep 15;25(3):176-190. Epub 2021 Jun 3 doi: 10.12678/1089-313X.091521c. PMID: 34082862
Sentchordi-Montané L, Aza-Carmona M, Benito-Sanz S, Barreda-Bonis AC, Sánchez-Garre C, Prieto-Matos P, Ruiz-Ocaña P, Lechuga-Sancho A, Carcavilla-Urquí A, Mulero-Collantes I, Martos-Moreno GA, Del Pozo A, Vallespín E, Offiah A, Parrón-Pajares M, Dinis I, Sousa SB, Ros-Pérez P, González-Casado I, Heath KE
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Jun;88(6):820-829. Epub 2018 Mar 24 doi: 10.1111/cen.13581. PMID: 29464738
Birnbaum K, Prescher A, Niethard FU
J Pediatr Orthop B 2010 Mar;19(2):140-9. doi: 10.1097/BPB.0b013e328332355e. PMID: 20090561

Recent systematic reviews

van Buuren MMA, Arden NK, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA, Bramer WM, Casartelli NC, Felson DT, Jones G, Lane NE, Lindner C, Maffiuletti NA, van Meurs JBJ, Nelson AE, Nevitt MC, Valenzuela PL, Verhaar JAN, Weinans H, Agricola R
Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 May;29(5):607-618. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2020.12.003. PMID: 33338641
Vafaeian B, Zonoobi D, Mabee M, Hareendranathan AR, El-Rich M, Adeeb S, Jaremko JL
Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2017 Apr;25(4):438-447. Epub 2016 Nov 9 doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2016.10.023. PMID: 27836678

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