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Chronic hepatitis

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Chronic Hepatitis; Hepatitis, Chronic
SNOMED CT: Chronic hepatitis (76783007); CH - Chronic hepatitis (76783007)
HPO: HP:0200123


Hepatitis that lasts for more than six months. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS2), or Schmidt syndrome, is characterized by the presence of autoimmune Addison disease in association with either autoimmune thyroid disease or type I diabetes mellitus, or both. Chronic candidiasis is not present. APS2 may occur at any age and in both sexes, but is most common in middle-aged females and is very rare in childhood (summary by Betterle et al., 2004). See 240300 for a phenotypic description of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS1).
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM1), a disorder of abnormal T- and B-cell function, is characterized by low serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgE with normal or elevated serum concentrations of IgM. Mitogen proliferation may be normal, but NK- and T-cell cytotoxicity can be impaired. Antigen-specific responses are usually decreased or absent. Total numbers of B cells are normal but there is a marked reduction of class-switched memory B cells. Defective oxidative burst of both neutrophils and macrophages has been reported. The range of clinical findings varies, even within the same family. More than 50% of males with HIGM1 develop symptoms by age one year, and more than 90% are symptomatic by age four years. HIGM1 usually presents in infancy with recurrent upper- and lower-respiratory tract bacterial infections, opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and recurrent or protracted diarrhea that can be infectious or noninfectious and is associated with failure to thrive. Neutropenia is common; thrombocytopenia and anemia are less commonly seen. Autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorders (such as sclerosing cholangitis) as well as increased risk for neoplasms have been reported as medical complications of this disorder. Significant neurologic complications, often the result of a CNS infection, are seen in 5%-15% of affected males. Liver disease, a serious complication of HIGM1 once observed in more than 80% of affected males by age 20 years, may be decreasing with adequate screening and treatment of Cryptosporidium infection.
PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.

Professional guidelines


Aslan AT, Balaban HY
World J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct 7;26(37):5543-5560. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i37.5543. PMID: 33071523Free PMC Article
Wilkins T, Sams R, Carpenter M
Am Fam Physician 2019 Mar 1;99(5):314-323. PMID: 30811163
European Association for the Study of the Liver. Electronic address: easloffice@easloffice.eu; European Association for the Study of the Liver
J Hepatol 2017 Aug;67(2):370-398. Epub 2017 Apr 18 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.03.021. PMID: 28427875

Recent clinical studies


Ye J, Chen J
Front Immunol 2021;12:733364. Epub 2021 Sep 7 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.733364. PMID: 34557195Free PMC Article
Zhang J, Lin S, Jiang D, Li M, Chen Y, Li J, Fan J
Liver Int 2020 Mar;40(3):496-508. Epub 2020 Jan 13 doi: 10.1111/liv.14369. PMID: 31903714
Mysore KR, Leung DH
Clin Liver Dis 2018 Nov;22(4):703-722. Epub 2018 Aug 22 doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2018.06.002. PMID: 30266158
Lin CL, Kao JH
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2017 Jun;31(3):249-255. Epub 2017 May 5 doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2017.04.010. PMID: 28774406
Fattovich G, Bortolotti F, Donato F
J Hepatol 2008 Feb;48(2):335-52. Epub 2007 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2007.11.011. PMID: 18096267


Morgan M, Keeffe EB
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Murray KF, Shah U, Mohan N, Heller S, González-Peralta RP, Kelly D, Chang MH, Mieli-Vergani G, Jara P, Fujisawa T; Chronic Hepatitis Working Group
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008 Aug;47(2):225-33. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e318181b08b. PMID: 18664880
Suriawinata AA, Thung SN
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Lampertico P, Roulot D, Wedemeyer H
J Hepatol 2022 Nov;77(5):1422-1430. Epub 2022 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2022.06.010. PMID: 35752223
Hui RW, Mak LY, Seto WK, Yuen MF
Clin Mol Hepatol 2022 Jul;28(3):408-424. Epub 2022 Feb 17 doi: 10.3350/cmh.2022.0012. PMID: 35172540Free PMC Article
Kang C, Syed YY
Drugs 2020 Oct;80(15):1601-1605. doi: 10.1007/s40265-020-01400-1. PMID: 32926353
Buti M, Esteban R
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Ancell CD, Phipps J, Young L
Am J Health Syst Pharm 2001 May 15;58(10):879-85; quiz 886-8. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/58.10.886. PMID: 11381492


Kanayama Y, Sato K, Saito S, Ueno T, Shimada Y, Kohga T, Shibasaki M, Naganuma A, Takakusagi S, Nagashima T, Nakajima H, Takagi H, Uehara D, Uraoka T
Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2022 Oct-Dec;85(4):601-609. doi: 10.51821/85.4.9925. PMID: 36566370
Paik JM, Golabi P, Younossi Y, Mishra A, Younossi ZM
Hepatology 2020 Nov;72(5):1605-1616. Epub 2020 Oct 27 doi: 10.1002/hep.31173. PMID: 32043613
Choi J, Kim HJ, Lee J, Cho S, Ko MJ, Lim YS
JAMA Oncol 2019 Jan 1;5(1):30-36. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.4070. PMID: 30267080Free PMC Article
Lei Z, Li J, Wu D, Xia Y, Wang Q, Si A, Wang K, Wan X, Lau WY, Wu M, Shen F
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Summerfield JA
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Clinical prediction guides

Pons M, Augustin S, Scheiner B, Guillaume M, Rosselli M, Rodrigues SG, Stefanescu H, Ma MM, Mandorfer M, Mergeay-Fabre M, Procopet B, Schwabl P, Ferlitsch A, Semmler G, Berzigotti A, Tsochatzis E, Bureau C, Reiberger T, Bosch J, Abraldes JG, Genescà J
Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):723-732. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000994. PMID: 33982942
Fan R, Papatheodoridis G, Sun J, Innes H, Toyoda H, Xie Q, Mo S, Sypsa V, Guha IN, Kumada T, Niu J, Dalekos G, Yasuda S, Barnes E, Lian J, Suri V, Idilman R, Barclay ST, Dou X, Berg T, Hayes PC, Flaherty JF, Zhou Y, Zhang Z, Buti M, Hutchinson SJ, Guo Y, Calleja JL, Lin L, Zhao L, Chen Y, Janssen HLA, Zhu C, Shi L, Tang X, Gaggar A, Wei L, Jia J, Irving WL, Johnson PJ, Lampertico P, Hou J
J Hepatol 2020 Dec;73(6):1368-1378. Epub 2020 Jul 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2020.07.025. PMID: 32707225
Iezzoni JC
Semin Diagn Pathol 2018 Nov;35(6):381-389. Epub 2018 Oct 16 doi: 10.1053/j.semdp.2018.10.003. PMID: 30409459
Peng Y, Li Y, He Y, Wei Q, Xie Q, Zhang L, Xia Y, Zhou X, Zhang L, Feng X, Chen K, Chen S, Chen W, Long Q, Chai J
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 May;12(5):503-513. Epub 2018 Apr 16 doi: 10.1080/17474124.2018.1463158. PMID: 29629626
Lee HW, Ahn SH
World J Gastroenterol 2016 Oct 7;22(37):8314-8321. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i37.8314. PMID: 27729738Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Wu S, Zeng N, Sun F, Zhou J, Wu X, Sun Y, Wang B, Zhan S, Kong Y, Jia J, You H, Yang HI
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Dec;19(12):2499-2513. Epub 2021 Mar 3 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2021.02.040. PMID: 33667678
Tan M, Bhadoria AS, Cui F, Tan A, Van Holten J, Easterbrook P, Ford N, Han Q, Lu Y, Bulterys M, Hutin Y
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Feb;6(2):106-119. Epub 2020 Nov 14 doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30307-1. PMID: 33197397Free PMC Article
Choi WM, Choi J, Lim YS
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Feb;19(2):246-258.e9. Epub 2020 May 11 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2020.05.008. PMID: 32407970
Wang CC, Cheng PN, Kao JH
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jan;51(2):216-230. Epub 2019 Nov 20 doi: 10.1111/apt.15575. PMID: 31746482
Lok AS, McMahon BJ, Brown RS Jr, Wong JB, Ahmed AT, Farah W, Almasri J, Alahdab F, Benkhadra K, Mouchli MA, Singh S, Mohamed EA, Abu Dabrh AM, Prokop LJ, Wang Z, Murad MH, Mohammed K
Hepatology 2016 Jan;63(1):284-306. Epub 2015 Nov 13 doi: 10.1002/hep.28280. PMID: 26566246

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