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Colitis

MedGen UID:
40385
Concept ID:
C0009319
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Colitides
SNOMED CT: Colitis (64226004); Colon inflammation (64226004)
 
HPO: HP:0002583
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005292

Definition

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disorder that affects the digestive system. This condition is characterized by abnormal inflammation of the inner surface (epithelium) of the rectum and colon. The rectum and colon make up most of the length of the large intestine. The inflammation usually causes open sores (ulcers) to develop in the large intestine. Ulcerative colitis usually appears between the age of 15 and 30, although it can develop at any age. The inflammation tends to flare up multiple times throughout a person's life, which causes recurring signs and symptoms.

The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are cramping abdominal pain and frequent diarrhea, often with blood, pus, or mucus in the stool. Other signs and symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite, bowel urgency, fatigue, and fevers. Chronic bleeding from the inflamed and ulcerated intestinal tissue can cause a shortage of red blood cells (anemia) in some affected individuals. People with this disorder have difficulty absorbing enough fluids and nutrients from their diet and often experience weight loss. Affected children usually grow more slowly than normal. Less commonly, ulcerative colitis causes problems with the skin, joints, eyes, kidneys, or liver, which are most likely due to abnormal inflammation.

Toxic megacolon is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis that can be life-threatening. Toxic megacolon involves a widening (dilation) of the colon and an overwhelming inflammatory response. Ulcerative colitis also increases the risk of developing colon cancer, especially in people whose entire colon is inflamed and in those who have had ulcerative colitis for 8 years or more.

Ulcerative colitis is one common form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Another type of IBD, Crohn's disease, also causes chronic inflammation of the intestines. Unlike ulcerative colitis, which affects only the inner surface of the large intestine, Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, and the inflammation extends deeper into the intestinal tissue. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Conditions with this feature

X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder
MedGen UID:
336844
Concept ID:
C1845050
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder shows more severe manifestations in hemizygous males compared to heterozygous females. Affected males have early onset of recurrent respiratory infections and failure to thrive resulting from inflammatory gastroenteritis or colitis. Patients also show reticular pigmentation abnormalities of the skin and may develop corneal scarring. Carrier females may be unaffected or have only pigmentary abnormalities along the lines of Blaschko (summary by Starokadomskyy et al., 2016).
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to XIAP deficiency
MedGen UID:
336848
Concept ID:
C1845076
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) has two recognizable subtypes, XLP1 and XLP2. XLP1 is characterized predominantly by one of three commonly recognized phenotypes: Inappropriate immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or severe mononucleosis. Dysgammaglobulinemia. Lymphoproliferative disease (malignant lymphoma). XLP2 is most often characterized by HLH (often associated with EBV), dysgammaglobulinemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. HLH resulting from EBV infection is associated with an unregulated and exaggerated immune response with widespread proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, EBV-infected B cells, and macrophages. Dysgammaglobulinemia is typically hypogammaglobulinemia of one or more immunoglobulin subclasses. The malignant lymphomas are typically B-cell lymphomas, non-Hodgkin type, often extranodal, and in particular involving the intestine.
Cutaneous photosensitivity-lethal colitis syndrome
MedGen UID:
347455
Concept ID:
C1857449
Disease or Syndrome
A rare inflammatory bowel disease characterized by early cutaneous photosensitivity manifesting by sun-induced facial erythematous and vesicular lesions and severe recurent colitis which lead to untreatable diarrhea. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1991.
Pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne syndrome
MedGen UID:
346801
Concept ID:
C1858361
Disease or Syndrome
A rare pleiotropic auto-inflammatory disorder of childhood, primarily affecting the joints and skin. The first affected family contained ten affected members from three generations and manifested variable expression of a pauciarticular, nonaxial, arthritis that began in childhood; pyoderma gangrenosum; and severe cystic acne in adolescence and beyond. Recurrent sterile arthritis usually occurs after minor trauma, but can also occur spontaneously. PAPA syndrome is a self-limiting disease, but it can lead to severe joint destruction. The gene responsible for the syndrome is the proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1).
Inflammatory bowel disease 28
MedGen UID:
442630
Concept ID:
C2751053
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the IL10RA gene, encoding interleukin-10 receptor subunit alpha. It is characterized by early-onset chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5
MedGen UID:
416514
Concept ID:
C2751293
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-5 with or without microvillus inclusion disease (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive hyperinflammatory disorder characterized clinically by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, and other laboratory findings. Some patients have neurologic symptoms due to inflammatory CNS disease. There is uncontrolled and ineffective proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages that infiltrate multiple organs, including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and the CNS. The phenotype is variable: some patients may present in early infancy with severe diarrhea, prior to the onset of typical FHL features, whereas others present later in childhood and have a more protracted course without diarrhea. The early-onset diarrhea is due to enteropathy reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (see MVID, 251850). The enteropathy, which often necessitates parenteral feeding, may be the most life-threatening issue even after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). More variable features include sensorineural hearing loss and hypogammaglobulinemia. Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and chemotherapy can ameliorate signs and symptoms of FHL in some patients, but the only curative therapy for FHL is HSCT. HSCT is not curative for enteropathy associated with the disorder, despite hematologic and immunologic reconstitution (summary by Meeths et al., 2010; Pagel et al., 2012; Stepensky et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL, HLH), see 267700.
MHC class II deficiency
MedGen UID:
444051
Concept ID:
C2931418
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by absence of HLA class II molecules on the surface of immune cells, leading to severely impaired cellular and humoral immune response to foreign antigens, severe CD4+ T-cell lymphopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia. The disease clinically manifests with early onset of severe and recurrent infections mainly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, protracted diarrhea with failure to thrive, and autoimmune disease, and is frequently fatal in childhood.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
419514
Concept ID:
C2931875
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Granulomatous disease, chronic, autosomal recessive, cytochrome b-positive, type 3
MedGen UID:
462759
Concept ID:
C3151409
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils) resulting from impaired killing of bacteria and fungi. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory responses resulting in granuloma formation and other inflammatory disorders such as colitis. Infections typically involve the lung (pneumonia), lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), liver (abscess), bone (osteomyelitis), and skin (abscesses or cellulitis). Granulomas typically involve the genitourinary system (bladder) and gastrointestinal tract (often the pylorus initially, and later the esophagus, jejunum, ileum, cecum, rectum, and perirectal area). Some males with X-linked CGD have McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome as the result of a contiguous gene deletion. While CGD may present anytime from infancy to late adulthood, the vast majority of affected individuals are diagnosed before age five years. Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy has greatly improved overall survival.
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482919
Concept ID:
C3281289
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.
Combined immunodeficiency due to LRBA deficiency
MedGen UID:
766426
Concept ID:
C3553512
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency-8 with autoimmunity is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals have early childhood onset of recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, and also develop variable autoimmune disorders, including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. The presentation and phenotype are highly variable, even within families (summary by Lopez-Herrera et al., 2012 and Alangari et al., 2012). Immunologic findings are also variable and may include decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, and deficiency of CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells (Charbonnier et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594).
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
767570
Concept ID:
C3554656
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Hyperlipoproteinemia, type 1D
MedGen UID:
863204
Concept ID:
C4014767
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperlipoproteinemia type ID is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired clearance of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins in plasma, leading to severe hypertriglyceridemia (chylomicronemia). Clinical features include eruptive xanthomas, lipemia retinalis, hepatosplenomegaly, episodes of abdominal pain, and pancreatitis. Onset usually occurs in adulthood (summary by Brahm and Hegele, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial chylomicronemia, see 238600.
Immunodeficiency 37
MedGen UID:
863632
Concept ID:
C4015195
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary immunodeficiency disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BCL10 gene.
Autoinflammatory syndrome, familial, Behcet-like 1
MedGen UID:
898541
Concept ID:
C4225218
Disease or Syndrome
Familial Behcet-like autoinflammatory syndrome-1 (AIFBL1) is an autosomal dominant monogenic autoinflammatory disease characterized predominantly by painful and recurrent mucosal ulceration affecting the oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, and genital areas. The onset of symptoms is usually in the first decade, although later onset has been reported. Additional more variable features include skin rash, uveitis, and polyarthritis, consistent with a systemic hyperinflammatory state. Many patients have evidence of autoimmune disease. Rare patients may also have concurrent features of immunodeficiency, including recurrent infections with low numbers of certain white blood cells or impaired function of immune cells. The disorder results from a failure of mutant TNFAIP3 to suppress the activation of inflammatory cytokines in the NFKB (see 164011) signaling pathway; treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNFA; 191160) inhibitors may be beneficial. Although some of the clinical features of AIFBL1 resemble those of Behcet disease (109650), the more common form of Behcet disease is believed to be polygenic, typically shows later onset in early adulthood, and has symptoms usually restricted to the mucosa (summary by Zhou et al., 2016; Aeschlimann et al., 2018, and Kadowaki et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of AIFBL See also AIFBL2 (301074), caused by mutation in the ELF4 gene (300775) on chromosome Xq26, and AIFBL3 (618287), caused by mutation in the RELA gene (164014) on chromosome 11q13.
Autoimmune disease, multisystem, infantile-onset, 2
MedGen UID:
934735
Concept ID:
C4310768
Disease or Syndrome
Any autoimmune disease, multisystem, infantile-onset in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZAP70 gene.
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to CARMIL2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648422
Concept ID:
C4748304
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-58 is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by early-onset skin lesions, including eczematous dermatitis, infectious abscesses, and warts, recurrent respiratory infections or allergies, and chronic persistent infections with candida, Molluscum contagiosum, mycobacteria, EBV, bacteria, and viruses. Some patients may have gastrointestinal involvement, including inflammatory bowel disease, EBV+ smooth muscle tumors, and esophagitis. Immunologic analysis shows defective T-cell function with decreased Treg cells and deficient CD3/CD28 costimulation responses in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. B-cell function may also be impaired (summary by Wang et al., 2016 and Alazami et al., 2018).
Immunodeficiency 60
MedGen UID:
1681890
Concept ID:
C5193072
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-60 and autoimmunity (IMD60) is an autosomal dominant primary immunologic disorder characterized by inflammatory bowel disease and recurrent sinopulmonary infections. The age at symptom onset is highly variable, ranging from infancy to mid-adulthood. Laboratory studies show dysregulation of both B and T cells, with variably decreased immunoglobulin production, decreased T-regulatory cells, and overall impaired lymphocyte maturation (summary by Afzali et al., 2017).
Immunodeficiency 70
MedGen UID:
1740270
Concept ID:
C5436501
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-70 (IMD70) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by severe cutaneous warts on the hands, feet, and face, suggesting increased susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Affected individuals may also have recurrent bacterial infections, such as sinusitis, as well as feature of autoinflammation, such as colitis, celiac disease, and retinal vasculitis. Laboratory studies show decreased CD4+ T cells and decreased CD19+ B cells; hypogammaglobulinemia has also been observed (summary by Thaventhiran et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 76
MedGen UID:
1781281
Concept ID:
C5543004
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-76 (IMD76) is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in early childhood. Laboratory studies show T-cell lymphopenia and may show variable B-cell or immunoglobulin abnormalities. More variable features found in some patients include lymphoma and neurologic features. Although bone marrow transplantation may be curative, many patients die in childhood (summary by Lyszkiewicz et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 14b, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1787468
Concept ID:
C5543301
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency-14B (IMD14B) is characterized by onset of recurrent infections in early childhood. Most patients have respiratory infections, but some may develop inflammatory bowel disease or osteomyelitis. Laboratory studies tend to show hypogammaglobulinemia and decreased levels of B cells. Although NK cell and T cell numbers are normal, there may be evidence of impaired immune-mediated cytotoxicity and defective T-cell function (summary by et al., 2018 and et al., 2019).
Immunodeficiency 82 with systemic inflammation
MedGen UID:
1781752
Concept ID:
C5543581
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-82 with systemic inflammation (IMD82) is a complex autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent infections with various organisms, as well as noninfectious inflammation manifest as lymphocytic organ infiltration with gastritis, colitis, and lung, liver, CNS, or skin disease. One of the more common features is inflammation of the stomach and bowel. Most patients develop symptoms in infancy or early childhood; the severity is variable. There may be accompanying fever, elevated white blood cell count, decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, increased C-reactive protein (CRP; 123260), and a generalized hyperinflammatory state. Immunologic workup shows variable B- and T-cell abnormalities such as skewed subgroups. Patients have a propensity for the development of lymphoma, usually in adulthood. At the molecular level, the disorder results from a gain-of-function mutation that leads to constitutive and enhanced activation of the intracellular inflammatory signaling pathway. Treatment with SYK inhibitors rescued human cell abnormalities and resulted in clinical improvement in mice (Wang et al., 2021).
Autoinflammatory syndrome, familial, X-linked, Behcet-like 2
MedGen UID:
1808082
Concept ID:
C5575495
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked familial Behcet-like autoinflammatory syndrome-2 (AIFBL2) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the onset of inflammatory symptoms in the first decade of life in male patients. Affected males often present with oral mucosal ulceration and skin inflammation. More variable features may include gastrointestinal ulceration, arthritis, recurrent fevers, and iron deficiency anemia. Laboratory studies are consistent with immune dysregulation manifest as increased inflammatory markers and variable immune cell abnormalities, such as decreased NK cells and low memory B cells. One patient presented with recurrent infections and immunodeficiency in addition to autoinflammation. The disorder results from a defect in ELF4, which normally acts as a negative regulator of inflammatory disease. Symptoms may respond to blockade of IL1 (see 147760) or TNFA (191160) (summary by Tyler et al., 2021 and Sun et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of AIFBL, see AIFBL1 (616744).
Immunodeficiency 97 with autoinflammation
MedGen UID:
1802936
Concept ID:
C5676946
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-97 with autoinflammation (IMD97) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder with variable features. Affected individuals present in the first decade of life with inflammatory interstitial lung disease or colitis due to abnormal tissue infiltration by activated T cells. Patients develop autoimmune cytopenias and may have lymphadenopathy; 1 reported patient had features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH; see FHL1, 267700). Some patients may have recurrent infections associated with mild lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and NK cell dysfunction. Immunologic workup indicates signs of significant immune dysregulation with elevation of inflammatory serum markers, variable immune cell defects involving neutrophils, NK cells, and myeloid cells, and disrupted levels of T regulatory cells (Tregs). Two unrelated patients have been reported (summary by Takeda et al., 2019 and Thian et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Rogler G, Singh A, Kavanaugh A, Rubin DT
Gastroenterology 2021 Oct;161(4):1118-1132. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.07.042. PMID: 34358489Free PMC Article
Lamb CA, Kennedy NA, Raine T, Hendy PA, Smith PJ, Limdi JK, Hayee B, Lomer MCE, Parkes GC, Selinger C, Barrett KJ, Davies RJ, Bennett C, Gittens S, Dunlop MG, Faiz O, Fraser A, Garrick V, Johnston PD, Parkes M, Sanderson J, Terry H; IBD guidelines eDelphi consensus group, Gaya DR, Iqbal TH, Taylor SA, Smith M, Brookes M, Hansen R, Hawthorne AB
Gut 2019 Dec;68(Suppl 3):s1-s106. Epub 2019 Sep 27 doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318484. PMID: 31562236Free PMC Article
Seyedian SS, Nokhostin F, Malamir MD
J Med Life 2019 Apr-Jun;12(2):113-122. doi: 10.25122/jml-2018-0075. PMID: 31406511Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Radziszewska M, Smarkusz-Zarzecka J, Ostrowska L, Pogodziński D
Nutrients 2022 Jun 14;14(12) doi: 10.3390/nu14122469. PMID: 35745199Free PMC Article
Tome J, Kamboj AK, Pardi DS
Mayo Clin Proc 2021 May;96(5):1302-1308. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.03.022. PMID: 33958059
Kucharzik T, Koletzko S, Kannengiesser K, Dignass A
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2020 Aug 17;117(33-34):564-574. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2020.0564. PMID: 33148393Free PMC Article
Turner D, Ruemmele FM, Orlanski-Meyer E, Griffiths AM, de Carpi JM, Bronsky J, Veres G, Aloi M, Strisciuglio C, Braegger CP, Assa A, Romano C, Hussey S, Stanton M, Pakarinen M, de Ridder L, Katsanos KH, Croft N, Navas-López VM, Wilson DC, Lawrence S, Russell RK
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Aug;67(2):292-310. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002036. PMID: 30044358
Adams SM, Bornemann PH
Am Fam Physician 2013 May 15;87(10):699-705. PMID: 23939448

Diagnosis

Adams SM, Close ED, Shreenath AP
Am Fam Physician 2022 Apr 1;105(4):406-411. PMID: 35426646
Segal JP, LeBlanc JF, Hart AL
Clin Med (Lond) 2021 Mar;21(2):135-139. doi: 10.7861/clinmed.2021-0080. PMID: 33762374Free PMC Article
Kucharzik T, Koletzko S, Kannengiesser K, Dignass A
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2020 Aug 17;117(33-34):564-574. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2020.0564. PMID: 33148393Free PMC Article
Jessurun J
Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Dec;10(4):863-885. doi: 10.1016/j.path.2017.07.008. PMID: 29103537
Adams SM, Bornemann PH
Am Fam Physician 2013 May 15;87(10):699-705. PMID: 23939448

Therapy

Paik J
Drugs 2022 Aug;82(12):1303-1313. Epub 2022 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s40265-022-01762-8. PMID: 35994200Free PMC Article
Napolitano M, D'Amico F, Ragaini E, Peyrin-Biroulet L, Danese S
Drug Des Devel Ther 2022;16:1897-1913. Epub 2022 Jun 17 doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S340459. PMID: 35747444Free PMC Article
Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, D'Haens G, Wolf DC, Jovanovic I, Hanauer SB, Ghosh S, Petersen A, Hua SY, Lee JH, Charles L, Chitkara D, Usiskin K, Colombel JF, Laine L, Danese S; True North Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 30;385(14):1280-1291. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2033617. PMID: 34587385
Sonpavde GP, Grivas P, Lin Y, Hennessy D, Hunt JD
Future Oncol 2021 Jul;17(19):2545-2558. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.2217/fon-2020-1222. PMID: 33783228
Berg DR, Colombel JF, Ungaro R
Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019 Nov 14;25(12):1896-1905. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izz059. PMID: 30934053Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Agrawal M, Jess T
United European Gastroenterol J 2022 Dec;10(10):1113-1120. Epub 2022 Oct 17 doi: 10.1002/ueg2.12317. PMID: 36251359Free PMC Article
Hahn J, Cook NR, Alexander EK, Friedman S, Walter J, Bubes V, Kotler G, Lee IM, Manson JE, Costenbader KH
BMJ 2022 Jan 26;376:e066452. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066452. PMID: 35082139Free PMC Article
Du L, Ha C
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2020 Dec;49(4):643-654. Epub 2020 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2020.07.005. PMID: 33121686
Ananthakrishnan AN
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Apr;12(4):205-17. Epub 2015 Mar 3 doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2015.34. PMID: 25732745
da Silva BC, Lyra AC, Rocha R, Santana GO
World J Gastroenterol 2014 Jul 28;20(28):9458-67. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i28.9458. PMID: 25071340Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Jukic A, Bakiri L, Wagner EF, Tilg H, Adolph TE
Gut 2021 Oct;70(10):1978-1988. Epub 2021 Jun 18 doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324855. PMID: 34145045Free PMC Article
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Gut 2017 Jan;66(1):43-49. Epub 2015 Oct 13 doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310187. PMID: 26464414
da Silva BC, Lyra AC, Rocha R, Santana GO
World J Gastroenterol 2014 Jul 28;20(28):9458-67. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i28.9458. PMID: 25071340Free PMC Article
Day AS, Ledder O, Leach ST, Lemberg DA
World J Gastroenterol 2012 Nov 7;18(41):5862-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i41.5862. PMID: 23139601Free PMC Article
Geboes K, Riddell R, Ost A, Jensfelt B, Persson T, Löfberg R
Gut 2000 Sep;47(3):404-9. doi: 10.1136/gut.47.3.404. PMID: 10940279Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Nielsen DL, Juhl CB, Chen IM, Kellermann L, Nielsen OH
Cancer Treat Rev 2022 Sep;109:102440. Epub 2022 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2022.102440. PMID: 35917654
Lasa JS, Olivera PA, Danese S, Peyrin-Biroulet L
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Feb;7(2):161-170. Epub 2021 Nov 29 doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00377-0. PMID: 34856198
Turner D, Ricciuto A, Lewis A, D'Amico F, Dhaliwal J, Griffiths AM, Bettenworth D, Sandborn WJ, Sands BE, Reinisch W, Schölmerich J, Bemelman W, Danese S, Mary JY, Rubin D, Colombel JF, Peyrin-Biroulet L, Dotan I, Abreu MT, Dignass A; International Organization for the Study of IBD
Gastroenterology 2021 Apr;160(5):1570-1583. Epub 2021 Feb 19 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.12.031. PMID: 33359090
Singh S, Murad MH, Fumery M, Dulai PS, Sandborn WJ
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Sep;18(10):2179-2191.e6. Epub 2020 Jan 13 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2020.01.008. PMID: 31945470Free PMC Article
Ng SC, Shi HY, Hamidi N, Underwood FE, Tang W, Benchimol EI, Panaccione R, Ghosh S, Wu JCY, Chan FKL, Sung JJY, Kaplan GG
Lancet 2017 Dec 23;390(10114):2769-2778. Epub 2017 Oct 16 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32448-0. PMID: 29050646

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