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Pulmonary arterial hypertension

MedGen UID:
425404
Concept ID:
C2973725
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Arterial Hypertension, Pulmonary; Hypertension, Pulmonary Arterial; Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
SNOMED CT: Pulmonary hypertensive arterial disease (11399002); Hypertensive pulmonary arterial disease (11399002); Pulmonary arterial hypertension (11399002)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
HPO: HP:0002092
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0015924
Orphanet: ORPHA182090

Definition

Pulmonary hypertension is defined mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25mmHg or more and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15mmHg or less when measured by right heart catheterisation at rest and in a supine position. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Hallermann-Streiff syndrome
MedGen UID:
5414
Concept ID:
C0018522
Disease or Syndrome
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is characterized by a typical skull shape (brachycephaly with frontal bossing), hypotrichosis, microphthalmia, cataracts, beaked nose, micrognathia, skin atrophy, dental anomalies, and proportionate short stature (Hallermann, 1948; Streiff, 1950; Francois, 1958). Mental retardation is present in a minority of cases (Gorlin et al., 1990).
Melnick-Needles syndrome
MedGen UID:
6292
Concept ID:
C0025237
Disease or Syndrome
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6
MedGen UID:
44514
Concept ID:
C0026709
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS6) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B. Clinical features and severity are variable, but usually include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism. Intelligence is usually normal (Azevedo et al., 2004).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S
MedGen UID:
88566
Concept ID:
C0086431
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type III
MedGen UID:
78664
Concept ID:
C0268362
Disease or Syndrome
COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV).
Familial pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis
MedGen UID:
90956
Concept ID:
C0340848
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary venoocclusive disease-2 is an autosomal recessive subtype of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH; see 178600). It is characterized histologically by widespread fibrous intimal proliferation of septal veins and preseptal venules, and is frequently associated with pulmonary capillary dilatation and proliferation. The disorder can cause occult alveolar hemorrhage. High-resolution CT imaging of the chest shows patchy centrilobular ground-glass opacities, septal lines, and lymph node enlargement (summary by Eyries et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pulmonary venoocclusive disease, see PVOD1 (265450).
Phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
87455
Concept ID:
C0342749
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogenosis due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P) type b, or glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b, is a type of glycogenosis due to G6P deficiency (see this term).
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
164078
Concept ID:
C0877024
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small ilia with shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae, and small deformed capital femoral epiphyses. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease. The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and an associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with a greater risk of death during childhood to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with likely survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
Timothy syndrome
MedGen UID:
331395
Concept ID:
C1832916
Disease or Syndrome
The first identified CACNA1C-related disorder, referred to as Timothy syndrome, consists of the combination of prolonged QT interval, autism, and cardiovascular malformation with syndactyly of the fingers and toes. Infrequent findings also include developmental and speech delay, seizures, and recurrent infections. With increased availability of molecular genetic testing, a wider spectrum of pathogenic variants and clinical findings associated with CACNA1C-related disorders has been recognized. Because CACNA1C is associated with calcium channel function, all individuals with a pathogenic variant in this gene are at risk for cardiac arrhythmia of a specific type. The clinical manifestations of a CACNA1C-related disorder include three phenotypes: Timothy syndrome with or without syndactyly. QT prolongation (QTc >480 ms) and arrhythmias in the absence of other syndromic features. Short QT syndrome (QTc <350 ms) or Brugada syndrome with short QT interval. These three phenotypes can be separated into two broad categories on the basis of the functional consequences of the pathogenic variants in CACNA1C: QT prolongation with or without a Timothy syndrome-associated phenotype associated with pathogenic variants inducing a gain of function at the cellular level (i.e., increased calcium current). Short QT interval with or without Brugada syndrome EKG pattern associated with pathogenic variants causing loss of function (i.e., reduced calcium current).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1S
MedGen UID:
371831
Concept ID:
C1834481
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYH7 gene.
Lymphedema-cerebral arteriovenous anomaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
322617
Concept ID:
C1835272
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphedema-cerebral arteriovenous anomaly syndrome is characterised by the variable association of a cerebrovascular malformation, foot lymphoedema and primary pulmonary hypertension. It has been described in a woman and four of her children.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Chuvash polycythemia
MedGen UID:
332974
Concept ID:
C1837915
Disease or Syndrome
Familial erythrocytosis-2 (ECYT2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased red blood cell mass, increased serum levels of erythropoietin (EPO; 133170), and normal oxygen affinity. Patients with ECYT2 carry a high risk for peripheral thrombosis and cerebrovascular events (Cario, 2005). Familial erythrocytosis-2 has features of both primary and secondary erythrocytosis. In addition to increased circulating levels of EPO, consistent with a secondary, extrinsic process, erythroid progenitors may be hypersensitive to EPO, consistent with a primary, intrinsic process (Prchal, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial erythrocytosis, see ECYT1 (133100).
Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, type 2
MedGen UID:
324960
Concept ID:
C1838163
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that lack intervening capillaries and result in direct connections between arteries and veins. The most common clinical manifestation is spontaneous and recurrent nosebleeds (epistaxis) beginning on average at age 12 years. Telangiectases (small AVMs) are characteristically found on the lips, tongue, buccal and gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, face, and fingers. The appearance of telangiectases is generally later than epistaxis but may be during childhood. Large AVMs occur most often in the lungs, liver, or brain; complications from bleeding or shunting may be sudden and catastrophic. A minority of individuals with HHT have GI bleeding, which is rarely seen before age 50 years.
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Sengers syndrome
MedGen UID:
395228
Concept ID:
C1859317
Disease or Syndrome
Sengers syndrome is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Mental development is normal, but affected individuals may die early from cardiomyopathy (summary by Mayr et al., 2012). Skeletal muscle biopsies of 2 affected individuals showed severe mtDNA depletion (Calvo et al., 2012).
Cirrhosis, familial
MedGen UID:
350049
Concept ID:
C1861556
Disease or Syndrome
Cirrhosis in which no causative agent can be identified.
H syndrome
MedGen UID:
400532
Concept ID:
C1864445
Disease or Syndrome
The histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome comprises features of 4 histiocytic disorders previously thought to be distinct: Faisalabad histiocytosis (FHC), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), H syndrome, and pigmented hypertrichosis with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus syndrome (PHID). FHC was described as an autosomal recessive disease involving joint deformities, sensorineural hearing loss, and subsequent development of generalized lymphadenopathy and swellings in the eyelids that contain histiocytes (summary by Morgan et al., 2010). SHML, or familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, was described as a rare cause of lymph node enlargement in children, consisting of chronic massive enlargement of cervical lymph nodes frequently accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal sites were involved in approximately 25% of patients, including salivary glands, orbit, eyelid, spleen, and testes. The involvement of retropharyngeal lymphoid tissue sometimes caused snoring and sleep apnea (summary by Kismet et al., 2005). H syndrome was characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, heart anomalies, and hypogonadism; hearing loss was also found in about half of patients, and many had short stature. PHID was characterized by predominantly antibody-negative insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pigmented hypertrichosis and variable occurrence of other features of H syndrome, with hepatosplenomegaly occurring in about half of patients (Cliffe et al., 2009). Bolze et al. (2012) noted that mutations in the SLC29A3 gene (612373) had been implicated in H syndrome, PHID, FHC, and SHML, and that some patients presented a combination of features from 2 or more of these syndromes, leading to the suggestion that these phenotypes should be grouped together as 'SLC29A3 disorder.' Bolze et al. (2012) suggested that the histologic features of the lesions seemed to be the most uniform phenotype in these patients. In addition, the immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in H syndrome patients was shown to be the same as that seen in patients with the familial form of Rosai-Dorfman disease, further supporting the relationship between these disorders (Avitan-Hersh et al., 2011; Colmenero et al., 2012).
Gaucher disease type I
MedGen UID:
409531
Concept ID:
C1961835
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Neonatal acute respiratory distress due to SP-B deficiency
MedGen UID:
368844
Concept ID:
C1968602
Disease or Syndrome
Inborn errors of pulmonary surfactant metabolism are genetically heterogeneous disorders resulting in severe respiratory insufficiency or failure in full-term neonates or infants. These disorders are associated with various pathologic entities, including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP), or cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) (Clark and Clark, 2005). A clinically similar disorder characterized by respiratory distress (267450) can affect preterm infants, who show developmental deficiency of surfactant. Acquired PAP (610910) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to CSF2 (138960). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pulmonary Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction See also SMDP2 (610913), caused by mutation in the SPTPC gene (178620) on 8p21; SMDP3 (610921), caused by mutation in the ABCA3 gene (601615) on 16p13; SMDP4 (300770), caused by mutation in the CSF2RA gene (306250) on Xp22; and SMDP5 (614370), caused by mutation in the CSF2RB gene (138981) on 22q12.
Surfactant metabolism dysfunction, pulmonary, 2
MedGen UID:
410078
Concept ID:
C1970470
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction-2 (SMDP2) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with progressive respiratory insufficiency and lung disease with a variable clinical course. The pathophysiology of the disorder is postulated to involve intracellular accumulation of a structurally defective SPC protein (Thomas et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction, see SMDP1 (265120).
Severe achondroplasia-developmental delay-acanthosis nigricans syndrome
MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
SADDAN dysplasia (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by the constellation of these features. Radiology reveals 'ram's horn' shaped clavicles and reverse bowing of lower limbs. Approximately half of patients die before the fourth week of life secondary to respiratory failure (summary by Zankl et al., 2008).
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
436694
Concept ID:
C2676468
Finding
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BTNL2 gene.
Fontaine progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described.
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
394568
Concept ID:
C2697310
Finding
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HLA-DRB1 gene.
Autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Megarbane type
MedGen UID:
413221
Concept ID:
C2750075
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Mégarbané type is a rare, primary bone dysplasia characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, pre- and postnatal disproportionate short stature with short, rhizomelic limbs, facial dysmorphism, a short neck and small thorax. Hypotonia, cardiomegaly and global developmental delay have also been associated. Several radiographic findings have been reported, including ribs with cupped ends, platyspondyly, square iliac bones, horizontal and trident acetabula, hypoplastic ischia, and delayed epiphyseal ossification.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 15
MedGen UID:
413312
Concept ID:
C2750459
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VCL gene.
Autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia due to G6PC3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
414066
Concept ID:
C2751630
Disease or Syndrome
G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia which occurs in a phenotypic continuum that includes the following: Isolated severe congenital neutropenia (nonsyndromic). Classic G6PC3 deficiency (severe congenital neutropenia plus cardiovascular and/or urogenital abnormalities). Severe G6PC3 deficiency (classic G6PC3 deficiency plus involvement of non-myeloid hematopoietic cell lines, additional extra-hematologic features, and pulmonary hypertension; known as Dursun syndrome). Neutropenia usually presents with recurrent bacterial infections in the first few months of life. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), failure to thrive (FTT), and poor postnatal growth are common. Other findings in classic and severe G6PC3 deficiency can include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resembling Crohn's disease, and endocrine disorders (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and delayed puberty).
PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Alveolar capillary dysplasia with pulmonary venous misalignment
MedGen UID:
755478
Concept ID:
C2960310
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is characterized histologically by failure of formation and ingrowth of alveolar capillaries that then do not make contact with alveolar epithelium, medial muscular thickening of small pulmonary arterioles with muscularization of the intraacinar arterioles, thickened alveolar walls, and anomalously situated pulmonary veins running alongside pulmonary arterioles and sharing the same adventitial sheath. Less common features include a reduced number of alveoli and a patchy distribution of the histopathologic changes. The disorder is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and shows varying degrees of lability and severity (Boggs et al., 1994). Affected infants present with respiratory distress resulting from pulmonary hypertension in the early postnatal period, and the disease is uniformly fatal within the newborn period (Vassal et al., 1998). Additional features of ACDMPV include multiple congenital anomalies affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as disruption of the normal right-left asymmetry of intrathoracic or intraabdominal organs (Sen et al., 2004).
Chromosome 17q23.1-q23.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461957
Concept ID:
C3150607
Disease or Syndrome
17q23.1q23.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, short stature, heart defects and limb abnormalities.
Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome
MedGen UID:
462551
Concept ID:
C3151201
Disease or Syndrome
Smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome (SMDYS) presents with a recognizable pattern of complications, including congenital mydriasis, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), pulmonary artery hypertension, aortic and other arterial aneurysms, moyamoya-like cerebrovascular disease, intestinal hypoperistalsis and malrotation, and hypotonic bladder. It is caused by heterozygous mutations of the ACTA2 gene altering the arginine-179 codon (summary by Regalado et al., 2018).
Hyperuricemia, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure, alkalosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
462559
Concept ID:
C3151209
Disease or Syndrome
HUPRA syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by onset in infancy of progressive renal failure leading to electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary hypertension, hypotonia, and delayed development. Affected individuals are born prematurely (summary by Belostotsky et al., 2011).
Nestor-Guillermo progeria syndrome
MedGen UID:
462796
Concept ID:
C3151446
Disease or Syndrome
Nestor-Guillermo progeria syndrome (NGPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lipoatrophy, osteoporosis, and very severe osteolysis. Patients have no cardiovascular impairment, diabetes mellitus, or hypertriglyceridemia, but suffer profound skeletal abnormalities that affect their quality of life. Onset is after 2 years of age, and lifespan is relatively long (summary by Cabanillas et al., 2011).
Ogden syndrome
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
478062
Concept ID:
C3276432
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of systemic energy metabolism, resulting in weakness, respiratory failure, lack of neurologic development, lactic acidosis, and early death (summary by Seyda et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome See also MMDS2 (614299), caused by mutation in the BOLA3 gene (613183) on chromosome 2p13; MMDS3 (615330), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on chromosome 1q42; MMDS4 (616370), caused by mutation in the ISCA2 gene (615317) on chromosome 14q24; MMDS5 (617613), caused by mutation in the ISCA1 gene (611006) on chromosome 9q21; MMDS6 (617954), caused by mutation in the PMPCB gene (603131) on chromosome 7q22; and MMDS7 (620423), caused by mutation in the GCSH gene (238330) on chromosome 16q23.
Geleophysic dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
481684
Concept ID:
C3280054
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Atrial septal defect 9
MedGen UID:
482573
Concept ID:
C3280943
Disease or Syndrome
Any atrial heart septal defect in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GATA6 gene.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 20
MedGen UID:
761920
Concept ID:
C3540844
Disease or Syndrome
CILD20 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by infantile onset of chronic sinopulmonary infections resulting from immotile cilia and defective clearance. Patients may also have situs inversus or cardiac anomalies. Electron microscopy of respiratory epithelial cells shows absence of the outer dynein arms. Unlike other forms of CILD, patients with CILD20 do not appear to be infertile. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 2
MedGen UID:
763835
Concept ID:
C3550921
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or anophthalmia and linear skin defects, usually involving the face and neck, which are present at birth and heal with age, leaving minimal residual scarring. Other findings can include a wide variety of other ocular abnormalities (e.g., corneal anomalies, orbital cysts, cataracts), central nervous system involvement (e.g., structural anomalies, developmental delay, infantile seizures), cardiac concerns (e.g., hypertrophic or oncocytic cardiomyopathy, atrial or ventricular septal defects, arrhythmias), short stature, diaphragmatic hernia, nail dystrophy, hearing impairment, and genitourinary malformations. Inter- and intrafamilial variability is described.
Deafness-encephaloneuropathy-obesity-valvulopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
766268
Concept ID:
C3553354
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria, type cblJ
MedGen UID:
766829
Concept ID:
C3553915
Disease or Syndrome
Combined methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) and homocystinuria is a genetically heterogeneous metabolic disorder of cobalamin (cbl; vitamin B12) metabolism, which is essential for hematologic and neurologic function. Biochemically, the defect causes decreased levels of the coenzymes adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and methylcobalamin (MeCbl), which results in decreased activity of the respective enzymes methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT; 609058) and methyltetrahydrofolate:homocysteine methyltransferase, also known as methionine synthase (MTR; 156570). The cblJ type is phenotypically and biochemically similar to the cblF type (MAHCF; 277380) (summary by Coelho et al., 2012).
Left ventricular noncompaction 10
MedGen UID:
811617
Concept ID:
C3715165
Disease or Syndrome
Left ventricular noncompaction is a heart (cardiac) muscle disorder that occurs when the lower left chamber of the heart (left ventricle), which helps the heart pump blood, does not develop correctly. Instead of the muscle being smooth and firm, the cardiac muscle in the left ventricle is thick and appears spongy. The abnormal cardiac muscle is weak and has an impaired ability to pump blood because it either cannot completely contract or it cannot completely relax. For the heart to pump blood normally, cardiac muscle must contract and relax fully.\n\nSome individuals with left ventricular noncompaction experience no symptoms at all; others have heart problems that can include sudden cardiac death. Additional signs and symptoms include abnormal blood clots, irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), extreme fatigue during exercise (exercise intolerance), shortness of breath (dyspnea), fainting (syncope), swelling of the legs (lymphedema), and trouble laying down flat. Some affected individuals have features of other heart defects. Left ventricular noncompaction can be diagnosed at any age, from birth to late adulthood. Approximately two-thirds of individuals with left ventricular noncompaction develop heart failure.
Partial lipodystrophy, congenital cataracts, and neurodegeneration syndrome
MedGen UID:
813897
Concept ID:
C3807567
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by loss of body fat from various regions and predisposition to metabolic complications of insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities. FPLD7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Additional features, including early-onset cataracts and later onset of spasticity of the lower limbs, have been noted in some patients (summary by Garg et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Pulmonary hypertension, primary, 3
MedGen UID:
815522
Concept ID:
C3809192
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high blood pressure (hypertension) in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is one form of a broader condition known as pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension occurs when most of the very small arteries throughout the lungs narrow in diameter, which increases the resistance to blood flow through the lungs. To overcome the increased resistance, blood pressure increases in the pulmonary artery and in the right ventricle of the heart, which is the chamber that pumps blood into the pulmonary artery. Ultimately, the increased blood pressure can damage the right ventricle of the heart.\n\nSigns and symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension occur when increased blood pressure cannot fully overcome the elevated resistance. As a result, the flow of oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body is insufficient. Shortness of breath (dyspnea) during exertion and fainting spells are the most common symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. People with this disorder may experience additional symptoms, particularly as the condition worsens. Other symptoms include dizziness, swelling (edema) of the ankles or legs, chest pain, and a rapid heart rate.
Pulmonary hypertension, primary, 4
MedGen UID:
815528
Concept ID:
C3809198
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare progressive disease characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure in the absence of common causes of pulmonary hypertension, such as chronic heart, lung, or thromboembolic disease. There is often vascular remodeling. The clinical presentation can be nonspecific, and patients often receive a diagnosis late in their clinical course (summary by Ma et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary pulmonary hypertension, see PPH1 (178600).
Aldosterone-producing adenoma with seizures and neurological abnormalities
MedGen UID:
815939
Concept ID:
C3809609
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by primary hyperaldosteronism presenting with early-onset, severe hypertension, hypokalemia and neurological manifestations (including seizures, severe hypotonia, spasticity, cerebral palsy and profound developmental delay/intellectual disability).
Pulmonary venoocclusive disease 1, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
854500
Concept ID:
C3887658
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary venoocclusive disease primarily affects the postcapillary venous pulmonary vessels and may involve significant pulmonary capillary dilation and/or proliferation. PVOD is an uncommon cause of pulmonary artery hypertension (PPH; see 178600), a severe condition characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure leading to right heart failure and death. PVOD accounts for 5 to 10% of 'idiopathic' PPH and has an estimated incidence of 0.1 to 0.2 cases per million. The pathologic hallmark of PVOD is the extensive and diffuse occlusion of pulmonary veins by fibrous tissue, with intimal thickening present in venules and small veins in lobular septa and, rarely, larger veins. Definitive diagnosis of PVOD requires histologic analysis of a lung sample, although surgical lung biopsy is often too invasive for these frail patients. Patients with PVOD respond poorly to available therapy, therefore it is crucial to distinguish PVOD from other forms of PPH. Radiologic characteristics suggestive of PVOD on high-resolution CT of the chest include nodular ground-glass opacities, septal lines, and lymph node enlargement. In addition, because PVOD mainly affects postcapillary vasculature, it causes chronic elevation of pulmonary capillary pressure and thus promotes occult alveolar hemorrhage, which may be a characteristic feature of PVOD (summary by Montani et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pulmonary Venoocclusive Disease See also PVOD2 (234810), caused by mutation in the EIF2AK4 gene (609280) on chromosome 15q15.
Pulmonary hypertension, primary, 2
MedGen UID:
854709
Concept ID:
C3888002
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high blood pressure (hypertension) in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is one form of a broader condition known as pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension occurs when most of the very small arteries throughout the lungs narrow in diameter, which increases the resistance to blood flow through the lungs. To overcome the increased resistance, blood pressure increases in the pulmonary artery and in the right ventricle of the heart, which is the chamber that pumps blood into the pulmonary artery. Ultimately, the increased blood pressure can damage the right ventricle of the heart.\n\nSigns and symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension occur when increased blood pressure cannot fully overcome the elevated resistance. As a result, the flow of oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body is insufficient. Shortness of breath (dyspnea) during exertion and fainting spells are the most common symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. People with this disorder may experience additional symptoms, particularly as the condition worsens. Other symptoms include dizziness, swelling (edema) of the ankles or legs, chest pain, and a rapid heart rate.
Adams-Oliver syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
863407
Concept ID:
C4014970
Disease or Syndrome
Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). ACC lesions usually occur in the midline of the parietal or occipital regions, but can also occur on the abdomen or limbs. At birth, an ACC lesion may already have the appearance of a healed scar. ACC lesions less than 5 cm often involve only the skin and almost always heal over a period of months; larger lesions are more likely to involve the skull and possibly the dura, and are at greater risk for complications, which can include infection, hemorrhage, or thrombosis, and can result in death. The limb defects range from mild (unilateral or bilateral short distal phalanges) to severe (complete absence of all toes or fingers, feet or hands, or more, often resembling an amputation). The lower extremities are almost always more severely affected than the upper extremities. Additional major features frequently include cardiovascular malformations/dysfunction (23%), brain anomalies, and less frequently renal, liver, and eye anomalies.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 22
MedGen UID:
863499
Concept ID:
C4015062
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital cataract-microcephaly-nevus flammeus simplex-severe intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
897292
Concept ID:
C4225323
Disease or Syndrome
Basel-Vanagaite-Smirin-Yosef syndrome is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development resulting in mental retardation, as well as variable eye, brain, cardiac, and palatal abnormalities (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2015).
Lipoyl transferase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
904073
Concept ID:
C4225379
Disease or Syndrome
Lipoyl transferase 1 deficiency is a very rare inborn error of metabolism disorder, with a highly variable phenotype, typically characterized by neonatal to infancy-onset of seizures, psychomotor delay, and abnormal muscle tone that may include hypo- and/or hypertonia, resulting in generalized weakness, dystonic movements, and/or progressive respiratory distress, associated with severe lactic acidosis and elevated lactate, ketoglutarate and 2-oxoacids in urine. Additional manifestations may include dehydration, vomiting, signs of liver dysfunction, extrapyramidal signs, spastic tetraparesis, brisk deep tendon reflexes, speech impairment, swallowing difficulties, and pulmonary hypertension.
Hydrops-lactic acidosis-sideroblastic anemia-multisystemic failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
934728
Concept ID:
C4310761
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (HLASA) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by the onset of hydrops in utero. The severity of the hydrops and the disorder in general is highly variable. At birth, affected infants usually show poor growth, lactic acidosis, pulmonary hypertension with hypoxic respiratory insufficiency, and sideroblastic anemia. More variable features may include hepatosplenomegaly or cholestasis, hypoglycemia, pancreatic insufficiency, and micropenis or hypospadias. Death in infancy may occur. Those who survive tend to have resolution of lactic acidosis and anemia, but may show developmental delay and sensorineural deafness (summary by Riley et al., 2020).
Adams-Oliver syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1635567
Concept ID:
C4551482
Disease or Syndrome
Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). ACC lesions usually occur in the midline of the parietal or occipital regions, but can also occur on the abdomen or limbs. At birth, an ACC lesion may already have the appearance of a healed scar. ACC lesions less than 5 cm often involve only the skin and almost always heal over a period of months; larger lesions are more likely to involve the skull and possibly the dura, and are at greater risk for complications, which can include infection, hemorrhage, or thrombosis, and can result in death. The limb defects range from mild (unilateral or bilateral short distal phalanges) to severe (complete absence of all toes or fingers, feet or hands, or more, often resembling an amputation). The lower extremities are almost always more severely affected than the upper extremities. Additional major features frequently include cardiovascular malformations/dysfunction (23%), brain anomalies, and less frequently renal, liver, and eye anomalies.
Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, type 1
MedGen UID:
1643786
Concept ID:
C4551861
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that lack intervening capillaries and result in direct connections between arteries and veins. The most common clinical manifestation is spontaneous and recurrent nosebleeds (epistaxis) beginning on average at age 12 years. Telangiectases (small AVMs) are characteristically found on the lips, tongue, buccal and gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, face, and fingers. The appearance of telangiectases is generally later than epistaxis but may be during childhood. Large AVMs occur most often in the lungs, liver, or brain; complications from bleeding or shunting may be sudden and catastrophic. A minority of individuals with HHT have GI bleeding, which is rarely seen before age 50 years.
Congenital total pulmonary venous return anomaly
MedGen UID:
1648157
Concept ID:
C4551903
Disease or Syndrome
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a cyanotic form of congenital heart defect in which the pulmonary veins fail to enter the left atrium and instead drain into the right atrium or one of the venous tributaries (summary by Bleyl et al., 1994).
Pulmonary hypertension, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
1643124
Concept ID:
C4552070
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare, often fatal, progressive vascular lung disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and sustained elevation of mean pulmonary arterial pressure, leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart failure. Pathologic features include a narrowing and thickening of small pulmonary vessels and plexiform lesions. There is pulmonary vascular remodeling of all layers of pulmonary arterial vessels: intimal thickening, smooth muscle cell hypertrophy or hyperplasia, adventitial fibrosis, and occluded vessels by in situ thrombosis (summary by Machado et al., 2009 and Han et al., 2013). Heterozygous mutations in the BMPR2 gene are found in nearly 70% of families with heritable PPH and in 25% of patients with sporadic disease. The disease is more common in women (female:male ratio of 1.7:1). However, the penetrance of PPH1 is incomplete: only about 10 to 20% of individuals with BMPR2 mutations develop the disease during their lifetime, suggesting that development of the disorder is triggered by other genetic or environmental factors. Patients with PPH1 are less likely to respond to acute vasodilater testing and are unlikely to benefit from treatment with calcium channel blockade (summary by Machado et al., 2009 and Han et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension PPH2 (615342) is caused by mutation in the SMAD9 gene (603295) on chromosome 13q13; PPH3 (615343) is caused by mutation in the CAV1 gene (601047) on chromosome 7q31; PPH4 (615344) is caused by mutation in the KCNK3 gene (603220) on chromosome 2p23; and PPH5 (265400) is caused by mutation in the ATP13A3 gene (610232) on chromosome 3q29. Primary pulmonary hypertension may also be found in association with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1; 187300), caused by mutation in the ENG gene (131195), and HHT2 (600376), caused by mutation in the ACVRL1 (ALK1) gene (601284). Pediatric-onset pulmonary hypertension may be seen in association with ischiocoxopodopatellar syndrome (ICPPS; 147891). The skeletal manifestations of ICPPS are highly variable and may not be detected in children. Parents are not likely to have PAH (Levy et al., 2016).
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 2c
MedGen UID:
1648379
Concept ID:
C4748647
Disease or Syndrome
CMD2C is characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy of variable severity, with age of onset ranging from 2 to 20 years. Affected individuals exhibit reduction in coenzyme A (CoA) levels. Some severely affected children die in the first few years of life (Iuso et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy (CMD), see 115200.
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism
MedGen UID:
1679263
Concept ID:
C5193106
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism (DEDDFA) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder apparent from infancy or early childhood and associated with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may be severely affected with no speech and inability to walk, whereas others may be able to attend special schools or have normal intellectual function associated with autism spectrum disorder and mild speech delay. Genetic analysis has suggested that the phenotype can be broadly categorized into 2 main groups. Patients with TRRAP mutations affecting residues 1031-1159 have a more severe disorder, often with multisystem involvement, including renal, cardiac, and genitourinary systems, as well as structural brain abnormalities. Patients with mutations outside of that region tend to have a less severe phenotype with a higher incidence of autism and usually no systemic involvement. Patients in both groups usually have somewhat similar dysmorphic facial features, such as upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, low-set ears, and broad or depressed nasal bridge, although these features are highly variable (summary by Cogne et al., 2019).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 35
MedGen UID:
1745427
Concept ID:
C5436576
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
1754683
Concept ID:
C5436685
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 7 (MC4DN7) is an autosomal recessive metabolic encephalomyopathic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Only a few patients have been reported. Some patients have normal early development then show rapid neurodegeneration with progressive muscle weakness, gait disturbances, and cognitive decline in mid to late childhood. Other features may include seizures and visual impairment. Brain imaging shows progressive leukodystrophy with cystic lesions. In contrast, at least 1 patient has been reported who presented in the neonatal period with metabolic acidosis, hydrocephalus, hypotonia, and cortical blindness. This patient developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulting in early death. All patients had increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Massa et al., 2008 and Abdulhag et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 15
MedGen UID:
1773430
Concept ID:
C5436712
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 15 (MC4DN15) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show global developmental delay, poor feeding, short stature with microcephaly, proximal muscle weakness, and distal spasticity. Other manifestations include scoliosis, primary pulmonary hypertension, childhood-onset refractory seizures, and inability to walk. Brain imaging shows features consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000) and enlarged ventricles. Laboratory studies show increased serum and CSF lactate, as well as decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Hallmann et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 20
MedGen UID:
1771040
Concept ID:
C5436726
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 20 (MC4DN20) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and global developmental delay. Additional features include elevated liver enzymes, increased serum lactate, metabolic acidosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which may result in cardiorespiratory failure and early death. Patient tissues show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Baertling et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 37
MedGen UID:
1783339
Concept ID:
C5543281
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 2D
MedGen UID:
1782612
Concept ID:
C5543535
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy-2D (CMD2D) is characterized by neonatal onset of severe cardiomyopathy, with rapid progression to cardiac decompensation and death unless the patient undergoes heart transplantation (Ganapathi et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy, see 115200.
Interstitial lung disease 2
MedGen UID:
1794136
Concept ID:
C5561926
Disease or Syndrome
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of rare diseases affecting the distal part of the lung and characterized by a progressive remodeling of the alveolar interstitium. The manifestations form a spectrum ranging from idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) or pneumonitis to the more severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer, which occurs in a subset of patients with ILD. Clinical features of ILD include dyspnea, clubbing of the fingers, and restrictive lung capacity. Imaging typically shows ground glass opacities and inter- and intraseptal thickening, while histologic studies usually show a pattern consistent with 'usual interstitial pneumonia' (UIP) (review by Gross and Hunninghake, 2001; summary by Legendre et al., 2020). Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of a family of idiopathic pneumonias sharing clinical features of shortness of breath, radiographically evident diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and varying degrees in inflammation, fibrosis, or both on lung biopsy. In some cases, the disorder can be rapidly progressive and characterized by sequential acute lung injury with subsequent scarring and end-stage lung disease. Although older studies included several forms of interstitial pneumonia under the term 'idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,' the clinical label of 'idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis' should be reserved for patients with a specific form of fibrosing interstitial pneumonia referred to as usual interstitial pneumonia (Gross and Hunninghake, 2001). It is estimated that 0.5 to 2.2% of cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are familial (Marshall et al., 2000). Gross and Hunninghake (2001) reviewed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, emphasizing definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, natural history, and therapy. Antoniou et al. (2004) provided a 'top ten list' of references pertaining to etiopathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, therapy, and other aspects of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ILD, see ILD1 (619611). Pulmonary fibrosis can also be a feature in patients with mutations in the TERT (187270) or the TERC (602322) gene; see PFBMFT1 (614742) and PFBMFT2 (614743). Some patients with surfactant protein C deficiency (610913) who survive to adulthood manifest features of pulmonary fibrosis.
VISS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021).
DEGCAGS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 87 and autoimmunity
MedGen UID:
1794280
Concept ID:
C5562070
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-87 and autoimmunity (IMD87) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder with wide phenotypic variation and severity. Affected individuals usually present in infancy or early childhood with increased susceptibility to infections, often Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as with lymphadenopathy or autoimmune manifestations, predominantly hemolytic anemia. Laboratory studies may show low or normal lymphocyte numbers, often with skewed T-cell subset ratios. The disorder results primarily from defects in T-cell function, which causes both immunodeficiency and overall immune dysregulation (summary by Serwas et al., 2019 and Fournier et al., 2021).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1804638
Concept ID:
C5676876
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-1 (CFZS1) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by hypotonia, Moebius sequence (bilateral congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction), Pierre Robin complex (micrognathia, glossoptosis, and high-arched or cleft palate), delayed motor milestones, and failure to thrive. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, brain abnormalities, and intellectual disability. It has been postulated that many clinical features in CFZS1 may be secondary effects of muscle weakness during development or brainstem anomalies (summary by Pasetti et al., 2016). Di Gioia et al. (2017) determined that CFZS1 represents a slowly progressive congenital myopathy resulting from a defect in myoblast fusion. Genetic Heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is caused by mutation in the MYMX gene (619912) on chromosome 6p21.
Pulmonary hypertension, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1802382
Concept ID:
C5676877
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pulmonary hypertension-5 (PPH5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of pulmonary artery hypertension in infancy, resulting in right heart dysfunction and ultimately right heart failure. Death in early childhood is common (Machado et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary pulmonary hypertension, see PPH1 (178600).
Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1803541
Concept ID:
C5676888
Disease or Syndrome
Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowing of the long bones and other skeletal anomalies, episodic hyperthermia, respiratory distress, and feeding difficulties usually resulting in early death (Dagoneau et al., 2004). See also 'classic' Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1; 255800), a phenotypically similar but genetically distinct disorder caused by mutation in the HSPG2 gene (142461) on chromosome 1p36. Genetic Heterogeneity of Stuve-Wiedemann Syndrome Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome-2 (STWS2; 619751) is caused by mutation in the IL6ST gene (600694) on chromosome 5q11.
Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1805977
Concept ID:
C5676919
Disease or Syndrome
Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome-2 (STWS2) is an autosomal recessive lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, small chest, bowing of the long bones, and neonatal cardiopulmonary and autonomous dysfunction. Additional variable features include congenital thrombocytopenia, eczematoid dermatitis, renal anomalies, and defective acute-phase response (Chen et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome, see STWS1 (601559).
Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
1843450
Concept ID:
C5680251
Disease or Syndrome
Kagami-Ogata syndrome (KOS) is a rare imprinting disorder characterized prenatally by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, and placentomegaly. After birth, infants often have respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and postnatal growth retardation. Thoracic abnormalities include small bell-shaped thorax, 'coat-hanger' ribs, narrow chest wall, and cardiac anomalies. Abdominal wall defects include omphalocele, diastasis recti, and inguinal hernias. Hepatoblastoma is present in some patients. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, hairy forehead, anteverted nares, micrognathia, and a short neck. Developmental findings include hypotonia, speech and/or motor delays, and normal to mildly impaired intellectual development (summary by Prasasya et al., 2020).
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1823971
Concept ID:
C5774198
Disease or Syndrome
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome (PDIL) is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, with extreme microcephaly, short stature, and absence of subcutaneous fat. There is also significant hematologic/immune dysfunction, with hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, as well as lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, and most affected individuals succumb to infection in early childhood (Parry et al., 2020).
Diaphragmatic hernia 4, with cardiovascular defects
MedGen UID:
1823983
Concept ID:
C5774210
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphragmatic hernia-4 with cardiovascular defects (DIH4) is an autosomal recessive congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by the presence of diaphragmatic hernia or eventration apparent at birth. Affected infants have associated pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory insufficiency resulting in death in infancy. Most also have variable cardiovascular defects, including aortopulmonary window or conotruncal anomalies. Dysmorphic facial features and mild distal limb anomalies are sometimes observed (Beecroft et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), see DIH1 (142340).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1823986
Concept ID:
C5774213
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures (NEDHLSS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. Affected individuals show severe hypotonia with delayed walking or inability to walk, poor or absent speech, and impaired intellectual development with behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have early-onset seizures, mild skeletal defects that are usually distal, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. More severely affected individuals have additional congenital abnormalities; however, cardiac involvement is rare (summary by Rodan et al., 2021).
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824056
Concept ID:
C5774283
Disease or Syndrome
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome (BCAHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities. Additional features may include developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and growth failure/retardation (summary by Cuvertino et al., 2020 and Baldridge et al., 2020).
Respiratory infections, recurrent, and failure to thrive with or without diarrhea
MedGen UID:
1824079
Concept ID:
C5774306
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent respiratory infections and failure to thrive with or without diarrhea (RIFTD) is characterized by neonatal onset of chronic cough, episodic wheezing, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, chronic diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Despite the resemblance to cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700), these patients have normal sweat chloride and pancreatic elastase tests (Bertoli-Avella et al., 2022).
Lymphatic malformation 13
MedGen UID:
1840915
Concept ID:
C5830279
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphatic malformation-13 (LMPHM13) is characterized by the presence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis which often resolves with age. Capillary or cavernous hemangiomas are present in most patients, as are cardiac defects, often mild (Abdelrahman et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Humbert M, Kovacs G, Hoeper MM, Badagliacca R, Berger RMF, Brida M, Carlsen J, Coats AJS, Escribano-Subias P, Ferrari P, Ferreira DS, Ghofrani HA, Giannakoulas G, Kiely DG, Mayer E, Meszaros G, Nagavci B, Olsson KM, Pepke-Zaba J, Quint JK, Rådegran G, Simonneau G, Sitbon O, Tonia T, Toshner M, Vachiery JL, Vonk Noordegraaf A, Delcroix M, Rosenkranz S; ESC/ERS Scientific Document Group
Eur Heart J 2022 Oct 11;43(38):3618-3731. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehac237. PMID: 36017548
Ruopp NF, Cockrill BA
JAMA 2022 Apr 12;327(14):1379-1391. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.4402. PMID: 35412560
Thenappan T, Ormiston ML, Ryan JJ, Archer SL
BMJ 2018 Mar 14;360:j5492. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j5492. PMID: 29540357Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ruopp NF, Cockrill BA
JAMA 2022 Apr 12;327(14):1379-1391. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.4402. PMID: 35412560
Luna-López R, Ruiz Martín A, Escribano Subías P
Med Clin (Barc) 2022 Jun 24;158(12):622-629. Epub 2022 Mar 9 doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2022.01.003. PMID: 35279313
Maron BA, Abman SH, Elliott CG, Frantz RP, Hopper RK, Horn EM, Nicolls MR, Shlobin OA, Shah SJ, Kovacs G, Olschewski H, Rosenzweig EB
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 15;203(12):1472-1487. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202012-4317SO. PMID: 33861689Free PMC Article
Beshay S, Sahay S, Humbert M
Respir Med 2020 Sep;171:106099. Epub 2020 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106099. PMID: 32829182
Southgate L, Machado RD, Gräf S, Morrell NW
Nat Rev Cardiol 2020 Feb;17(2):85-95. Epub 2019 Aug 12 doi: 10.1038/s41569-019-0242-x. PMID: 31406341

Diagnosis

Johnson S, Sommer N, Cox-Flaherty K, Weissmann N, Ventetuolo CE, Maron BA
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2023 Sep 1;208(5):528-548. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202302-0327SO. PMID: 37450768Free PMC Article
Ruopp NF, Cockrill BA
JAMA 2022 Apr 12;327(14):1379-1391. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.4402. PMID: 35412560
Luna-López R, Ruiz Martín A, Escribano Subías P
Med Clin (Barc) 2022 Jun 24;158(12):622-629. Epub 2022 Mar 9 doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2022.01.003. PMID: 35279313
Hassoun PM
N Engl J Med 2021 Dec 16;385(25):2361-2376. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra2000348. PMID: 34910865
Rosenzweig EB, Abman SH, Adatia I, Beghetti M, Bonnet D, Haworth S, Ivy DD, Berger RMF
Eur Respir J 2019 Jan;53(1) Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1183/13993003.01916-2018. PMID: 30545978Free PMC Article

Therapy

Hoeper MM, Badesch DB, Ghofrani HA, Gibbs JSR, Gomberg-Maitland M, McLaughlin VV, Preston IR, Souza R, Waxman AB, Grünig E, Kopeć G, Meyer G, Olsson KM, Rosenkranz S, Xu Y, Miller B, Fowler M, Butler J, Koglin J, de Oliveira Pena J, Humbert M; STELLAR Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med 2023 Apr 20;388(16):1478-1490. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2213558. PMID: 36877098
Humbert M, McLaughlin V, Gibbs JSR, Gomberg-Maitland M, Hoeper MM, Preston IR, Souza R, Waxman A, Escribano Subias P, Feldman J, Meyer G, Montani D, Olsson KM, Manimaran S, Barnes J, Linde PG, de Oliveira Pena J, Badesch DB; PULSAR Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 1;384(13):1204-1215. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2024277. PMID: 33789009
Rosenzweig EB, Abman SH, Adatia I, Beghetti M, Bonnet D, Haworth S, Ivy DD, Berger RMF
Eur Respir J 2019 Jan;53(1) Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1183/13993003.01916-2018. PMID: 30545978Free PMC Article
Galiè N, Channick RN, Frantz RP, Grünig E, Jing ZC, Moiseeva O, Preston IR, Pulido T, Safdar Z, Tamura Y, McLaughlin VV
Eur Respir J 2019 Jan;53(1) Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1183/13993003.01889-2018. PMID: 30545971Free PMC Article
Pulido T, Adzerikho I, Channick RN, Delcroix M, Galiè N, Ghofrani HA, Jansa P, Jing ZC, Le Brun FO, Mehta S, Mittelholzer CM, Perchenet L, Sastry BK, Sitbon O, Souza R, Torbicki A, Zeng X, Rubin LJ, Simonneau G; SERAPHIN Investigators
N Engl J Med 2013 Aug 29;369(9):809-18. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1213917. PMID: 23984728

Prognosis

Hoeper MM, Pausch C, Grünig E, Klose H, Staehler G, Huscher D, Pittrow D, Olsson KM, Vizza CD, Gall H, Benjamin N, Distler O, Opitz C, Gibbs JSR, Delcroix M, Ghofrani HA, Rosenkranz S, Ewert R, Kaemmerer H, Lange TJ, Kabitz HJ, Skowasch D, Skride A, Jureviciene E, Paleviciute E, Miliauskas S, Claussen M, Behr J, Milger K, Halank M, Wilkens H, Wirtz H, Pfeuffer-Jovic E, Harbaum L, Scholtz W, Dumitrescu D, Bruch L, Coghlan G, Neurohr C, Tsangaris I, Gorenflo M, Scelsi L, Vonk-Noordegraaf A, Ulrich S, Held M
J Heart Lung Transplant 2020 Dec;39(12):1435-1444. Epub 2020 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2020.09.011. PMID: 33082079
Beshay S, Sahay S, Humbert M
Respir Med 2020 Sep;171:106099. Epub 2020 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106099. PMID: 32829182
Agarwala P, Salzman SH
Chest 2020 Mar;157(3):603-611. Epub 2019 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2019.10.014. PMID: 31689414Free PMC Article
Benza RL, Gomberg-Maitland M, Elliott CG, Farber HW, Foreman AJ, Frost AE, McGoon MD, Pasta DJ, Selej M, Burger CD, Frantz RP
Chest 2019 Aug;156(2):323-337. Epub 2019 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2019.02.004. PMID: 30772387
Dodson MW, Brown LM, Elliott CG
Heart Fail Clin 2018 Jul;14(3):255-269. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2018.02.003. PMID: 29966625

Clinical prediction guides

Hoeper MM, Badesch DB, Ghofrani HA, Gibbs JSR, Gomberg-Maitland M, McLaughlin VV, Preston IR, Souza R, Waxman AB, Grünig E, Kopeć G, Meyer G, Olsson KM, Rosenkranz S, Xu Y, Miller B, Fowler M, Butler J, Koglin J, de Oliveira Pena J, Humbert M; STELLAR Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med 2023 Apr 20;388(16):1478-1490. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2213558. PMID: 36877098
Pi H, Xia L, Ralph DD, Rayner SG, Shojaie A, Leary PJ, Gharib SA
Circ Res 2023 Feb 3;132(3):254-266. Epub 2023 Jan 4 doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.321923. PMID: 36597887Free PMC Article
Hong J, Arneson D, Umar S, Ruffenach G, Cunningham CM, Ahn IS, Diamante G, Bhetraratana M, Park JF, Said E, Huynh C, Le T, Medzikovic L, Humbert M, Soubrier F, Montani D, Girerd B, Trégouët DA, Channick R, Saggar R, Eghbali M, Yang X
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 15;203(8):1006-1022. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202006-2169OC. PMID: 33021809Free PMC Article
Zhang J, Gajjala S, Agrawal P, Tison GH, Hallock LA, Beussink-Nelson L, Lassen MH, Fan E, Aras MA, Jordan C, Fleischmann KE, Melisko M, Qasim A, Shah SJ, Bajcsy R, Deo RC
Circulation 2018 Oct 16;138(16):1623-1635. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034338. PMID: 30354459Free PMC Article
Rasekaba T, Lee AL, Naughton MT, Williams TJ, Holland AE
Intern Med J 2009 Aug;39(8):495-501. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2008.01880.x. PMID: 19732197

Recent systematic reviews

Morris NR, Kermeen FD, Jones AW, Lee JY, Holland AE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Mar 22;3(3):CD011285. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011285.pub3. PMID: 36947725Free PMC Article
Pitre T, Su J, Cui S, Scanlan R, Chiang C, Husnudinov R, Khalid MF, Khan N, Leung G, Mikhail D, Saadat P, Shahid S, Mah J, Mielniczuk L, Zeraatkar D, Mehta S
Eur Respir Rev 2022 Sep 30;31(165) Epub 2022 Aug 10 doi: 10.1183/16000617.0036-2022. PMID: 35948391Free PMC Article
Price LC, Martinez G, Brame A, Pickworth T, Samaranayake C, Alexander D, Garfield B, Aw TC, McCabe C, Mukherjee B, Harries C, Kempny A, Gatzoulis M, Marino P, Kiely DG, Condliffe R, Howard L, Davies R, Coghlan G, Schreiber BE, Lordan J, Taboada D, Gaine S, Johnson M, Church C, Kemp SV, Wong D, Curry A, Levett D, Price S, Ledot S, Reed A, Dimopoulos K, Wort SJ
Br J Anaesth 2021 Apr;126(4):774-790. Epub 2021 Feb 19 doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2021.01.005. PMID: 33612249
Klinger JR, Elliott CG, Levine DJ, Bossone E, Duvall L, Fagan K, Frantsve-Hawley J, Kawut SM, Ryan JJ, Rosenzweig EB, Sederstrom N, Steen VD, Badesch DB
Chest 2019 Mar;155(3):565-586. Epub 2019 Jan 17 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.11.030. PMID: 30660783
Kowal-Bielecka O, Fransen J, Avouac J, Becker M, Kulak A, Allanore Y, Distler O, Clements P, Cutolo M, Czirjak L, Damjanov N, Del Galdo F, Denton CP, Distler JHW, Foeldvari I, Figelstone K, Frerix M, Furst DE, Guiducci S, Hunzelmann N, Khanna D, Matucci-Cerinic M, Herrick AL, van den Hoogen F, van Laar JM, Riemekasten G, Silver R, Smith V, Sulli A, Tarner I, Tyndall A, Welling J, Wigley F, Valentini G, Walker UA, Zulian F, Müller-Ladner U; EUSTAR Coauthors
Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Aug;76(8):1327-1339. Epub 2016 Nov 9 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209909. PMID: 27941129

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