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Ataxia-hypogonadism-choroidal dystrophy syndrome(BNHS)

MedGen UID:
347798
Concept ID:
C1859093
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: BNHS; Boucher Neuhauser syndrome; Chorioretinal dystrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
SNOMED CT: Cerebellar ataxia with hypogonadism and choroidal dystrophy syndrome (715984007); Boucher Neuhäuser syndrome (715984007)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): PNPLA6 (19p13.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008980
OMIM®: 215470
Orphanet: ORPHA1180

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: PNPLA6 Disorders
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia). [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Matthis Synofzik  |  Robert B Hufnagel  |  Stephan Züchner   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Boucher-Neuhauser syndrome (BNHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized classically by the triad of spinocerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and visual impairment due to chorioretinal dystrophy. The age at onset is variable, but most patients develop one or more symptoms in the first decade of life. Chorioretinal dystrophy may not always be present. BNHS is part of a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases associated with mutations in the PNPLA6 gene that also includes spastic paraplegia-39 (SPG39; 612020) (summary by Synofzik et al., 2014). See also Gordon Holmes syndrome (GDHS; 212840), caused by mutation in the RNF216 gene (609948), which is also characterized by the combination of cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.  http://www.omim.org/entry/215470
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome is a rare disorder that affects movement, vision, and sexual development. It is part of a continuous spectrum of neurological conditions, known as PNPLA6-related disorders, that share a genetic cause and have a combination of overlapping features. Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome is characterized by three specific features: ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and chorioretinal dystrophy.

Ataxia describes difficulty with coordination and balance. In Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome, it arises from a loss of cells (atrophy) in the part of the brain involved in coordinating movements (the cerebellum). Affected individuals have an unsteady walking style (gait) and frequent falls.

Another key feature of Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is a condition affecting the production of hormones that direct sexual development. Affected individuals have a delay in development of the typical signs of puberty, such as the growth of facial hair and deepening of the voice in males, and the start of monthly periods (menstruation) and breast development in females. Other hormone abnormalities lead to short stature in some affected individuals.

The third characteristic feature of Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome is eye abnormalities, most commonly chorioretinal dystrophy. Chorioretinal dystrophy refers to problems with the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye (the retina) and a nearby tissue layer called the choroid. These eye abnormalities lead to impaired vision. People with Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome can also have abnormal eye movements, including involuntary side-to-side movements of the eyes (nystagmus).

The key features of Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome can begin anytime from infancy to adulthood, although at least one feature usually occurs by adolescence. Ataxia is often the initial symptom of the disorder, but vision problems or delayed puberty can be the earliest finding. Vision and movement problems worsen slowly throughout life and can result in blindness or the need for a wheelchair for mobility in the most severely affected individuals.

People with Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome can have additional medical problems, including muscle stiffness (spasticity); impaired speech (dysarthria); and difficulty processing, learning, or remembering information (cognitive impairment).  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/boucher-neuhauser-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Photophobia
MedGen UID:
43220
Concept ID:
C0085636
Sign or Symptom
Excessive sensitivity to light with the sensation of discomfort or pain in the eyes due to exposure to bright light.
Spinocerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
39733
Concept ID:
C0087012
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy affecting the cerebellum and the spinocerebellar tracts of the spinal cord.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Scanning speech
MedGen UID:
116113
Concept ID:
C0240952
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An abnormal pattern of speech in which the words are as if measured or scanned; there is a pause after every syllable, and the syllables themselves are pronounced slowly.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Abnormal upper motor neuron morphology
MedGen UID:
871241
Concept ID:
C4025723
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural anomaly that affects the upper motor neuron.
Intention tremor
MedGen UID:
1642960
Concept ID:
C4551520
Sign or Symptom
A type of kinetic tremor that occurs during target directed movement is called intention tremor. That is, an oscillatory cerebellar ataxia that tends to be absent when the limbs are inactive and during the first part of voluntary movement but worsening as the movement continues and greater precision is required (e.g., in touching a target such as the patient's nose or a physician's finger).
Distal amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
338530
Concept ID:
C1848736
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy affecting muscles in the distal portions of the extremities.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
82883
Concept ID:
C0271623
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is characterized by reduced function of the gonads (testes in males or ovaries in females) and results from the absence of the gonadal stimulating pituitary hormones
Decreased circulating gonadotropin concentration
MedGen UID:
892842
Concept ID:
C4072887
Finding
A reduction of the circulating level of a gonadotropin, that is, of a protein hormone secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates. The primary gonadotropins are luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Retinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
208903
Concept ID:
C0854723
Finding
Retinal dystrophy is an abnormality of the retina associated with a hereditary process. Retinal dystrophies are defined by their predominantly monogenic inheritance and they are frequently associated with loss or dysfunction of photoreceptor cells as a primary or secondary event.
Progressive visual loss
MedGen UID:
326867
Concept ID:
C1839364
Finding
A reduction of previously attained ability to see.
Chorioretinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
346626
Concept ID:
C1857627
Disease or Syndrome

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAtaxia-hypogonadism-choroidal dystrophy syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Ataxia-hypogonadism-choroidal dystrophy syndrome in Orphanet.

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PubMed

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Ramaekers VT, Quadros EV
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