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Aortic root aneurysm

MedGen UID:
720712
Concept ID:
C1298820
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonym: Aneurysm of aortic root
SNOMED CT: Aneurysm of aortic root (373134008)
 
HPO: HP:0002616

Definition

An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the aortic root. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Conditions with this feature

Marfan syndrome
MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
FBN1-related Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome), a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (>50% of affected individuals); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population.
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
67391
Concept ID:
C0220668
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) appears to comprise a broad phenotypic spectrum. Classic CCA is characterized by arachnodactyly; flexion contractures of multiple joints including elbows, knees, hips, ankles, and/or fingers; kyphoscoliosis (usually progressive); a marfanoid habitus (a long and slender build, dolichostenomelia, pectus deformity, muscular hypoplasia, highly arched palate); and abnormal "crumpled" ears. At the mildest end, parents who are diagnosed retrospectively upon evaluation of their more severely affected child may show a lean body build, mild arachnodactyly, mild contractures without impairment, and minor ear abnormalities. At the most severe end is "severe CCA with cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies," a rare phenotype in infants with pronounced features of CCA (severe crumpling of the ears, arachnodactyly, contractures, congenital scoliosis, and/or hypotonia) and severe cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies. Phenotypic expression can vary within and between families.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type, 1
MedGen UID:
78660
Concept ID:
C0268335
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). The skin is soft and doughy to the touch, and hyperextensible, extending easily and snapping back after release (unlike lax, redundant skin, as in cutis laxa). The skin is fragile, as manifested by splitting of the dermis following relatively minor trauma, especially over pressure points (knees, elbows) and areas prone to trauma (shins, forehead, chin). Wound healing is poor, and stretching of scars after apparently successful primary wound healing is characteristic. Complications of joint hypermobility, such as dislocations of the shoulder, patella, digits, hip, radius, and clavicle, usually resolve spontaneously or are easily managed by the affected individual. Other features include hypotonia with delayed motor development, fatigue and muscle cramps, and easy bruising. Mitral valve prolapse can occur infrequently, but tends to be of little clinical consequence. Aortic root dilatation has been reported, appears to be more common in young individuals, and rarely progresses.
Marfanoid habitus with situs inversus
MedGen UID:
323046
Concept ID:
C1836994
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Arterial tortuosity syndrome
MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by widespread elongation and tortuosity of the aorta and mid-sized arteries as well as focal stenosis of segments of the pulmonary arteries and/or aorta combined with findings of a generalized connective tissue disorder, which may include soft or doughy hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, inguinal hernia, and diaphragmatic hernia. Skeletal findings include pectus excavatum or carinatum, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, knee/elbow contractures, and camptodactyly. The cardiovascular system is the major source of morbidity and mortality with increased risk at any age for aneurysm formation and dissection both at the aortic root and throughout the arterial tree, and for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation (resulting in non-hemorrhagic stroke) and the abdominal arteries (resulting in infarctions of abdominal organs).
Koolen-de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
382398
Concept ID:
C2674574
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type
MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type 1B
MedGen UID:
482428
Concept ID:
C3280798
Disease or Syndrome
EFEMP2-related cutis laxa, or autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1B (ARCL1B), is characterized by cutis laxa and systemic involvement, most commonly arterial tortuosity, aneurysms, and stenosis; retrognathia; joint laxity; and arachnodactyly. Severity ranges from perinatal lethality as a result of cardiopulmonary failure to manifestations limited to the vascular and craniofacial systems.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
766676
Concept ID:
C3553762
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 2
MedGen UID:
815540
Concept ID:
C3809210
Disease or Syndrome
The features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 2 (EDSSPD2) include an aged appearance, developmental delay, short stature, craniofacial disproportion, generalized osteopenia, defective wound healing, hypermobile joints, hypotonic muscles, and loose but elastic skin (Okajima et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the spondylodysplastic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see 130070.
Rienhoff syndrome
MedGen UID:
816342
Concept ID:
C3810012
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Immunodeficiency 23
MedGen UID:
862808
Concept ID:
C4014371
Disease or Syndrome
IMD23 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by onset of recurrent infections, usually respiratory or cutaneous, in early childhood. Immune workup usually shows neutropenia, lymphopenia, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE or IgA. Neutrophil chemotactic defects have also been reported. Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many patients develop atopic dermatitis, eczema, and other signs of autoinflammation. Affected individuals may also show developmental delay or cognitive impairment of varying severity (summary by Bjorksten and Lundmark, 1976 and Zhang et al., 2014).
PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
894862
Concept ID:
C4225255
Disease or Syndrome
Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. The disorder comprises features of both demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A; 118220), which results from duplication of the PMP22 gene on 17p12, and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; 610883), which results from duplication of a slightly proximal region on 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. These 2 loci are about 2.5 Mb apart. The resultant YUHAL phenotype may be more severe in comparison to the individual contributions of each gene, with particularly early onset of peripheral neuropathy and features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement (summary by Yuan et al., 2015).
Au-Kline syndrome
MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. There is frequently variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating). Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are also reported in the majority of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies.
Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 10
MedGen UID:
924785
Concept ID:
C4284414
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the LOX gene.
Progeroid and marfanoid aspect-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934763
Concept ID:
C4310796
Disease or Syndrome
The marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MFLS) is characterized by congenital lipodystrophy, premature birth with an accelerated linear growth disproportionate to weight gain, and progeroid appearance with distinct facial features, including proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, and retrognathia. Other characteristic features include arachnodactyly, digital hyperextensibility, myopia, dural ectasia, and normal psychomotor development (Takenouchi et al., 2013). Takenouchi et al. (2013) noted phenotypic overlap with Marfan syndrome (154700) and Shprintzen-Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome (182212).
Meester-Loeys syndrome
MedGen UID:
934778
Concept ID:
C4310811
Disease or Syndrome
Meester-Loeys syndrome (MRLS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by early-onset aortic aneurysm and dissection. Other recurrent findings include hypertelorism, pectus deformity, joint hypermobility, contractures, and mild skeletal dysplasia (Meester et al., 2017).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
1618340
Concept ID:
C4539857
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome (CHDSKM) is characterized by atrial and ventricular septal defects, with aortic root dilation in adulthood. Skeletal defects are variable and include pectus excavatum, scoliosis, and finger contractures, and some patients exhibit joint laxity. Failure to thrive is observed during infancy and early childhood (Wang et al., 2017).
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639277
Concept ID:
C4551773
Disease or Syndrome
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by gingival fibromatosis, dysplastic or absent nails, hypoplasia of the distal phalanges, scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, hirsutism, and abnormalities of the cartilage of the nose and/or ears (summary by Balasubramanian and Parker, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Zimmermann-Laband Syndrome ZLS2 (616455) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V1B2 gene (606939) on chromosome 8p21. ZLS3 (618658) is caused by mutation in the KCNN3 gene (602983) on chromosome 1q21.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1646567
Concept ID:
C4551955
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic-like, 2
MedGen UID:
1632001
Concept ID:
C4693870
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classic-like-2 (EDSCLL2) is characterized by severe joint and skin laxity, osteoporosis involving the hips and spine, osteoarthritis, soft redundant skin that can be acrogeria-like, delayed wound healing with abnormal atrophic scarring, and shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle dislocations. Variable features include gastrointestinal and genitourinary manifestations, such as bowel rupture, gut dysmotility, cryptorchidism, and hernias; vascular complications, such as mitral valve prolapse and aortic root dilation; and skeletal anomalies (Blackburn et al., 2018). See 606408 for another classic-like EDS syndrome. For a discussion of the classification of EDS, see 130000.
Aortic valve disease 3
MedGen UID:
1681142
Concept ID:
C5193127
Disease or Syndrome
Aortic valve disease-3 (AOVD3) is characterized by aortic stenosis and/or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), associated in some patients with aneurysm of the aortic root and/or ascending aorta. Atrial septal defect (ASD) has also been observed in some individuals (Gould et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of aortic valve disease, see AOVD1 (109730).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, Hackmann-Di Donato type
MedGen UID:
1716269
Concept ID:
C5393302
Disease or Syndrome
Hackmann-Di Donato-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSHD) is an X-linked recessive phenotype characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, delayed speech, and mildly delayed walking associated with somatic marfanoid features, including tall stature, long fingers, and mildly dysmorphic facies. Some patients may have cardiac defects, such as mitral valve regurgitation, as well as other anomalies related to connective tissue defects, such as scoliosis (summary by Fiordaliso et al., 2019).
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718781
Concept ID:
C5394425
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome (MDBH) is a multisystem disorder with clinical variability. Affected individuals show cognitive and motor disabilities, as well as some degree of fine, brittle hair with microscopic shaft abnormalities. Other shared features include failure to thrive in early childhood and short stature, with some patients exhibiting feeding difficulties and hepatic steatosis (Kuo et al., 2019).
VISS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021).
Boudin-Mortier syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794202
Concept ID:
C5561992
Disease or Syndrome
Boudin-Mortier syndrome (BOMOS) is characterized by tall stature, arachnodactyly, disproportionately elongated great toes, and multiple extra epiphyses. Some patients also show joint hypermobility and dilation of the aortic root (Boudin et al., 2018). Mutation in the NPR2 gene (108961) results in a similar phenotype of increased stature and elongation of the digits, particularly of the great toes, with multiple extra epiphyses (epiphyseal chondrodysplasia, Miura type; 615923).
Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 12
MedGen UID:
1802657
Concept ID:
C5676959
Disease or Syndrome
Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm-12 (AAT12) is characterized by dilation of the arterial wall associated with a progressive loss of its ability to withstand the wall tension generated by high intraluminal pressure, which can lead to intramural or complete acute vessel wall rupture. Some patients have dolichostenomelia (summary by Elbitar et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of thoracic aortic aneurysm, see AAT1 (607086).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 66
MedGen UID:
1812470
Concept ID:
C5677000
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-66 (MRD66) is characterized by global developmental delay with mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and mild speech delay. The phenotype and severity are highly variable. Some patients have behavioral problems or autism spectrum disorder, and about 50% have variable types of seizures. Additional features may include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, tall or short stature, and mild skeletal anomalies (Rahimi et al., 2022).
Diaphragmatic hernia 4, with cardiovascular defects
MedGen UID:
1823983
Concept ID:
C5774210
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphragmatic hernia-4 with cardiovascular defects (DIH4) is an autosomal recessive congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by the presence of diaphragmatic hernia or eventration apparent at birth. Affected infants have associated pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory insufficiency resulting in death in infancy. Most also have variable cardiovascular defects, including aortopulmonary window or conotruncal anomalies. Dysmorphic facial features and mild distal limb anomalies are sometimes observed (Beecroft et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), see DIH1 (142340).
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
989457
Concept ID:
CN306405
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-1 (TBHS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertelorism with upslanting palpebral fissures, prominent forehead, broad and depressed nasal bridge with short nose, thick eyebrows, and widow's peak. Additional features include small broad hands with mild interdigital webbing and shawl scrotum. Umbilical malformations, cardiac defects, natal teeth, cleft lip/palate, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and malformations of the central nervous system (ventriculomegaly, abnormal corpus callosum) have also been reported. Development is typically normal, although some patients with developmental delays have been reported (summary by Bhoj et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Teebi Hypertelorism Syndrome Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-2 (TBHS2; 619736) is caused by mutation in the CDH11 gene (600023) on chromosome 16q21.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Coselli JS, Barron LM
J Am Coll Cardiol 2023 Sep 12;82(11):1077-1079. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.07.004. PMID: 37673509
Fan JD, Shu YS, Zhou XM, Yuan ZS, Liao XB, Shi WP, Yang M
Minerva Chir 2018 Feb;73(1):36-40. Epub 2017 Feb 23 doi: 10.23736/S0026-4733.17.07293-5. PMID: 28233478
Jin XY, Yuan L, Petrou M, Pepper JR
Front Med 2014 Dec;8(4):427-32. Epub 2014 Dec 2 doi: 10.1007/s11684-014-0385-4. PMID: 25445173

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

David TE
Ann Thorac Surg 2024 Jan;117(1):45-53. Epub 2023 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2023.09.027. PMID: 37778432
Ehrlich T, Hagendorff A, Abeln K, Froede L, Giebels C, Schäfers HJ
Heart 2022 Dec 13;109(1):55-62. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2022-320905. PMID: 35803710
Schill MR, Kachroo P
Curr Opin Cardiol 2021 Nov 1;36(6):683-688. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000902. PMID: 34354008
Coulon C
Presse Med 2015 Nov;44(11):1126-35. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2015.02.024. PMID: 26454306
Loeys BL, Dietz HC, Braverman AC, Callewaert BL, De Backer J, Devereux RB, Hilhorst-Hofstee Y, Jondeau G, Faivre L, Milewicz DM, Pyeritz RE, Sponseller PD, Wordsworth P, De Paepe AM
J Med Genet 2010 Jul;47(7):476-85. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2009.072785. PMID: 20591885

Diagnosis

Ehrlich T, Hagendorff A, Abeln K, Froede L, Giebels C, Schäfers HJ
Heart 2022 Dec 13;109(1):55-62. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2022-320905. PMID: 35803710
David TE
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Autumn;26(3):231-8. Epub 2014 Nov 11 doi: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2014.10.002. PMID: 25527017
Loeys BL, Dietz HC, Braverman AC, Callewaert BL, De Backer J, Devereux RB, Hilhorst-Hofstee Y, Jondeau G, Faivre L, Milewicz DM, Pyeritz RE, Sponseller PD, Wordsworth P, De Paepe AM
J Med Genet 2010 Jul;47(7):476-85. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2009.072785. PMID: 20591885
Judge DP, Dietz HC
Annu Rev Med 2008;59:43-59. doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.59.103106.103801. PMID: 17845137
Tang GH, Borger MA
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2005 Sep;3(5):845-56. doi: 10.1586/14779072.3.5.845. PMID: 16181029

Therapy

Chirichilli I, Irace FG, Salica A, D'Aleo S, Guerrieri Wolf L, Garufi L, De Paulis R
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2022 Autumn;34(3):844-851. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2021.06.026. PMID: 34216751
Buratto E, Konstantinov IE
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Sep;162(3):955-962. Epub 2020 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.08.116. PMID: 33139062
Treasure T, Petrou M, Rosendahl U, Austin C, Rega F, Pirk J, Pepper J
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2016 Sep;50(3):400-4. Epub 2016 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezw078. PMID: 27032474
David TE
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Autumn;26(3):231-8. Epub 2014 Nov 11 doi: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2014.10.002. PMID: 25527017
Judge DP, Dietz HC
Annu Rev Med 2008;59:43-59. doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.59.103106.103801. PMID: 17845137

Prognosis

Ehrlich T, Abeln KB, Burgard C, Froede L, Schulze-Berge J, Morgenthaler L, Giebels C, Schäfers HJ
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2023 Jun 1;63(6) doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezad137. PMID: 37040067
Manganiello S, Soquet J, Mugnier A, Rousse N, Juthier F, Banfi C, Loobuyck V, Coisne A, Richardson M, Marechaux S, Moussa MD, Robin E, Pinçon C, Prat A, Vincentelli A
Ann Thorac Surg 2023 Jun;115(6):1403-1410. Epub 2022 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2022.04.058. PMID: 35643333
Gocoł R, Bis J, Malinowski M, Morkisz Ł, Jodłowski M, Darocha T, Ciosek J, Wojakowski W, Deja MA
Kardiol Pol 2022;80(4):436-444. Epub 2022 Feb 13 doi: 10.33963/KP.a2022.0045. PMID: 35152397
Tasca G, Selmi M, Votta E, Redaelli P, Sturla F, Redaelli A, Gamba A
Ann Thorac Surg 2017 May;103(5):1451-1459. Epub 2016 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2016.08.003. PMID: 27756469
David TE, Maganti M, Armstrong S
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010 Dec;140(6 Suppl):S14-9; discussion S45-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.07.041. PMID: 21092781

Clinical prediction guides

Ehrlich T, Abeln KB, Burgard C, Froede L, Schulze-Berge J, Morgenthaler L, Giebels C, Schäfers HJ
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2023 Jun 1;63(6) doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezad137. PMID: 37040067
Malaisrie SC, Kislitsina ON, Wilsbacher L, Mendelson M, Puthumana JJ, Vassallo P, Kruse J, Andrei AC, McCarthy PM
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