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Peters plus syndrome(PTRPLS)

MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Krause-Kivlin syndrome; Peters anomaly with short limb dwarfism
SNOMED CT: Peters plus syndrome (449817000)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): B3GLCT (13q12.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009856
OMIM®: 261540
Orphanet: ORPHA709

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Peters Plus Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Saskia AJ Lesnik Oberstein  |  Claudia AL Ruivenkamp  |  Raoul C Hennekam   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Patients with Peters-plus syndrome (PTRPLS) exhibit ocular features, systemic malformations, and variable degrees of developmental delay. Ocular abnormalities involve the anterior chamber, and in most patients consist of Peters anomaly, which is characterized by corneal clouding and iridolenticulocorneal adhesions. Growth retardation, short stature, and brachydactyly appear to be present in all patients, and developmental delay is frequent, whereas external ear anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, and cardiac and genitourinary malformations are less common (Dassie-Ajdid et al., 2009).  http://www.omim.org/entry/261540
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Peters plus syndrome is an inherited condition that is characterized by eye abnormalities, short stature, an opening in the lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), distinctive facial features, and intellectual disability.

The eye problems in Peters plus syndrome occur in an area at the front part of the eye known as the anterior segment. The anterior segment consists of structures including the lens, the colored part of the eye (iris), and the clear covering of the eye (cornea). An eye problem called Peters anomaly is the most common anterior segment abnormality seen in Peters plus syndrome. Peters anomaly involves abnormal development of the anterior segment, which results in a cornea that is cloudy (opaque) and causes blurred vision. Peters anomaly may also be associated with clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts) or other lens abnormalities. Peters anomaly is usually bilateral, which means that it affects both eyes. The severity of corneal clouding and other eye problems can vary between individuals with Peters plus syndrome, even among members of the same family. Many people with Peters plus syndrome experience vision loss that worsens over time.

All people with Peters plus syndrome have short stature, which is evident before birth. The height of adult males with this condition ranges from 141 centimeters to 155 centimeters (4 feet, 7 inches to 5 feet, 1 inch), and the height of adult females ranges from 128 centimeters to 151 centimeters (4 feet, 2 inches to 4 feet, 11 inches). Individuals with Peters plus syndrome also have shortened upper limbs (rhizomelia) and shortened fingers and toes (brachydactyly).

The characteristic facial features of Peters plus syndrome include a prominent forehead; small, malformed ears; narrow eyes; a long area between the nose and mouth (philtrum); and a pronounced double curve of the upper lip (Cupid's bow). The neck may also be broad and webbed. A cleft lip with or without a cleft palate is present in about half of the people with this condition.

Developmental milestones, such as walking and speech, are delayed in most children with Peters plus syndrome. Most affected individuals also have intellectual disability that can range from mild to severe, although some have normal intelligence. The severity of physical features does not predict the level of intellectual disability.

Less common signs and symptoms of Peters plus syndrome include heart defects, structural brain abnormalities, hearing loss, and kidney or genital abnormalities.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/peters-plus-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Ureteral duplication
MedGen UID:
66380
Concept ID:
C0221365
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of two, instead of one, ureter connecting a kidney to the bladder.
Renal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120571
Concept ID:
C0266295
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoplasia of the kidney.
Uterine hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120575
Concept ID:
C0266399
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the uterus.
Hypoplasia of the vagina
MedGen UID:
91040
Concept ID:
C0345309
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the vagina.
Hypoplastic labia majora
MedGen UID:
107566
Concept ID:
C0566899
Finding
Undergrowth of the outer labia.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Clitoral hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
336198
Concept ID:
C1844527
Finding
Developmental hypoplasia of the clitoris.
Syndactyly
MedGen UID:
52619
Concept ID:
C0039075
Congenital Abnormality
Webbing or fusion of the fingers or toes, involving soft parts only or including bone structure. Bony fusions are referred to as "bony" syndactyly if the fusion occurs in a radio-ulnar axis. Fusions of bones of the fingers or toes in a proximo-distal axis are referred to as "symphalangism".
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used here to describe a series distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here.
Broad palm
MedGen UID:
75535
Concept ID:
C0264142
Congenital Abnormality
For children from birth to 4 years of age the palm width is more than 2 SD above the mean; for children from 4 to 16 years of age the palm width is above the 95th centile; or, the width of the palm appears disproportionately wide for the length.
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Short toe
MedGen UID:
322858
Concept ID:
C1836195
Finding
A toe that appears disproportionately short compared to the foot.
Short metacarpal
MedGen UID:
323064
Concept ID:
C1837084
Anatomical Abnormality
Diminished length of one or more metacarpal bones in relation to the others of the same hand or to the contralateral metacarpal.
Short palm
MedGen UID:
334684
Concept ID:
C1843108
Finding
Short palm.
Short foot
MedGen UID:
376415
Concept ID:
C1848673
Finding
A measured foot length that is more than 2 SD below the mean for a newborn of 27 - 41 weeks gestation, or foot that is less than the 3rd centile for individuals from birth to 16 years of age (objective). Alternatively, a foot that appears disproportionately short (subjective).
Limited elbow movement
MedGen UID:
337930
Concept ID:
C1849955
Finding
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Proximal placement of thumb
MedGen UID:
356033
Concept ID:
C1865572
Finding
Proximal mislocalization of the thumb.
Broad foot
MedGen UID:
356187
Concept ID:
C1866241
Finding
A foot for which the measured width is above the 95th centile for age; or, a foot that appears disproportionately wide for its length.
Rhizomelia
MedGen UID:
357122
Concept ID:
C1866730
Congenital Abnormality
Disproportionate shortening of the proximal segment of limbs (i.e. the femur and humerus).
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis), below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis), or above the pulmonary valve (supravalvar stenosis).
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Disproportionate short-limb short stature
MedGen UID:
342370
Concept ID:
C1849937
Finding
A type of disproportionate short stature characterized by a short limbs but an average-sized trunk.
Birth length less than 3rd percentile
MedGen UID:
340924
Concept ID:
C1855650
Finding
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Decreased body weight
MedGen UID:
1806755
Concept ID:
C5574742
Finding
Abnormally low body weight.
Biliary tract abnormality
MedGen UID:
108201
Concept ID:
C0549613
Finding
An abnormality of the biliary tree.
Anteriorly placed anus
MedGen UID:
333160
Concept ID:
C1838705
Finding
Anterior malposition of the anus.
Bilobate gallbladder
MedGen UID:
335420
Concept ID:
C1846422
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of a bilobed gallbladder, related to a duplication of the gallbladder primordium.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Stenosis of the external auditory canal
MedGen UID:
140758
Concept ID:
C0395837
Finding
An abnormal narrowing of the external auditory canal.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Microtia, second degree
MedGen UID:
892536
Concept ID:
C4020797
Anatomical Abnormality
Median longitudinal length of the ear more than two standard deviations below the mean in the presence of some, but not all, parts of the normal ear.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability, progressive
MedGen UID:
337397
Concept ID:
C1846149
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The term progressive intellectual disability should be used if intelligence decreases/deteriorates over time.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Craniosynostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1163
Concept ID:
C0010278
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. Primary craniosynostosis refers to the closure of one or more sutures due to abnormalities in skull development, and secondary craniosynostosis results from failure of brain growth.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Diastasis recti
MedGen UID:
113171
Concept ID:
C0221766
Disease or Syndrome
A separation of the rectus abdominis muscle into right and left halves (which are normally joined at the midline at the linea alba).
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Hemivertebrae
MedGen UID:
82720
Concept ID:
C0265677
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of one half of the vertebral body.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Short metatarsal
MedGen UID:
341358
Concept ID:
C1849020
Finding
Diminished length of a metatarsal bone, with resultant proximal displacement of the associated toe.
Square pelvis bone
MedGen UID:
337928
Concept ID:
C1849953
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally squared appearance of the bony pelvis, a normally rounded or basin-shaped structure.
Wide anterior fontanel
MedGen UID:
400926
Concept ID:
C1866134
Finding
Enlargement of the anterior fontanelle with respect to age-dependent norms.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Abnormal pelvic girdle bone morphology
MedGen UID:
866545
Concept ID:
C4020847
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the bony pelvic girdle, which is a ring of bones connecting the vertebral column to the femurs.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
40327
Concept ID:
C0008924
Congenital Abnormality
A gap or groove in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Webbed neck
MedGen UID:
113154
Concept ID:
C0221217
Congenital Abnormality
Pterygium colli is a congenital skin fold that runs along the sides of the neck down to the shoulders. It involves an ectopic fibrotic facial band superficial to the trapezius muscle. Excess hair-bearing skin is also present and extends down the cervical region well beyond the normal hairline.
Round face
MedGen UID:
116087
Concept ID:
C0239479
Finding
The facial appearance is more circular than usual as viewed from the front.
Bilateral cleft lip
MedGen UID:
451046
Concept ID:
C0392005
Congenital Abnormality
A non-midline cleft of the upper lip on the left and right sides.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Short lingual frenulum
MedGen UID:
604928
Concept ID:
C0426501
Finding
The presence of an abnormally short lingual frenulum.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Thin vermilion border
MedGen UID:
108294
Concept ID:
C0578038
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the medial part of the lip more than 2 SD below the mean, or apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the lip in the frontal view. The vermilion is the red part of the lips (and confusingly, the vermilion itself is also often referred to as being equivalent the lips).
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor
MedGen UID:
342374
Concept ID:
C1849950
Finding
Agenesis of one or more maxillary lateral incisor, comprising the maxillary lateral primary incisor and maxillary lateral secondary incisor.
Exaggerated cupid bow
MedGen UID:
376842
Concept ID:
C1850629
Finding
More pronounced paramedian peaks and median notch of the Cupid's bow.
Broad neck
MedGen UID:
344099
Concept ID:
C1853638
Finding
Increased side-to-side width of the neck.
Conical incisor
MedGen UID:
341076
Concept ID:
C1856136
Finding
An abnormal conical morphology of the incisor tooth.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Narrow palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
382506
Concept ID:
C2675021
Finding
Reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Preauricular pit
MedGen UID:
120587
Concept ID:
C0266610
Congenital Abnormality
Small indentation anterior to the insertion of the ear.
Facial hypertrichosis
MedGen UID:
342000
Concept ID:
C1851400
Finding
Excessive, increased hair growth located in the facial region.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Iris coloboma
MedGen UID:
116097
Concept ID:
C0240063
Anatomical Abnormality
A coloboma of the iris.
Irido-corneo-trabecular dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
91031
Concept ID:
C0344559
Congenital Abnormality
Anterior segment dysgeneses (ASGD or ASMD) are a heterogeneous group of developmental disorders affecting the anterior segment of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm canal. The clinical features of ASGD include iris hypoplasia, an enlarged or reduced corneal diameter, corneal vascularization and opacity, posterior embryotoxon, corectopia, polycoria, an abnormal iridocorneal angle, ectopia lentis, and anterior synechiae between the iris and posterior corneal surface (summary by Cheong et al., 2016). Anterior segment dysgenesis is sometimes divided into subtypes including aniridia (see 106210), Axenfeld and Rieger anomalies, iridogoniodysgenesis, Peters anomaly, and posterior embryotoxon (Gould and John, 2002). Patients with ASGD5 have been reported with the Peters anomaly, Axenfeld anomaly, and Rieger anomaly subtypes. Peters anomaly consists of a central corneal leukoma, absence of the posterior corneal stroma and Descemet membrane, and a variable degree of iris and lenticular attachments to the central aspect of the posterior cornea (Peters, 1906). It occurs as an isolated ocular abnormality or in association with other ocular defects. In Axenfeld anomaly, strands of iris tissue attach to the Schwalbe line; in Rieger anomaly, in addition to the attachment of iris tissue to the Schwalbe line, there is clinically evident iris stromal atrophy with hole or pseudo-hole formation and corectopia (summary by Smith and Traboulsi, 2012).
Retinal coloboma
MedGen UID:
761889
Concept ID:
C3540764
Disease or Syndrome
A notch or cleft of the retina.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVPeters plus syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Peters plus syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Jaeken J, Lefeber DJ, Matthijs G
Eur J Hum Genet 2016 Aug;24(8) Epub 2016 Apr 6 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2016.32. PMID: 27049305Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Shah PR, Chauhan B, Chu CT, Kofler J, Nischal KK
Cornea 2022 Feb 1;41(2):219-223. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000002889. PMID: 34629439
Bothra N, Sharma A, Ali MJ
Orbit 2021 Dec;40(6):509-512. Epub 2020 Sep 8 doi: 10.1080/01676830.2020.1818263. PMID: 32896195
Salik I, Gupta A, Tara A, Zaidman G, Barst S
Paediatr Anaesth 2020 May;30(5):577-583. Epub 2020 Mar 16 doi: 10.1111/pan.13843. PMID: 32107814
Weh E, Reis LM, Tyler RC, Bick D, Rhead WJ, Wallace S, McGregor TL, Dills SK, Chao MC, Murray JC, Semina EV
Clin Genet 2014 Aug;86(2):142-8. Epub 2013 Sep 17 doi: 10.1111/cge.12241. PMID: 23889335Free PMC Article
Hennekam RC, Van Schooneveld MJ, Ardinger HH, Van Den Boogaard MJ, Friedburg D, Rudnik-Schoneborn S, Seguin JH, Weatherstone KB, Wittebol-Post D, Meinecke P
Clin Dysmorphol 1993 Oct;2(4):283-300. PMID: 7508316

Diagnosis

Shigeyasu C, Yamada M, Miyata Y, Uchiyama Y, Matsumoto N, Kusumi Y, Shiraishi A
Cornea 2023 Jul 1;42(7):908-911. Epub 2023 Apr 6 doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000003281. PMID: 37039706
Shah PR, Chauhan B, Chu CT, Kofler J, Nischal KK
Cornea 2022 Feb 1;41(2):219-223. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000002889. PMID: 34629439
Bothra N, Sharma A, Ali MJ
Orbit 2021 Dec;40(6):509-512. Epub 2020 Sep 8 doi: 10.1080/01676830.2020.1818263. PMID: 32896195
Demir GÜ, Lafcı NG, Doğan ÖA, Şimşek-Kiper PÖ, Utine GE
Turk J Pediatr 2020;62(1):136-140. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2020.01.020. PMID: 32253880
Kapoor S, Mukherjee SB, Arora R, Shroff D
Indian J Pediatr 2008 Jun;75(6):635-7. Epub 2008 Aug 31 doi: 10.1007/s12098-008-0122-6. PMID: 18759095

Therapy

Lee KW, Lee PD
Am J Med Genet A 2004 Feb 1;124A(4):388-91. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.20400. PMID: 14735587

Prognosis

Thu CT, Chung JY, Dhawan D, Vaiana CA, Mahal LK
ACS Chem Biol 2021 Oct 15;16(10):1900-1907. Epub 2021 Jun 4 doi: 10.1021/acschembio.1c00247. PMID: 34085516Free PMC Article
Shimizu R, Saito R, Hoshino K, Ogawa K, Negishi T, Nishimura J, Mitsui N, Osawa M, Ohashi H
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2010 Sep;50(3):197-9. Epub 2010 Jun 24 doi: 10.1111/j.1741-4520.2010.00282.x. PMID: 20584037
Reis LM, Tyler RC, Abdul-Rahman O, Trapane P, Wallerstein R, Broome D, Hoffman J, Khan A, Paradiso C, Ron N, Bergner A, Semina EV
Am J Med Genet A 2008 Oct 15;146A(20):2603-10. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32498. PMID: 18798333Free PMC Article
Thompson EM, Winter RM, Baraitser M
Clin Dysmorphol 1993 Oct;2(4):301-16. PMID: 7508317
Hennekam RC, Van Schooneveld MJ, Ardinger HH, Van Den Boogaard MJ, Friedburg D, Rudnik-Schoneborn S, Seguin JH, Weatherstone KB, Wittebol-Post D, Meinecke P
Clin Dysmorphol 1993 Oct;2(4):283-300. PMID: 7508316

Clinical prediction guides

Shah PR, Chauhan B, Chu CT, Kofler J, Nischal KK
Cornea 2022 Feb 1;41(2):219-223. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000002889. PMID: 34629439
Thu CT, Chung JY, Dhawan D, Vaiana CA, Mahal LK
ACS Chem Biol 2021 Oct 15;16(10):1900-1907. Epub 2021 Jun 4 doi: 10.1021/acschembio.1c00247. PMID: 34085516Free PMC Article
Zhang A, Venkat A, Taujale R, Mull JL, Ito A, Kannan N, Haltiwanger RS
J Biol Chem 2021 Jul;297(1):100843. Epub 2021 May 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100843. PMID: 34058199Free PMC Article
Vasudevan D, Takeuchi H, Johar SS, Majerus E, Haltiwanger RS
Curr Biol 2015 Feb 2;25(3):286-295. Epub 2014 Dec 24 doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.049. PMID: 25544610Free PMC Article
Reis LM, Tyler RC, Abdul-Rahman O, Trapane P, Wallerstein R, Broome D, Hoffman J, Khan A, Paradiso C, Ron N, Bergner A, Semina EV
Am J Med Genet A 2008 Oct 15;146A(20):2603-10. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32498. PMID: 18798333Free PMC Article

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