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ALG2-congenital disorder of glycosylation(CDGIi; CDG1I)

MedGen UID:
334618
Concept ID:
C1842836
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: ALG2-CDG; Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1I; CDG 1I; CDG Ii; Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1I; CONGENITAL DISORDER OF GLYCOSYLATION, TYPE Ii
SNOMED CT: Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1i (897592003); Mannosyltransferase 2 deficiency (897592003)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): ALG2 (9q22.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011933
OMIM®: 607906
Orphanet: ORPHA79326

Definition

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ii (CDG1I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurologic involvement, including a convulsive syndrome of unknown origin, axial hypotonia, and mental and motor regression (summary by Papazoglu et al., 2021). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Dilation of Virchow-Robin spaces
MedGen UID:
342926
Concept ID:
C1853618
Finding
Increased dimensions of the Virchow-Robin spaces (also known as perivascular spaces), which surround the walls of vessels as they course from the subarachnoid space through the brain parenchyma. Perivascular spaces are commonly microscopic, and not visible on conventional neuroimaging. This term refers to an increase of size of these spaces such that they are visible on neuroimaging (usually magnetic resonance imaging). The dilatations are regular cavities that always contain a patent artery.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Decreased body weight
MedGen UID:
1806755
Concept ID:
C5574742
Finding
Abnormally low body weight.
Diarrhea
MedGen UID:
8360
Concept ID:
C0011991
Sign or Symptom
Abnormally increased frequency (usually defined as three or more) loose or watery bowel movements a day.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Nasogastric tube feeding
MedGen UID:
847783
Concept ID:
C3853581
Medical Device
The condition of inability to eat normally treated by placement of a thin tube through the nose into the stomach that is then used to carry food.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Reduced eye contact
MedGen UID:
303190
Concept ID:
C1445953
Finding
A reduced frequency or duration of eye contact.
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Infantile spasms
MedGen UID:
854616
Concept ID:
C3887898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile spasms represent a subset of "epileptic spasms". Infantile Spasms are epileptic spasms starting in the first year of life (infancy).
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Focal T2 hyperintense basal ganglia lesion
MedGen UID:
892349
Concept ID:
C4024926
Finding
A lighter than expected T2 signal on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the basal ganglia. This term refers to a localized hyperintensity affecting a particular region of the basal ganglia.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Iron deficiency anemia
MedGen UID:
57668
Concept ID:
C0162316
Disease or Syndrome
Anemia caused by low iron intake, inefficient iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, or chronic blood loss.
Prolonged partial thromboplastin time
MedGen UID:
66815
Concept ID:
C0240671
Finding
Increased time to coagulation in the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test, a measure of the intrinsic and common coagulation pathways. Phospholipid, and activator, and calcium are mixed into an anticoagulated plasma sample, and the time is measured until a thrombus forms.
Reduced factor XI activity
MedGen UID:
1368629
Concept ID:
C4317093
Finding
Decreased activity of coagulation factor XI. Factor XI, also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent, is a serine proteinase that activates factor IX.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Type I transferrin isoform profile
MedGen UID:
324900
Concept ID:
C1837899
Finding
Abnormal transferrin isoform profile consistent with a type I congenital disorder of glycosylation. In the traditional nomenclature for congenital disorders of glycosylation, absence of entire glycans was designated type I, and loss of one or more monosaccharides as type II.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Flat face
MedGen UID:
342829
Concept ID:
C1853241
Finding
Absence of concavity or convexity of the face when viewed in profile.
Hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
6991
Concept ID:
C0020676
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Inversion of nipple
MedGen UID:
82844
Concept ID:
C0269269
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of nipples that instead of pointing outward are retracted inwards.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Iris coloboma
MedGen UID:
116097
Concept ID:
C0240063
Anatomical Abnormality
A coloboma of the iris.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
Esodeviation
MedGen UID:
1641033
Concept ID:
C4551734
Disease or Syndrome
A manifest or latent ocular deviation in which one or both eyes tends to deviate nasally.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for ALG2-congenital disorder of glycosylation in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

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