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Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities(NEDNMS)

MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: NEDNMS
 
Gene (location): NRCAM (7q31.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859236
OMIM®: 619833

Definition

Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Coxa valga
MedGen UID:
116080
Concept ID:
C0239137
Finding
Coxa valga is a deformity of the hip in which the angle between the femoral shaft and the femoral neck is increased compared to age-adjusted values (about 150 degrees in newborns gradually reducing to 120-130 degrees in adults).
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Hammertoe
MedGen UID:
209712
Concept ID:
C1136179
Anatomical Abnormality
Hyperextension of the metatarsal-phalangeal joint with hyperflexion of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint.
Acetabular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
233069
Concept ID:
C1328407
Anatomical Abnormality
A smaller than normal acetabulum that has insufficient femoral head coverage leading to abnormal hip joint contact pressures, instability and pain.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Gastrostomy tube feeding in infancy
MedGen UID:
892362
Concept ID:
C4023342
Finding
Feeding problem necessitating gastrostomy tube feeding.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Cerebral palsy
MedGen UID:
854
Concept ID:
C0007789
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior, by epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Periventricular leukomalacia
MedGen UID:
6072
Concept ID:
C0023529
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular leukomalacia is characterized by diffuse injury of deep cerebral white matter, accompanied in its most severe form by focal necrosis. The neuropathologic hallmarks of PVL are microglial activation and focal and diffuse periventricular depletion of premyelinating oligodendroglia.
Arachnoid cyst
MedGen UID:
86860
Concept ID:
C0078981
Disease or Syndrome
An extra-parenchymal and intra-arachnoidal collection of fluid with a composition similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid.
Self-injurious behavior
MedGen UID:
88371
Concept ID:
C0085271
Individual Behavior
Self-aggression.
Demyelinating peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
82859
Concept ID:
C0270922
Disease or Syndrome
Demyelinating neuropathy is characterized by slow nerve conduction velocities with reduced amplitudes of sensory/motor nerve conduction and prolonged distal latencies.
Colpocephaly
MedGen UID:
98131
Concept ID:
C0431384
Congenital Abnormality
Colpocephaly is an anatomic finding in the brain manifested by occipital horns that are disproportionately enlarged in comparison with other parts of the lateral ventricles.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Irritability
MedGen UID:
397841
Concept ID:
C2700617
Mental Process
A proneness to anger, i.e., a tendency to become easily bothered or annoyed.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Jaw hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
765822
Concept ID:
C3552908
Finding
Increased intensity of muscle tendon reflexes in jaw.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Periventricular heterotopia
MedGen UID:
1766888
Concept ID:
C5399973
Disease or Syndrome
A form of gray matter heterotopia were the mislocalized gray matter is typically located periventricularly, also sometimes called subependymal heterotopia. Periventricular means beside the ventricles. This is by far the most common location for heterotopia. Subependymal heterotopia present in a wide array of variations. There can be a small single node or a large number of nodes, can exist on either or both sides of the brain at any point along the higher ventricle margins, can be small or large, single or multiple, and can form a small node or a large wavy or curved mass.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Distal arthrogryposis
MedGen UID:
120512
Concept ID:
C0265213
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited primary limb malformation disorder characterized by congenital contractures of two or more different body areas and without primary neurologic and/or muscle disease that affects limb function.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Hip dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Congenital laryngomalacia
MedGen UID:
120500
Concept ID:
C0264303
Anatomical Abnormality
Laryngomalacia is a congenital abnormality of the laryngeal cartilage in which the cartilage is floppy and prolapses over the larynx during inspiration.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Tented upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326574
Concept ID:
C1839767
Finding
Triangular appearance of the oral aperture with the apex in the midpoint of the upper vermilion and the lower vermilion forming the base.
Deep philtrum
MedGen UID:
374311
Concept ID:
C1839797
Finding
Accentuated, prominent philtral ridges giving rise to an exaggerated groove in the midline between the nasal base and upper vermillion border.
Medial flaring of the eyebrow
MedGen UID:
336722
Concept ID:
C1844562
Finding
An abnormal distribution of eyebrow hair growth in the medial direction.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Exaggerated cupid bow
MedGen UID:
376842
Concept ID:
C1850629
Finding
More pronounced paramedian peaks and median notch of the Cupid's bow.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Short chin
MedGen UID:
784514
Concept ID:
C3697248
Finding
Decreased vertical distance from the vermilion border of the lower lip to the inferior-most point of the chin.
Periorbital fullness
MedGen UID:
1710990
Concept ID:
C4760994
Finding
Increase in periorbital soft tissue.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Retinal detachment
MedGen UID:
19759
Concept ID:
C0035305
Disease or Syndrome
Primary or spontaneous detachment of the retina occurs due to underlying ocular disease and often involves the vitreous as well as the retina. The precipitating event is formation of a retinal tear or hole, which permits fluid to accumulate under the sensory layers of the retina and creates an intraretinal cleavage that destroys the neurosensory process of visual reception. Vitreoretinal degeneration and tear formation are painless phenomena, and in most cases, significant vitreoretinal pathology is found only after detachment of the retina starts to cause loss of vision or visual field. Without surgical intervention, retinal detachment will almost inevitably lead to total blindness (summary by McNiel and McPherson, 1971).
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Bhatia NS, Lim JY, Bonnard C, Kuan JL, Brett M, Wei H, Cham B, Chin H, Bosso-Lefevre C, Dharuman P, Escande-Beillard N, Devasia AG, Goh CYJ, Kam S, Liew WK, Liew WK, Lin G, Jain K, Ng AY, Subramanian D, Xie M, Tan YM, Tawari NR, Tiang Z, Ting TW, Tohari S, Tong CK, Lezhava A, Ng SB, Law HY, Venkatesh B, Tomar S, Sethi R, Tan G, Shanmugasundaram A, Goh DL, Lai PS, Lai A, Tan ES, Ng I, Reversades B, Tan EC, Foo R, Jamuar SS; SUREKids Working Group
Arch Dis Child 2021 Jan;106(1):31-37. Epub 2020 Aug 20 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319180. PMID: 32819910
Czupryna K, Nowotny J
Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2012 Sep-Oct;14(5):453-65. doi: 10.5604/15093492.1005088. PMID: 23208937
Glanzman AM, Kim H, Swaminathan K, Beck T
Dev Med Child Neurol 2004 Dec;46(12):807-11. doi: 10.1017/s0012162204001410. PMID: 15581153

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Bhatia NS, Lim JY, Bonnard C, Kuan JL, Brett M, Wei H, Cham B, Chin H, Bosso-Lefevre C, Dharuman P, Escande-Beillard N, Devasia AG, Goh CYJ, Kam S, Liew WK, Liew WK, Lin G, Jain K, Ng AY, Subramanian D, Xie M, Tan YM, Tawari NR, Tiang Z, Ting TW, Tohari S, Tong CK, Lezhava A, Ng SB, Law HY, Venkatesh B, Tomar S, Sethi R, Tan G, Shanmugasundaram A, Goh DL, Lai PS, Lai A, Tan ES, Ng I, Reversades B, Tan EC, Foo R, Jamuar SS; SUREKids Working Group
Arch Dis Child 2021 Jan;106(1):31-37. Epub 2020 Aug 20 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319180. PMID: 32819910
Balaraju S, Töpf A, McMacken G, Kumar VP, Pechmann A, Roper H, Vengalil S, Polavarapu K, Nashi S, Mahajan NP, Barbosa IA, Deshpande C, Taylor RW, Cossins J, Beeson D, Laurie S, Kirschner J, Horvath R, McFarland R, Nalini A, Lochmüller H
Eur J Hum Genet 2020 Mar;28(3):373-377. Epub 2019 Sep 16 doi: 10.1038/s41431-019-0506-2. PMID: 31527857Free PMC Article
Buxbom P, Sonne-Holm S, Ellitsgaard N, Wong C
Acta Orthop 2017 Apr;88(2):198-204. Epub 2016 Nov 28 doi: 10.1080/17453674.2016.1263110. PMID: 27892801Free PMC Article
Borji R, Zghal F, Zarrouk N, Sahli S, Rebai H
Res Dev Disabil 2014 Dec;35(12):3574-81. Epub 2014 Sep 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.08.038. PMID: 25241117
Glanzman AM, Kim H, Swaminathan K, Beck T
Dev Med Child Neurol 2004 Dec;46(12):807-11. doi: 10.1017/s0012162204001410. PMID: 15581153

Diagnosis

Rots D, Jakub TE, Keung C, Jackson A, Banka S, Pfundt R, de Vries BBA, van Jaarsveld RH, Hopman SMJ, van Binsbergen E, Valenzuela I, Hempel M, Bierhals T, Kortüm F, Lecoquierre F, Goldenberg A, Hertz JM, Andersen CB, Kibæk M, Prijoles EJ, Stevenson RE, Everman DB, Patterson WG, Meng L, Gijavanekar C, De Dios K, Lakhani S, Levy T, Wagner M, Wieczorek D, Benke PJ, Lopez Garcia MS, Perrier R, Sousa SB, Almeida PM, Simões MJ, Isidor B, Deb W, Schmanski AA, Abdul-Rahman O, Philippe C, Bruel AL, Faivre L, Vitobello A, Thauvin C, Smits JJ, Garavelli L, Caraffi SG, Peluso F, Davis-Keppen L, Platt D, Royer E, Leeuwen L, Sinnema M, Stegmann APA, Stumpel CTRM, Tiller GE, Bosch DGM, Potgieter ST, Joss S, Splitt M, Holden S, Prapa M, Foulds N, Douzgou S, Puura K, Waltes R, Chiocchetti AG, Freitag CM, Satterstrom FK, De Rubeis S, Buxbaum J, Gelb BD, Branko A, Kushima I, Howe J, Scherer SW, Arado A, Baldo C, Patat O, Bénédicte D, Lopergolo D, Santorelli FM, Haack TB, Dufke A, Bertrand M, Falb RJ, Rieß A, Krieg P, Spranger S, Bedeschi MF, Iascone M, Josephi-Taylor S, Roscioli T, Buckley MF, Liebelt J, Dagli AI, Aten E, Hurst ACE, Hicks A, Suri M, Aliu E, Naik S, Sidlow R, Coursimault J, Nicolas G, Küpper H, Petit F, Ibrahim V, Top D, Di Cara F; Genomics England Research Consortium, Louie RJ, Stolerman E, Brunner HG, Vissers LELM, Kramer JM, Kleefstra T
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Jun 1;110(6):963-978. Epub 2023 May 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.04.008. PMID: 37196654Free PMC Article
Loberti L, Bruno LP, Granata S, Doddato G, Resciniti S, Fava F, Carullo M, Rahikkala E, Jouret G, Menke LA, Lederer D, Vrielynck P, Ryba L, Brunetti-Pierri N, Lasa-Aranzasti A, Cueto-González AM, Trujillano L, Valenzuela I, Tizzano EF, Spinelli AM, Bruno I, Currò A, Stanzial F, Benedicenti F, Lopergolo D, Santorelli FM, Aristidou C, Tanteles GA, Maystadt I, Tkemaladze T, Reimand T, Lokke H, Õunap K, Haanpää MK, Holubová A, Zoubková V, Schwarz M, Žordania R, Muru K, Roht L, Tihveräinen A, Teek R, Thomson U, Atallah I, Superti-Furga A, Buoni S, Canitano R, Scandurra V, Rossetti A, Grosso S, Battini R, Baldassarri M, Mencarelli MA, Rizzo CL, Bruttini M, Mari F, Ariani F, Renieri A, Pinto AM
Hum Mol Genet 2022 Dec 16;31(24):4131-4142. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddac167. PMID: 35861666Free PMC Article
Wyrebek R, DiBartolomeo M, Brooks S, Geller T, Crenshaw M, Iyadurai S
Neuromuscul Disord 2022 Feb;32(2):166-169. Epub 2022 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2022.01.005. PMID: 35094889
Bhatia NS, Lim JY, Bonnard C, Kuan JL, Brett M, Wei H, Cham B, Chin H, Bosso-Lefevre C, Dharuman P, Escande-Beillard N, Devasia AG, Goh CYJ, Kam S, Liew WK, Liew WK, Lin G, Jain K, Ng AY, Subramanian D, Xie M, Tan YM, Tawari NR, Tiang Z, Ting TW, Tohari S, Tong CK, Lezhava A, Ng SB, Law HY, Venkatesh B, Tomar S, Sethi R, Tan G, Shanmugasundaram A, Goh DL, Lai PS, Lai A, Tan ES, Ng I, Reversades B, Tan EC, Foo R, Jamuar SS; SUREKids Working Group
Arch Dis Child 2021 Jan;106(1):31-37. Epub 2020 Aug 20 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319180. PMID: 32819910
Eeg-Olofsson O, Zhang WW, Olsson Y, Jagell S, Hagenfeldt L
J Child Neurol 2000 Jul;15(7):488-92. doi: 10.1177/088307380001500714. PMID: 10921524

Therapy

Wyrebek R, DiBartolomeo M, Brooks S, Geller T, Crenshaw M, Iyadurai S
Neuromuscul Disord 2022 Feb;32(2):166-169. Epub 2022 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2022.01.005. PMID: 35094889
Czupryna K, Nowotny J
Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2012 Sep-Oct;14(5):453-65. doi: 10.5604/15093492.1005088. PMID: 23208937
Papapetropoulos S, Singer C, Sengun C, Gallo BV
Neurology 2008 Apr 8;70(15):1294. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000306637.14628.76. PMID: 18391163
Glanzman AM, Kim H, Swaminathan K, Beck T
Dev Med Child Neurol 2004 Dec;46(12):807-11. doi: 10.1017/s0012162204001410. PMID: 15581153
Crow YJ, Zuberi SM, McWilliam R, Tolmie JL, Hollman A, Pohl K, Stephenson JB
J Med Genet 1998 Feb;35(2):94-8. doi: 10.1136/jmg.35.2.94. PMID: 9507386Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Wyrebek R, DiBartolomeo M, Brooks S, Geller T, Crenshaw M, Iyadurai S
Neuromuscul Disord 2022 Feb;32(2):166-169. Epub 2022 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2022.01.005. PMID: 35094889
Inui T, Anzai M, Takezawa Y, Endo W, Kakisaka Y, Kikuchi A, Onuma A, Kure S, Nishino I, Ohba C, Saitsu H, Matsumoto N, Haginoya K
J Hum Genet 2017 Jun;62(6):653-655. Epub 2017 Feb 2 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2017.11. PMID: 28148925
Wühl E, Kogan J, Zurowska A, Matejas V, Vandevoorde RG, Aigner T, Wendler O, Lesniewska I, Bouvier R, Reis A, Weis J, Cochat P, Zenker M
Am J Med Genet A 2007 Feb 15;143(4):311-9. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31564. PMID: 17256789

Clinical prediction guides

Fliedner A, Kirchner P, Wiesener A, van de Beek I, Waisfisz Q, van Haelst M, Scott DA, Lalani SR, Rosenfeld JA, Azamian MS, Xia F, Dutra-Clarke M, Martinez-Agosto JA, Lee H; UCLA Clinical Genomics Center, Noh GJ, Lippa N, Alkelai A, Aggarwal V, Agre KE, Gavrilova R, Mirzaa GM, Straussberg R, Cohen R, Horist B, Krishnamurthy V, McWalter K, Juusola J, Davis-Keppen L, Ohden L, van Slegtenhorst M, de Man SA, Ekici AB, Gregor A, van de Laar I, Zweier C
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Sep 3;107(3):544-554. Epub 2020 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.019. PMID: 32730804Free PMC Article
Inui T, Anzai M, Takezawa Y, Endo W, Kakisaka Y, Kikuchi A, Onuma A, Kure S, Nishino I, Ohba C, Saitsu H, Matsumoto N, Haginoya K
J Hum Genet 2017 Jun;62(6):653-655. Epub 2017 Feb 2 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2017.11. PMID: 28148925
Buxbom P, Sonne-Holm S, Ellitsgaard N, Wong C
Acta Orthop 2017 Apr;88(2):198-204. Epub 2016 Nov 28 doi: 10.1080/17453674.2016.1263110. PMID: 27892801Free PMC Article
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