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Celiac disease, susceptibility to, 1(CELIAC1)

MedGen UID:
395227
Concept ID:
C1859310
Finding
Synonyms: Celiac disease 1; CELIAC SPRUE, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 1; GLUTEN-SENSITIVE ENTEROPATHY, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 1
 
Genes (locations): HLA-DQA1 (6p21.32); HLA-DQB1 (6p21.32)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008930
OMIM®: 212750

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain and distension, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, iron deficiency anemia, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Annette K Taylor  |  Benjamin Lebwohl  |  Cara L Snyder, et. al.   view full author information

Clinical features

From HPO
Abdominal pain
MedGen UID:
7803
Concept ID:
C0000737
Sign or Symptom
An unpleasant sensation characterized by physical discomfort (such as pricking, throbbing, or aching) and perceived to originate in the abdomen.
Arthralgia
MedGen UID:
13917
Concept ID:
C0003862
Sign or Symptom
Joint pain.
Lymphoma
MedGen UID:
44223
Concept ID:
C0024299
Neoplastic Process
A cancer originating in lymphocytes and presenting as a solid tumor of lymhpoid cells.
Infertility
MedGen UID:
43876
Concept ID:
C0021359
Finding
Inability to conceive for at least one year after trying and having unprotected sex. Causes of female infertility include endometriosis, fallopian tubes obstruction, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Causes of male infertility include abnormal sperm production or function, blockage of the epididymis, blockage of the ejaculatory ducts, hypospadias, exposure to pesticides, and health related issues.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Weight loss
MedGen UID:
853198
Concept ID:
C1262477
Finding
Reduction of total body weight.
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Abdominal distention
MedGen UID:
34
Concept ID:
C0000731
Finding
Distention of the abdomen.
Diarrhea
MedGen UID:
8360
Concept ID:
C0011991
Sign or Symptom
Abnormally increased frequency (usually defined as three or more) loose or watery bowel movements a day.
Steatorrhea
MedGen UID:
20948
Concept ID:
C0038238
Finding
Greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces. This is a result of malabsorption of lipids in the small intestine and results in frothy foul-smelling fecal matter that floats.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Abnormality of the abdominal wall
MedGen UID:
867301
Concept ID:
C4021664
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of any abnormality affecting the abdominal wall.
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tenseness, or panic, often in reaction to interpersonal stresses; worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities; feeling fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty; fears of falling apart or losing control.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Depression
MedGen UID:
4229
Concept ID:
C0011581
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Frequent feelings of being down, miserable, and/or hopeless; difficulty recovering from such moods; pessimism about the future; pervasive shame; feeling of inferior self-worth; thoughts of suicide and suicidal behavior.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Polyneuropathy
MedGen UID:
57502
Concept ID:
C0152025
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized disorder of peripheral nerves.
Cerebral calcification
MedGen UID:
124360
Concept ID:
C0270685
Finding
The presence of calcium deposition within brain structures.
Macrocytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1920
Concept ID:
C0002886
Disease or Syndrome
A type of anemia characterized by increased size of erythrocytes with increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
Abnormality of the coagulation cascade
MedGen UID:
604
Concept ID:
C0005779
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the coagulation cascade, which is comprised of the contact activation pathway (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway) as well as cofactors and regulators.
Iron deficiency anemia
MedGen UID:
57668
Concept ID:
C0162316
Disease or Syndrome
Anemia caused by low iron intake, inefficient iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, or chronic blood loss.
Prolonged partial thromboplastin time
MedGen UID:
66815
Concept ID:
C0240671
Finding
Increased time to coagulation in the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test, a measure of the intrinsic and common coagulation pathways. Phospholipid, and activator, and calcium are mixed into an anticoagulated plasma sample, and the time is measured until a thrombus forms.
Thrombocytosis
MedGen UID:
163397
Concept ID:
C0836924
Disease or Syndrome
Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood.
Prolonged prothrombin time
MedGen UID:
208879
Concept ID:
C0853225
Finding
Increased time to coagulation in the prothrombin time test, which is a measure of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The results of the prothrombin time test are often expressed in terms of the International normalized ratio (INR), which is calculated as a ratio of the patient's prothrombin time (PT) to a control PT standardized for the potency of the thromboplastin reagent developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the formula
Osteoporosis
MedGen UID:
14535
Concept ID:
C0029456
Disease or Syndrome
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility. According to the WHO criteria, osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that lies 2.5 standard deviations or more below the average value for young healthy adults (a T-score below -2.5 SD).
Rickets
MedGen UID:
48470
Concept ID:
C0035579
Disease or Syndrome
Rickets is divided into two major categories including calcipenic and phosphopenic. Hypophosphatemia is described as a common manifestation of both categories. Hypophosphatemic rickets is the most common type of rickets that is characterized by low levels of serum phosphate, resistance to ultraviolet radiation or vitamin D intake. There are several issues involved in hypophosphatemic rickets such as calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus deficiencies. Moreover, other disorder can be associated with its occurrence such as absorption defects due to pancreatic, intestinal, gastric, and renal disorders and hepatobiliary disease. Symptoms are usually seen in childhood and can be varied in severity. Severe forms may be linked to bowing of the legs, poor bone growth, and short stature as well as joint and bone pain. Hypophosphatemic rickets are associated with renal excretion of phosphate, hypophosphatemia, and mineral defects in bones. The familial type of the disease is the most common type of rickets.
Celiac disease
MedGen UID:
3291
Concept ID:
C0007570
Disease or Syndrome
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain and distension, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, iron deficiency anemia, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Eczema
MedGen UID:
3968
Concept ID:
C0013595
Disease or Syndrome
Eczema is a form of dermatitis. The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions and can be related to a number of underlying conditions. Manifestations of eczema can include dryness and recurring skin rashes with redness, skin edema, itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding.
Stomatitis
MedGen UID:
52511
Concept ID:
C0038362
Disease or Syndrome
Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of any of the structures in the mouth.
Thyroiditis
MedGen UID:
21548
Concept ID:
C0040147
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Decreased circulating IgA level
MedGen UID:
57934
Concept ID:
C0162538
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA).
Diabetes mellitus type 1
MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), also designated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is a disorder of glucose homeostasis characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of T1D have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classic phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Reduced blood folate concentration
MedGen UID:
42057
Concept ID:
C0016412
Disease or Syndrome
A reduced circulating concentration of folic acid, which is also known as vitamin B9.
Hypocalcemia
MedGen UID:
5705
Concept ID:
C0020598
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormally decreased calcium concentration in the blood.
Cobalamin deficiency
MedGen UID:
21880
Concept ID:
C0042847
Disease or Syndrome
Low serum levels of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) due to poor intestinal absorption, decreased dietary intake, or increased physiologic requirement.
Low levels of vitamin D
MedGen UID:
12114
Concept ID:
C0042870
Disease or Syndrome
A reduced concentration of Vitamin D.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Low levels of vitamin K
MedGen UID:
1684852
Concept ID:
C5139061
Finding
A reduced concentration of vitamin K.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
MedGen UID:
445425
Concept ID:
C2937365
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent episodes of ulceration of the oral mucosa, typically presenting as painful, sharply circumscribed fibrin-covered mucosal defects with a hyperemic border.
Alopecia
MedGen UID:
7982
Concept ID:
C0002170
Finding
A noncongenital process of hair loss, which may progress to partial or complete baldness.
Delayed puberty
MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
Passing the age when puberty normally occurs with no physical or hormonal signs of the onset of puberty.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Diagnosis

Catassi C, Verdu EF, Bai JC, Lionetti E
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Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PH
BMJ 2015 Oct 5;351:h4347. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h4347. PMID: 26438584Free PMC Article

Therapy

Catassi C, Verdu EF, Bai JC, Lionetti E
Lancet 2022 Jun 25;399(10344):2413-2426. Epub 2022 Jun 9 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00794-2. PMID: 35691302
Wu X, Qian L, Liu K, Wu J, Shan Z
Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):1797-1805. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2021.1990392. PMID: 34647492Free PMC Article
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Catassi C, Fasano A
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2008 Nov;24(6):687-91. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32830edc1e. PMID: 19122516

Clinical prediction guides

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Rayman MP
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Glissen Brown JR, Singh P
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Telomeres Mendelian Randomization Collaboration, Haycock PC, Burgess S, Nounu A, Zheng J, Okoli GN, Bowden J, Wade KH, Timpson NJ, Evans DM, Willeit P, Aviv A, Gaunt TR, Hemani G, Mangino M, Ellis HP, Kurian KM, Pooley KA, Eeles RA, Lee JE, Fang S, Chen WV, Law MH, Bowdler LM, Iles MM, Yang Q, Worrall BB, Markus HS, Hung RJ, Amos CI, Spurdle AB, Thompson DJ, O'Mara TA, Wolpin B, Amundadottir L, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Trichopoulou A, Onland-Moret NC, Lund E, Duell EJ, Canzian F, Severi G, Overvad K, Gunter MJ, Tumino R, Svenson U, van Rij A, Baas AF, Bown MJ, Samani NJ, van t'Hof FNG, Tromp G, Jones GT, Kuivaniemi H, Elmore JR, Johansson M, Mckay J, Scelo G, Carreras-Torres R, Gaborieau V, Brennan P, Bracci PM, Neale RE, Olson SH, Gallinger S, Li D, Petersen GM, Risch HA, Klein AP, Han J, Abnet CC, Freedman ND, Taylor PR, Maris JM, Aben KK, Kiemeney LA, Vermeulen SH, Wiencke JK, Walsh KM, Wrensch M, Rice T, Turnbull C, Litchfield K, Paternoster L, Standl M, Abecasis GR, SanGiovanni JP, Li Y, Mijatovic V, Sapkota Y, Low SK, Zondervan KT, Montgomery GW, Nyholt DR, van Heel DA, Hunt K, Arking DE, Ashar FN, Sotoodehnia N, Woo D, Rosand J, Comeau ME, Brown WM, Silverman EK, Hokanson JE, Cho MH, Hui J, Ferreira MA, Thompson PJ, Morrison AC, Felix JF, Smith NL, Christiano AM, Petukhova L, Betz RC, Fan X, Zhang X, Zhu C, Langefeld CD, Thompson SD, Wang F, Lin X, Schwartz DA, Fingerlin T, Rotter JI, Cotch MF, Jensen RA, Munz M, Dommisch H, Schaefer AS, Han F, Ollila HM, Hillary RP, Albagha O, Ralston SH, Zeng C, Zheng W, Shu XO, Reis A, Uebe S, Hüffmeier U, Kawamura Y, Otowa T, Sasaki T, Hibberd ML, Davila S, Xie G, Siminovitch K, Bei JX, Zeng YX, Försti A, Chen B, Landi S, Franke A, Fischer A, Ellinghaus D, Flores C, Noth I, Ma SF, Foo JN, Liu J, Kim JW, Cox DG, Delattre O, Mirabeau O, Skibola CF, Tang CS, Garcia-Barcelo M, Chang KP, Su WH, Chang YS, Martin NG, Gordon S, Wade TD, Lee C, Kubo M, Cha PC, Nakamura Y, Levy D, Kimura M, Hwang SJ, Hunt S, Spector T, Soranzo N, Manichaikul AW, Barr RG, Kahali B, Speliotes E, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Cheng CY, Jonas JB, Wong TY, Fogh I, Lin K, Powell JF, Rice K, Relton CL, Martin RM, Davey Smith G
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PLoS One 2015;10(5):e0124040. Epub 2015 May 5 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124040. PMID: 25942408Free PMC Article
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Dev Med Child Neurol 2010 Aug;52(8):700-7. Epub 2010 Mar 19 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03647.x. PMID: 20345955

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