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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 63(EIEE63; DEE63)

MedGen UID:
1646846
Concept ID:
C4693810
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 63
 
Gene (location): CPLX1 (4p16.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0033372
OMIM®: 617976

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-63 (DEE63) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory infantile spasms and myoclonic seizures in the first months to years of life. Affected individuals have severe to profound developmental delay, often with hypotonia and inability to sit or speak (summary by Redler et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy
MedGen UID:
930396
Concept ID:
C4304727
Finding
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, non-traumatic and non-drowning death, occurring in benign circumstances, in an individual with epilepsy, with or without evidence for a seizure and excluding documented status epilepticus, in which postmortem examination has not revealed a cause of death.
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest. Initially clawing may be dynamic and only noticeable on walking. Over time the plantar plate tears, subluxation occurs at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), and the deformity becomes permanent.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Cerebral palsy
MedGen UID:
854
Concept ID:
C0007789
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior, by epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Generalized-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
115963
Concept ID:
C0234533
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating at some point within, and rapidly engaging, bilaterally distributed networks. The networks may include cortical and subcortical structures but not necessarily the entire cortex.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Generalized tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
322935
Concept ID:
C1836508
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized tonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterized by bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening without a subsequent clonic phase. The tonic activity can be a sustained abnormal posture, either in extension or flexion, sometimes accompanied by tremor of the extremities.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Generalized myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
892704
Concept ID:
C4021759
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized myoclonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterized by bilateral, sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
EEG with generalized epileptiform discharges
MedGen UID:
869058
Concept ID:
C4023476
Finding
EEG discharges recorded on the entire scalp typically seen in persons with epilepsy.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Poor head control
MedGen UID:
322809
Concept ID:
C1836038
Finding
Difficulty to maintain correct position of the head while standing or sitting.
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
65998
Concept ID:
C0239998
Finding
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Poke G, Stanley J, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG
Neurology 2023 Mar 28;100(13):e1363-e1375. Epub 2022 Dec 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000206758. PMID: 36581463Free PMC Article
Najm I, Lal D, Alonso Vanegas M, Cendes F, Lopes-Cendes I, Palmini A, Paglioli E, Sarnat HB, Walsh CA, Wiebe S, Aronica E, Baulac S, Coras R, Kobow K, Cross JH, Garbelli R, Holthausen H, Rössler K, Thom M, El-Osta A, Lee JH, Miyata H, Guerrini R, Piao YS, Zhou D, Blümcke I
Epilepsia 2022 Aug;63(8):1899-1919. Epub 2022 Jun 15 doi: 10.1111/epi.17301. PMID: 35706131Free PMC Article
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Poke G, Stanley J, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG
Neurology 2023 Mar 28;100(13):e1363-e1375. Epub 2022 Dec 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000206758. PMID: 36581463Free PMC Article
Najm I, Lal D, Alonso Vanegas M, Cendes F, Lopes-Cendes I, Palmini A, Paglioli E, Sarnat HB, Walsh CA, Wiebe S, Aronica E, Baulac S, Coras R, Kobow K, Cross JH, Garbelli R, Holthausen H, Rössler K, Thom M, El-Osta A, Lee JH, Miyata H, Guerrini R, Piao YS, Zhou D, Blümcke I
Epilepsia 2022 Aug;63(8):1899-1919. Epub 2022 Jun 15 doi: 10.1111/epi.17301. PMID: 35706131Free PMC Article
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article

Therapy

Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Wirrell EC, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Alsaadi T, Bogacz A, French JA, Hirsch E, Jain S, Kaneko S, Riney K, Samia P, Snead OC, Somerville E, Specchio N, Trinka E, Zuberi SM, Balestrini S, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1333-1348. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17237. PMID: 35503715
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Bikson M, Grossman P, Thomas C, Zannou AL, Jiang J, Adnan T, Mourdoukoutas AP, Kronberg G, Truong D, Boggio P, Brunoni AR, Charvet L, Fregni F, Fritsch B, Gillick B, Hamilton RH, Hampstead BM, Jankord R, Kirton A, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Liu A, Loo C, Nitsche MA, Reis J, Richardson JD, Rotenberg A, Turkeltaub PE, Woods AJ
Brain Stimul 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):641-661. Epub 2016 Jun 15 doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.004. PMID: 27372845Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Specchio N, Wirrell EC, Scheffer IE, Nabbout R, Riney K, Samia P, Guerreiro M, Gwer S, Zuberi SM, Wilmshurst JM, Yozawitz E, Pressler R, Hirsch E, Wiebe S, Cross HJ, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P, Auvin S
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1398-1442. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17241. PMID: 35503717
Wirrell EC, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Alsaadi T, Bogacz A, French JA, Hirsch E, Jain S, Kaneko S, Riney K, Samia P, Snead OC, Somerville E, Specchio N, Trinka E, Zuberi SM, Balestrini S, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1333-1348. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17237. PMID: 35503715
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Bikson M, Grossman P, Thomas C, Zannou AL, Jiang J, Adnan T, Mourdoukoutas AP, Kronberg G, Truong D, Boggio P, Brunoni AR, Charvet L, Fregni F, Fritsch B, Gillick B, Hamilton RH, Hampstead BM, Jankord R, Kirton A, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Liu A, Loo C, Nitsche MA, Reis J, Richardson JD, Rotenberg A, Turkeltaub PE, Woods AJ
Brain Stimul 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):641-661. Epub 2016 Jun 15 doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.004. PMID: 27372845Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Stamberger H, Crosiers D, Balagura G, Bonardi CM, Basu A, Cantalupo G, Chiesa V, Christensen J, Dalla Bernardina B, Ellis CA, Furia F, Gardiner F, Giron C, Guerrini R, Klein KM, Korff C, Krijtova H, Leffler M, Lerche H, Lesca G, Lewis-Smith D, Marini C, Marjanovic D, Mazzola L, McKeown Ruggiero S, Mochel F, Ramond F, Reif PS, Richard-Mornas A, Rosenow F, Schropp C, Thomas RH, Vignoli A, Weber Y, Palmer E, Helbig I, Scheffer IE, Striano P, Møller RS, Gardella E, Weckhuysen S
Neurology 2022 Jul 19;99(3):e221-e233. Epub 2022 Jun 3 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200715. PMID: 35851549Free PMC Article
Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article
Bikson M, Grossman P, Thomas C, Zannou AL, Jiang J, Adnan T, Mourdoukoutas AP, Kronberg G, Truong D, Boggio P, Brunoni AR, Charvet L, Fregni F, Fritsch B, Gillick B, Hamilton RH, Hampstead BM, Jankord R, Kirton A, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Liu A, Loo C, Nitsche MA, Reis J, Richardson JD, Rotenberg A, Turkeltaub PE, Woods AJ
Brain Stimul 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):641-661. Epub 2016 Jun 15 doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.004. PMID: 27372845Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Frank NA, Greuter L, Guzman R, Soleman J
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Mar;39(3):677-688. Epub 2022 Oct 11 doi: 10.1007/s00381-022-05699-x. PMID: 36219224
Austin JK, Birbeck G, Parko K, Kwon CS, Fernandes PT, Braga P, Fiest KM, Ali A, Cross JH, de Boer H, Dua T, Haut SR, Jacoby A, Lorenzetti DL, Mifsud J, Moshé SL, Tripathi M, Wiebe S, Jette N
Epilepsia 2022 Mar;63(3):598-628. Epub 2022 Jan 5 doi: 10.1111/epi.17133. PMID: 34985766
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Kuersten M, Tacke M, Gerstl L, Hoelz H, Stülpnagel CV, Borggraefe I
Eur J Med Genet 2020 Jan;63(1):103628. Epub 2019 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.02.001. PMID: 30771507
Sauro KM, Wiebe S, Dunkley C, Janszky J, Kumlien E, Moshé S, Nakasato N, Pedley TA, Perucca E, Senties H, Thomas SV, Wang Y, Wilmshurst J, Jetté N
Epilepsia 2016 Jan;57(1):13-23. Epub 2015 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.13273. PMID: 26659723

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