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Myhre syndrome(MYHRS)

MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Growth mental deficiency syndrome of Myhre; LAPS SYNDROME; LARYNGOTRACHEAL STENOSIS, ARTHROPATHY, PROGNATHISM, AND SHORT STATURE; MYHRS
SNOMED CT: Facial dysmorphism, intellectual deficit, short stature and hearing loss (699316006); Laryngotracheal stenosis, arthropathy, prognathism and short stature (699316006); Myhre syndrome (699316006)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): SMAD4 (18q21.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0007688
OMIM®: 139210
Orphanet: ORPHA2588

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Myhre Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder involving the skin and the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems. Affected individuals may experience progressive and proliferative fibrosis. Fibrosis may occur spontaneously or following trauma, invasive medical procedures, or surgery, often resulting in significant complications. Characteristic facial features are found in almost all affected individuals and are more apparent in older children and adults. Cardiovascular issues can include aortic hypoplasia and stenosis, congenital heart defects, pericardial involvement, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Joint limitations may progress with age and resemble mild joint contractures. Most individuals have developmental delay / cognitive impairment, typically in the mild-to-moderate range. Other findings may include autism spectrum disorder, conductive or mixed hearing loss, short stature, refractive errors, premature puberty, recurrent respiratory infections, mechanical respiratory issues (choanal stenosis, laryngeal narrowing), and stenosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Angela E Lin  |  Nicola Brunetti-Pierri  |  Mark E Lindsay, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Myhre syndrome (MYHRS) is a rare disorder characterized by imparied intellectual development, dysmorphic facial features, including microcephaly, midface hypoplasia, prognathism, and blepharophimosis, typical skeletal anomalies, including short stature, square body shape, broad ribs, iliac hypoplasia, brachydactyly, flattened vertebrae, and thickened calvaria, and cardiovascular defects with a striking fibroproliferative response to surgical intervention. All reported cases have been sporadic (summary by Bachmann-Gagescu et al., 2011 and Lin et al., 2016).  http://www.omim.org/entry/139210
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Myhre syndrome is a rare condition that affects connective tissue. Connective tissue provides strength and flexibility to structures throughout the body. Myhre syndrome has a variety of signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body, though not everyone has all the possible features. The features of the condition can range in severity, and some features become more apparent with age.

Common signs and symptoms of Myhre syndrome include short stature, skeletal abnormalities, limited joint mobility, characteristic facial features, intellectual and behavioral problems, hearing loss, a tendency for the buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and internal organs, and heart and lung abnormalities.

Growth is reduced in most people with Myhre syndrome, beginning before birth and continuing through adolescence. Affected individuals usually have a low birth weight and are generally shorter than about 97 percent of their peers throughout life. They have shortened long bones of the arms and legs, unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), and curved pinky fingers (fifth finger clinodactyly). Other skeletal abnormalities associated with this disorder include thickening of the skull bones, flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly), broad ribs, and underdevelopment of the wing-shaped structures of the pelvis (hypoplastic iliac wings). Affected individuals often have joint problems (arthropathy), including stiffness and limited mobility.

Typical facial features in people with Myhre syndrome include narrow openings of the eyelids (short palpebral fissures), deeply set eyes, a shortened distance between the nose and upper lip (a short philtrum), a narrow mouth with a thin upper lip, an underdeveloped upper jaw, and a protruding lower jaw (prognathism). Some affected individuals are born with an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate), a split in the lip (a cleft lip), or both. Vision problems are common in this disorder and can include eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus), nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), an irregular curvature of the front of the eye (astigmatism), clouding of the lenses (cataracts), or rarely, an abnormality of the back of the eye called pseudopapilledema.

Children with Myhre syndrome have delayed development, which is noticeable by age 5. Speech and language delay are the most significant. Motor skills such as crawling and walking may be delayed, although children with Myhre syndrome eventually learn to walk. Most affected individuals have intellectual disability that ranges from mild to moderate, yet some are able to have jobs or pursue higher education.

People with Myhre syndrome typically have features like those in autism spectrum disorder, which affects communication and social interaction. These problems vary in severity, and they usually improve over time.

Hearing loss occurs in most people with Myhre syndrome, usually beginning in childhood and gradually worsening. If not detected promptly, hearing problems can contribute to learning and behavioral problems.

Fibrosis in Myhre syndrome can occur in the absence of injury (spontaneously) or develop following surgery or trauma. Affected individuals typically have stiff, thickened skin, usually beginning in childhood. Typically, the skin changes first appear on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the back of the elbows, and the front of the knees. Eventually the skin thickens on other parts of the body. As a result of the thicker skin, affected individuals typically have fewer facial creases (wrinkles) than others of their age. Scars may be more noticeable or become unusually thickened after healing (keloids or hypertrophic scars).

Individuals with Myhre syndrome often have problems with the structure of the heart that are present at birth (congenital heart defects). Fibrosis in the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system) can lead to the development of additional problems such as high blood pressure (hypertension) and narrowing (stenosis) of the heart valves or blood vessels. Other cardiovascular problems can include swelling and tightening of the pericardium, which is the membrane that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and rarely, restrictive cardiomyopathy, in which the heart muscle is stiff and cannot fully relax after each contraction. These cardiovascular problems can be life-threatening.

Abnormalities of the lungs and airways (respiratory tract) in people with Myhre syndrome include narrowing of the windpipe (laryngotracheal stenosis) and the passages leading from the windpipe to the lungs (bronchi); difficulty filling the lungs with air when inhaling (restrictive pulmonary disease); or widespread lung damage (interstitial lung disease). These respiratory tract problems can be life-threatening.

Additional features of Myhre syndrome include problems in the gastrointestinal tract, such as narrowing of the lower part of the stomach (pyloric stenosis) or of the upper part of the small intestine (duodenal strictures) and severe constipation. People with Myhre syndrome also may have an increased risk of developing cancerous or noncancerous tumors, including cancer of the lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer).  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/myhre-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used here to describe a series distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here.
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest. Initially clawing may be dynamic and only noticeable on walking. Over time the plantar plate tears, subluxation occurs at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), and the deformity becomes permanent.
Radial deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
322852
Concept ID:
C1836189
Finding
Bending or curvature of a finger toward the radial side (i.e., towards the thumb). The deviation is at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint, and this finding is distinct from clinodactyly.
Short toe
MedGen UID:
322858
Concept ID:
C1836195
Finding
A toe that appears disproportionately short compared to the foot.
Short finger
MedGen UID:
334977
Concept ID:
C1844548
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormally short finger associated with developmental hypoplasia.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
1644094
Concept ID:
C4551485
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
2-3 toe syndactyly
MedGen UID:
1645640
Concept ID:
C4551570
Congenital Abnormality
Syndactyly with fusion of toes two and three.
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Aortic valve stenosis
MedGen UID:
1621
Concept ID:
C0003507
Pathologic Function
The presence of a stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Hypertensive disorder
MedGen UID:
6969
Concept ID:
C0020538
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of chronic increased pressure in the systemic arterial system.
Pericardial effusion
MedGen UID:
10653
Concept ID:
C0031039
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of fluid within the pericardium.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of substantial excess body fat.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Birth length less than 3rd percentile
MedGen UID:
340924
Concept ID:
C1855650
Finding
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Joint stiffness
MedGen UID:
56403
Concept ID:
C0162298
Sign or Symptom
Joint stiffness is a perceived sensation of tightness in a joint or joints when attempting to move them after a period of inactivity. Joint stiffness typically subsides over time.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Platyspondyly
MedGen UID:
335010
Concept ID:
C1844704
Finding
A flattened vertebral body shape with reduced distance between the vertebral endplates.
Broad ribs
MedGen UID:
336390
Concept ID:
C1848654
Finding
Increased width of ribs
Short long bone
MedGen UID:
344385
Concept ID:
C1854912
Finding
One or more abnormally short long bone.
Limitation of joint mobility
MedGen UID:
341696
Concept ID:
C1857108
Finding
A reduction in the freedom of movement of one or more joints.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Thickened calvaria
MedGen UID:
346823
Concept ID:
C1858452
Finding
The presence of an abnormally thick calvaria.
Hypoplastic iliac wing
MedGen UID:
351279
Concept ID:
C1865027
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the ilium ala.
Cone-shaped epiphysis
MedGen UID:
351282
Concept ID:
C1865037
Finding
Cone-shaped epiphyses (also known as coned epiphyses) are epiphyses that invaginate into cupped metaphyses. That is, the epiphysis has a cone-shaped distal extension resulting from increased growth of the central portion of the epiphysis relative to its periphery.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
853739
Concept ID:
C2265792
Finding
Abnormal increase in muscle size and mass not due to training.
Vertebral fusion
MedGen UID:
480139
Concept ID:
C3278509
Anatomical Abnormality
A developmental defect leading to the union of two adjacent vertebrae.
Generalized muscle hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
811969
Concept ID:
C3805639
Finding
Hypertrophy (increase in size) of muscle tissue in a generalized (not localized) distribution.
Enlarged vertebral pedicles
MedGen UID:
870843
Concept ID:
C4025303
Anatomical Abnormality
Increased size of the vertebral pedicle.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Respiratory insufficiency
MedGen UID:
11197
Concept ID:
C0035229
Pathologic Function
Impairment of gas exchange within the lungs secondary to a disease process, neoplasm, or trauma, possibly resulting in hypoxia, hypercarbia, or both, but not requiring intubation or mechanical ventilation. Patients are normally managed with pharmaceutical therapy, supplemental oxygen, or both.
Respiratory failure
MedGen UID:
257837
Concept ID:
C1145670
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of respiratory insufficiency characterized by inadequate gas exchange such that the levels of oxygen or carbon dioxide cannot be maintained within normal limits.
Laryngotracheal stenosis
MedGen UID:
812610
Concept ID:
C3806280
Finding
Abnormality of the voice
MedGen UID:
867406
Concept ID:
C4021776
Finding
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Narrow palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
382506
Concept ID:
C2675021
Finding
Reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Cleft lip
MedGen UID:
1370297
Concept ID:
C4321245
Anatomical Abnormality
A gap in the lip or lips.
Thickened skin
MedGen UID:
66024
Concept ID:
C0241165
Finding
Laminar thickening of skin.
Fine hair
MedGen UID:
98401
Concept ID:
C0423867
Finding
Hair that is fine or thin to the touch.
Stiff skin
MedGen UID:
478445
Concept ID:
C3276815
Finding
An induration (hardening) of the skin
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Myhre syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Yang DD, Rio M, Michot C, Boddaert N, Yacoub W, Garcelon N, Thierry B, Bonnet D, Rondeau S, Herve D, Guey S, Angoulvant F, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Jul 30;17(1):304. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02447-x. PMID: 35907855Free PMC Article
Cappuccio G, Brunetti-Pierri N, Clift P, Learn C, Dykes JC, Mercer CL, Callewaert B, Meerschaut I, Spinelli AM, Bruno I, Gillespie MJ, Dorfman AT, Grimberg A, Lindsay ME, Lin AE
Am J Med Genet A 2022 May;188(5):1384-1395. Epub 2022 Jan 13 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62645. PMID: 35025139
Garavelli L, Maini I, Baccilieri F, Ivanovski I, Pollazzon M, Rosato S, Iughetti L, Unger S, Superti-Furga A, Tartaglia M
Eur J Pediatr 2016 Oct;175(10):1307-15. Epub 2016 Aug 25 doi: 10.1007/s00431-016-2761-3. PMID: 27562837
Le Goff C, Michot C, Cormier-Daire V
Clin Genet 2014 Jun;85(6):503-13. Epub 2014 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/cge.12365. PMID: 24580733
Michot C, Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Afenjar A, Brooks AS, Campeau PM, Destree A, Di Rocco M, Donnai D, Hennekam R, Heron D, Jacquemont S, Kannu P, Lin AE, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Mansour S, Marlin S, McGowan R, Murphy H, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Simon M, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Stone JR, Sznajer Y, Tolmie J, Touraine R, van den Ende J, Van der Aa N, van Essen T, Verloes A, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V
Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Nov;22(11):1272-7. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.288. PMID: 24424121Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Yang K, Wang X, Wang WQ, Han MY, Hu LM, Kang DY, Yang JY, Liu M, Gao X, Yuan YY, Xu JC
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Mar;11(3):e2103. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2103. PMID: 36373990Free PMC Article
Li J, Zhu T, Yang S, Yang F, Wu J, Xiong F
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Oct 17;36(5):700-702. doi: 10.21470/1678-9741-2020-0592. PMID: 34236823Free PMC Article
Meerschaut I, Beyens A, Steyaert W, De Rycke R, Bonte K, De Backer T, Janssens S, Panzer J, Plasschaert F, De Wolf D, Callewaert B
Am J Med Genet A 2019 Dec;179(12):2494-2499. Epub 2019 Oct 9 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61377. PMID: 31595668
Alagia M, Cappuccio G, Pinelli M, Torella A, Brunetti-Pierri R, Simonelli F, Limongelli G, Oppido G, Nigro V, Brunetti-Pierri N; TUDP
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Feb;176(2):426-430. Epub 2017 Dec 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38560. PMID: 29230941Free PMC Article
Michot C, Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Afenjar A, Brooks AS, Campeau PM, Destree A, Di Rocco M, Donnai D, Hennekam R, Heron D, Jacquemont S, Kannu P, Lin AE, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Mansour S, Marlin S, McGowan R, Murphy H, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Simon M, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Stone JR, Sznajer Y, Tolmie J, Touraine R, van den Ende J, Van der Aa N, van Essen T, Verloes A, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V
Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Nov;22(11):1272-7. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.288. PMID: 24424121Free PMC Article

Therapy

Cappuccio G, Caiazza M, Roca A, Melis D, Iuliano A, Matyas G, Rubino M, Limongelli G, Brunetti-Pierri N
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Mar;185(3):702-709. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62019. PMID: 33369056Free PMC Article
Alape D, Singh R, Folch E, Fernandez Bussy S, Agnew A, Majid A
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Mar 15;201(6):731-732. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201905-0922IM. PMID: 31539271
Picco P, Naselli A, Pala G, Marsciani A, Buoncompagni A, Martini A
Am J Med Genet A 2013 May;161A(5):1164-6. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35892. PMID: 23610053

Prognosis

Cappuccio G, Caiazza M, Roca A, Melis D, Iuliano A, Matyas G, Rubino M, Limongelli G, Brunetti-Pierri N
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Mar;185(3):702-709. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62019. PMID: 33369056Free PMC Article
Le Goff C, Michot C, Cormier-Daire V
Clin Genet 2014 Jun;85(6):503-13. Epub 2014 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/cge.12365. PMID: 24580733
Michot C, Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Afenjar A, Brooks AS, Campeau PM, Destree A, Di Rocco M, Donnai D, Hennekam R, Heron D, Jacquemont S, Kannu P, Lin AE, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Mansour S, Marlin S, McGowan R, Murphy H, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Simon M, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Stone JR, Sznajer Y, Tolmie J, Touraine R, van den Ende J, Van der Aa N, van Essen T, Verloes A, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V
Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Nov;22(11):1272-7. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.288. PMID: 24424121Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Yang K, Wang X, Wang WQ, Han MY, Hu LM, Kang DY, Yang JY, Liu M, Gao X, Yuan YY, Xu JC
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Mar;11(3):e2103. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2103. PMID: 36373990Free PMC Article
Starr LJ, Lindsay ME, Perry D, Gheewalla G, VanderLaan PA, Majid A, Strange C, Costea GC, Lungu A, Lin AE
Pediatr Dev Pathol 2022 Nov-Dec;25(6):611-623. Epub 2022 Sep 17 doi: 10.1177/10935266221079569. PMID: 36120950
Jeon MJ, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Park JS, Yim J, Kim M, Kwon SK, Lee S, Ko JM, Chae JH, Suh DI
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol 2021 Jun;34(2):83-87. doi: 10.1089/ped.2021.0029. PMID: 34143683Free PMC Article
Cappuccio G, Caiazza M, Roca A, Melis D, Iuliano A, Matyas G, Rubino M, Limongelli G, Brunetti-Pierri N
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Mar;185(3):702-709. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62019. PMID: 33369056Free PMC Article
Lin AE, Alali A, Starr LJ, Shah N, Beavis A, Pereira EM, Lindsay ME, Klugman S
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Feb;182(2):328-337. Epub 2019 Dec 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61430. PMID: 31837202

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