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Esotropia

MedGen UID:
4550
Concept ID:
C0014877
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Convergent Strabismus; Cross Eye; Cross-Eye; Cross-Eyes; Esotropias; Internal Strabismus; Strabismus, Convergent; Strabismus, Internal
SNOMED CT: Convergent squint (16596007); Esotropia (16596007); Convergent strabismus (16596007); Cross-eye (16596007)
 
HPO: HP:0000565
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004896

Definition

A form of strabismus with one or both eyes turned inward ('crossed') to a relatively severe degree, usually defined as 10 diopters or more. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

DiGeorge syndrome
MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS.
Marfan syndrome
MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
FBN1-related Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome), a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (>50% of affected individuals); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Sotos syndrome
MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures.
Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum
MedGen UID:
66357
Concept ID:
C0221060
Disease or Syndrome
The most basic description of Moebius syndrome is a congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction. The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and abducens nerve (CN VI) are most frequently involved, but other cranial nerves may be involved as well. Other variable features include orofacial dysmorphism and limb malformations. Mental retardation has been reported in a subset of patients. Most cases of Moebius syndrome are sporadic, but familial occurrence has been reported (Verzijl et al., 2003). The definition of and diagnostic criteria for Moebius syndrome have been controversial and problematic. The syndrome has most frequently been confused with hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP; see 601471), which is restricted to involvement of the facial nerve and no other abnormalities. Verzijl et al. (2003) and Verzijl et al. (2005) concluded that HCFP and Moebius syndrome are distinct disorders, and that Moebius syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of the brainstem. Moebius syndrome was defined at the Moebius Syndrome Foundation Research Conference in 2007 as congenital, nonprogressive facial weakness with limited abduction of one or both eyes. Additional features can include hearing loss and other cranial nerve dysfunction, as well as motor, orofacial, musculoskeletal, neurodevelopmental, and social problems (summary by Webb et al., 2012). Kumar (1990) provided a review of Moebius syndrome, which was critiqued by Lipson et al. (1990). Briegel (2006) provided a review of Moebius sequence with special emphasis on neuropsychiatric findings.
Marshall syndrome
MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
Marshall syndrome (MRSHS) is characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, cleft palate, ocular anomalies including high myopia and cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and arthropathy. In contrast to Stickler syndrome type II, it has less severe eye findings but striking ocular hypertelorism, more pronounced maxillary hypoplasia, and ectodermal abnormalities (summary by Shanske et al., 1997 and Ala-Kokko and Shanske, 2009).
Femoral hypoplasia - unusual facies syndrome
MedGen UID:
120523
Concept ID:
C0265263
Disease or Syndrome
Femoral-facial syndrome (FFS), also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FHUFS), is a rare and sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome comprising bilateral femoral hypoplasia and characteristic facial features, such as long philtrum, thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanting palpebral fissures, and a short nose with broad tip. Other features, such as renal anomalies, are more variable (summary by Nowaczyk et al., 2010).
Gaucher disease type II
MedGen UID:
78652
Concept ID:
C0268250
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased.
GAPO syndrome
MedGen UID:
98034
Concept ID:
C0406723
Disease or Syndrome
GAPO syndrome is the acronymic designation for a complex of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia (failure of tooth eruption), and progressive optic atrophy (Tipton and Gorlin, 1984). Ilker et al. (1999) and Bayram et al. (2014) noted that optic atrophy is not a consistent feature of the disorder.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum with peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
162893
Concept ID:
C0795950
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by severe progressive sensorimotor neuropathy with resulting hypotonia, areflexia, and amyotrophy, and by variable degrees of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Mild-to-severe intellectual disability and "psychotic episodes" during adolescence are observed. Sensory modalities are moderately to severely affected beginning in infancy. The average age of onset of walking is 3.8 years; the average age of loss of walking is 13.8 years; the average age of death is 33 years.
Microbrachycephaly-ptosis-cleft lip syndrome
MedGen UID:
162914
Concept ID:
C0796142
Disease or Syndrome
The Richieri-Costa/Guion-Almeida syndrome is characterized by mild mental retardation, short stature, microbrachycephaly, ptosis, esotropia, cleft lip/palate (Richieri-Costa and Guion-Almeida, 1992).
SHORT syndrome
MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
SHORT syndrome is a mnemonic for short stature, hyperextensibility, ocular depression (deeply set eyes), Rieger anomaly, and teething delay. It is now recognized that the features most consistently observed in SHORT syndrome are mild intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); mild to moderate short stature; partial lipodystrophy (evident in the face, and later in the chest and upper extremities, often sparing the buttocks and legs); and a characteristic facial gestalt. Insulin resistance may be evident in mid-childhood or adolescence, although diabetes mellitus typically does not develop until early adulthood. Other frequent features include Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly or related ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis, delayed dentition and other dental issues, and sensorineural hearing loss.
Duane syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
201329
Concept ID:
C0994516
Disease or Syndrome
Duane syndrome is a strabismus condition clinically characterized by congenital non-progressive limited horizontal eye movement accompanied by globe retraction which results in narrowing of the palpebral fissure. The lateral movement anomaly results from failure of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) to fully innervate the lateral rectus muscle; globe retraction occurs as a result of abnormal innervation of the lateral rectus muscle by the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III). At birth, affected infants have restricted ability to move the affected eye(s) outward (abduction) and/or inward (adduction), though the limitations may not be recognized in early infancy. In addition, the globe retracts into the orbit with attempted adduction, accompanied by narrowing of the palpebral fissure. Many individuals with Duane syndrome have strabismus in primary gaze but can use a compensatory head turn to align the eyes, and thus can preserve binocular vision and avoid diplopia. Individuals with Duane syndrome who lack binocular vision are at risk for amblyopia. The majority of affected individuals with Duane syndrome have isolated Duane syndrome (i.e., they do not have other detected congenital anomalies). Other individuals with Duane syndrome fall into well-defined syndromic diagnoses. However, many individuals with Duane syndrome have non-ocular findings that do not fit a known syndrome; these individuals are included as part of the discussion of nonsyndromic Duane syndrome.
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia
MedGen UID:
220887
Concept ID:
C1274795
Congenital Abnormality
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by onset in infancy of a panepithelial defect involving the oral, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal, cervical, perineal, urethral, and bladder mucosa. Patients develop cataracts, blindness, nonscarring alopecia, perineal psoriasiform lesions, and follicular keratoses (Witkop et al., 1982). Although 1 family was reported to have progressive severe interstitial lung disease (Witkop et al., 1979), this feature has not been reported in other families and is not considered a criterion for diagnosis. However, the clinical triad of nonscarring alopecia, well-demarcated fiery red mucosa, and psoriasiform perineal involvement has been consistently observed (review by Boralevi et al., 2005).
AICA-ribosiduria
MedGen UID:
332474
Concept ID:
C1837530
Disease or Syndrome
AICA-ribosiduria is characterized by severe to profound global neurodevelopmental impairment, severe visual impairment due to chorioretinal atrophy, ante-postnatal growth impairment, and severe scoliosis. Dysmorphic features include coarse facies and upturned nose. Early-onset epilepsy may occur. Less common features may include aortic coarctation, chronic hepatic cytolysis, minor genital malformations, and nephrocalcinosis (Ramond et al., 2020).
Joubert syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334114
Concept ID:
C1842577
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334671
Concept ID:
C1843042
Disease or Syndrome
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia is characterized by facial dysmorphism, late-closing fontanels, cataract, and skeletal defects (summary by Boyadjiev et al., 2011).
Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
376107
Concept ID:
C1847352
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-14A (CDCBM14A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, motor delay, poor speech development, and early-onset seizures, often focal or atypical absence. Additional features may include strabismus, nystagmus, exo- or esotropia, axial hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging shows bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, a frontal-predominant cobblestone malformation of the cortex, scalloping of the cortical/white matter junction, enlarged ventricles, and hypoplasia of the pons, brainstem, and cerebellum. The disorder can be classified as a malformation of cortical development (summary by Parrini et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2011; Zulfiqar et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Intellectual disability-obesity-prognathism-eye and skin anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
376145
Concept ID:
C1847522
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability disorder with characteristics of mild to profound intellectual disability, delayed speech, obesity, ocular anomalies (blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, hyperopic astigmatism, decreased visual acuity, strabismus, abducens nerve palsy, and/or accommodative esotropia), and dermal manifestations, such as chronic atopic dermatitis. Associated craniofacial dysmorphism includes macrocephaly, maxillary hypoplasia, mandibular prognathism and crowding of teeth.
Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1
MedGen UID:
376943
Concept ID:
C1851102
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) encompasses several different inherited strabismus syndromes characterized by congenital restrictive ophthalmoplegia affecting extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor and/or trochlear nerves. Classic CFEOM is characterized by bilateral blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia with the eyes fixed in an infraducted position about 20 to 30 degrees below the horizontal midline. Involvement of the horizontal extraocular muscles is variable. If all affected members of a family have the classic phenotype with bilateral involvement, the disorder is referred to as 'CFEOM1' (Engle et al., 1997; Heidary et al., 2008). CFEOM2 (602078), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the ARIX gene (PHOX2A; 602753) on chromosome 11q13, is characterized by bilateral ptosis with eyes fixed in an exotropic position. The CFEOM3 phenotype shows more variable clinical features: affected individuals may have unilateral eye involvement, may be able raise their eyes above midline, or may not have blepharoptosis. CFEOM3 is diagnosed in a family if even 1 member does not have classic findings of the disorder. CFEOM3 is a genetically heterogeneous disorder; CFEOM3A with or without extraocular involvement (600638) is caused by mutation in the TUBB3 gene (602661) on chromosome 16q24; CFEOM3B is caused by mutation in the KIF21A gene (608283) on chromosome 12q12; and CFEOM3C (609384) maps to chromosome 13q. CFEOM4 (609428), also known as Tukel syndrome, maps to chromosome 21q. CFEOM5 (616219) is caused by mutation in the COL25A1 gene (610004) on chromosome 4q25. See also NOMENCLATURE.
Exudative vitreoretinopathy 1
MedGen UID:
343561
Concept ID:
C1851402
Disease or Syndrome
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited disorder characterized by the incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Its clinical appearance varies considerably, even within families, with severely affected patients often registered as blind during infancy, whereas mildly affected patients with few or no visual problems may have such a small area of avascularity in their peripheral retina that it is visible only by fluorescein angiography. It is believed that this peripheral avascularity is the primary anomaly in FEVR and results from defective retinal angiogenesis. The sight-threatening features of the FEVR phenotype are considered secondary to retinal avascularity and develop because of the resulting retinal ischemia; they include the development of hyperpermeable blood vessels, neovascularization, vitreoretinal traction, retinal folds, and retinal detachments (summary by Poulter et al., 2010). In 31 Chinese pedigrees clinically diagnosed with FEVR, Rao et al. (2017) analyzed 6 FEVR-associated genes and identified mutations in 12 of the probands, including 5 (16.1%) in LRP5, 3 (9.7%) in NDP, 2 (6.5%) in FZD4, and 1 (3.2%) in TSPAN12. In addition, a mutation in the KIF11 gene (148760) was identified in a patient who also exhibited microcephaly (MCLMR; 152950). The authors noted that their detection rate did not exceed 50%, suggesting that other FEVR-associated genes remained to be discovered. Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Also see EVR2 (305390), caused by mutation in the NDP gene (300658) on chromosome Xp11; EVR3 (605750), mapped to 11p13-p12; EVR4 (601813), caused by mutations in the LRP5 gene (603506) on 11q13.4; EVR5 (613310), caused by mutation in the TSPAN12 gene (613138) on 7q31; EVR6 (616468), caused by mutation in the ZNF408 gene (616454) on 11p11; and EVR7 (617572), caused by mutation in the CTNNB1 gene (116806) on chromosome 3p22.
Autosomal recessive frontotemporal pachygyria
MedGen UID:
343995
Concept ID:
C1853215
Disease or Syndrome
A cerebral malformation with characteristics of symmetric, bilateral pachygyria with normal head circumference and without polymicrogyria. Clinical manifestations include developmental delay, moderate intellectual disability, normal or slightly decreased muscle tone and deep-tendon reflexes, telecanthus or hypertelorism.
Mowat-Wilson syndrome
MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by distinctive facial features (widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes with a central depression), congenital heart defects with predilection for abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves, Hirschsprung disease or chronic constipation, genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males), and hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Most affected individuals have moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Speech is typically limited to a few words or is absent, with relative preservation of receptive language skills. Growth restriction with microcephaly and seizure disorder are also common. Most affected people have a happy demeanor and a wide-based gait that can sometimes be confused with Angelman syndrome.
Congenital lactic acidosis, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean type
MedGen UID:
387801
Concept ID:
C1857355
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 5 (MC4DN5) is an autosomal recessive severe metabolic multisystemic disorder with onset in infancy. Features include delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development with speech delay, mild dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, ataxia, and seizures. There is increased serum lactate and episodic hypoglycemia. Some patients may have cardiomyopathy, abnormal breathing, or liver abnormalities, reflecting systemic involvement. Brain imaging shows lesions in the brainstem and basal ganglia, consistent with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Affected individuals tend to have episodic metabolic and/or neurologic crises in early childhood, which often lead to early death (summary by Debray et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Craniofacial dyssynostosis
MedGen UID:
347473
Concept ID:
C1857511
Disease or Syndrome
A rare cranial malformation syndrome characterized by the premature closure of both lambdoid sutures and the posterior sagittal suture, resulting in abnormal skull contour (frontal bossing, anterior turricephaly with mild brachycephaly, biparietal narrowing, occipital concavity) and dysmorphic facial features (low-set ears, midfacial hypoplasia). Short stature, developmental delay, epilepsy, and oculomotor dyspraxia have also been reported. Associated anomalies include enlargement of the cerebral ventricles, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Arnold-Chiari malformation type I, venous anomalies of skull, and hydrocephalus.
Blepharophimosis-ptosis-esotropia-syndactyly-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
347880
Concept ID:
C1859432
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome characterised by the association of blepharophimosis and ptosis, V-esotropia, and weakness of extraocular and frontal muscles with syndactyly of the toes, short stature, prognathism, and hypertrophy and fusion of the eyebrows.
Achalasia microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
349753
Concept ID:
C1860212
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare genetic syndrome, reported in a few families to date with characteristics of the association of microcephaly, intellectual deficit and achalasia. Symptoms of achalasia include coughing, dysphagia, vomiting, failure to thrive and aspiration appearing in infancy/early-childhood.
Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy
MedGen UID:
401413
Concept ID:
C1868310
Disease or Syndrome
Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy is a stationary disease of the ocular fundus in which bone corpuscle pigmentation is seen in a paravenous distribution. Patients are usually asymptomatic; diagnosis is based on the characteristic fundus appearance. Most cases have been reported in males (summary by Traboulsi and Maumenee, 1986).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MBD5 haploinsufficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, sleep disturbances, and abnormal behaviors. Most children lack speech entirely or have single words, short phrases, or short sentences. Seizures are present in more than 80% of children; onset is usually around age two years. Sleep disturbances, present in about 90%, can result in excessive daytime drowsiness. Abnormal behaviors can include autistic-like behaviors (80%) and self-injury and aggression (>60%).
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
370100
Concept ID:
C1969783
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also termed 'persistent fetal vasculature,' is a developmental malformation of the eye in which the primary vitreous fails to regress in utero, resulting in the presence of a retrolental fibrovascular membrane with persistence of the posterior portion of the tunica vasculosa lentis and hyaloid artery. This abnormality is usually unilateral and associated with microphthalmia, cataract, glaucoma, and congenital retinal nonattachment (see Haddad et al., 1978; Khaliq et al., 2001; Prasov et al., 2012). PHPV shares phenotypic overlap with Norrie disease (310600). Genetic Heterogeneity of Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous A dominant form of PHPV has been described (PHPVAD; 611308).
COG8-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
409971
Concept ID:
C1970021
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of severe psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive and intolerance to wheat and dairy products. So far, only two cases have been described. The disease is caused by mutations in the COG8 gene, which encodes a subunit of the COG complex. This complex is involved vesicle transport in the Golgi apparatus.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Orofaciodigital syndrome type 6
MedGen UID:
411200
Concept ID:
C2745997
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome type VI (OFD6), or Varadi syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder distinguished from other orofaciodigital syndromes by metacarpal abnormalities with central polydactyly and by cerebellar abnormalities, including the molar tooth sign (summary by Doss et al., 1998 and Lopez et al., 2014).
Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
416385
Concept ID:
C2750805
Disease or Syndrome
A rare partial autosomal trisomy/tetrasomy characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, muscular hypotonia, macrocephaly and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, low set, dysplastic ears, short or shallow philtrum, high arched or narrow palate, micrognathia). Other associated clinical features include sleep disturbances, seizures, aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, skeletal abnormalities (large hands and feet, long fingers and toes, talipes).
ALG9 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443955
Concept ID:
C2931006
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) that represent defects of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide assembly are classified as CDG type I. For a general description and a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Choanal atresia with radial ray hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
419083
Concept ID:
C2931464
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare syndrome with characteristics of radial ray hypoplasia, choanal atresia and convergent strabismus. It has been reported in a father and his two daughters. The radial ray involvement varies from absent radius, first metacarpal and thumb to hypoplastic thumb or triphalangeal thumb. Transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait.
Chromosome 17q23.1-q23.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461957
Concept ID:
C3150607
Disease or Syndrome
17q23.1q23.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, short stature, heart defects and limb abnormalities.
Intellectual disability, anterior maxillary protrusion, and strabismus
MedGen UID:
462274
Concept ID:
C3150924
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with the association of severe intellectual disability, strabismus and anterior maxillary protrusion with vertical maxillary excess, open bite and prominent crowded teeth. Mild cochlear hearing loss has been reported in addition.
Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type
MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Porencephaly 2
MedGen UID:
482600
Concept ID:
C3280970
Disease or Syndrome
Brain small vessel disease-2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable neurologic impairment resulting from disturbed vascular supply that leads to cerebral degeneration. The disorder is often associated with 'porencephaly' on brain imaging. Affected individuals typically have hemiplegia, seizures, and intellectual disability, although the severity is variable (summary by Yoneda et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brain small vessel disease, see BSVD1 (175780).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 2B
MedGen UID:
763148
Concept ID:
C3550234
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Hyperekplexia 2
MedGen UID:
766205
Concept ID:
C3553291
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hyperekplexia may explain some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is a major cause of unexplained death in babies younger than 1 year.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of hereditary hyperekplexia typically fade by age 1. However, older individuals with hereditary hyperekplexia may still startle easily and have periods of rigidity, which can cause them to fall down. They may also continue to have hypnagogic myoclonus or movements during sleep. As they get older, individuals with this condition may have a low tolerance for crowded places and loud noises. People with hereditary hyperekplexia who have epilepsy have the seizure disorder throughout their lives.\n\nHereditary hyperekplexia is a condition in which affected infants have increased muscle tone (hypertonia) and an exaggerated startle reaction to unexpected stimuli, especially loud noises. Following the startle reaction, infants experience a brief period in which they are very rigid and unable to move. During these rigid periods, some infants stop breathing, which, if prolonged, can be fatal. Infants with hereditary hyperekplexia have hypertonia at all times, except when they are sleeping.\n\nOther signs and symptoms of hereditary hyperekplexia can include muscle twitches when falling asleep (hypnagogic myoclonus) and movements of the arms or legs while asleep. Some infants, when tapped on the nose, extend their head forward and have spasms of the limb and neck muscles. Rarely, infants with hereditary hyperekplexia experience recurrent seizures (epilepsy).
Facial paresis, hereditary congenital, 3
MedGen UID:
766539
Concept ID:
C3553625
Disease or Syndrome
HCFP3 is an autosomal recessive congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder characterized by isolated dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve resulting in facial palsy. Additional features may include orofacial anomalies, such as smooth philtrum, lagophthalmos, swallowing difficulties, and dysarthria, as well as hearing loss. There is some phenotypic overlap with Moebius syndrome (see, e.g., 157900), but patients with HCFP usually retain full eye motility or have esotropia without paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve (summary by Vogel et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary congenital facial paresis, see 601471.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 13
MedGen UID:
766730
Concept ID:
C3553816
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-13 (SCAR13) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development beginning in infancy. Affected individuals show mildly to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech as well as gait and stance ataxia and hyperreflexia. Most individuals also have eye movement abnormalities. Brain MRI shows cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly (Guergueltcheva et al., 2012).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8
MedGen UID:
767123
Concept ID:
C3554209
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, abnormal movements, hypotonia, spasticity, and variable visual defects. Brain MRI shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, decreased cerebral white matter, and a thin corpus callosum (summary by Mochida et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 9
MedGen UID:
767506
Concept ID:
C3554592
Disease or Syndrome
MCOPCB9 is characterized by microphthalmia and coloboma (Aldahmesh et al., 2012). MCOPS15 is characterized by microphthalmia and/or coloboma, with developmental delay in which speech appears to be more severely affected than motor abilities. Additional ocular anomalies that have been observed include ptosis, keyhole-shaped pupils, microcornea, sclerocornea, and anterior segment dysgenesis (Chassaing et al., 2016; Stephen et al., 2018; Singh et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of colobomatous microphthalmia, see MCOPCB1 (300345). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of syndromic microphthalmia, see MCOPS1 (309800).
X-linked intellectual disability, Cantagrel type
MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-98 (XLID98) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016).
X-linked colobomatous microphthalmia-microcephaly-intellectual disability-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
813072
Concept ID:
C3806742
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked colobomatous microphthalmia-microcephaly-intellectual disability-short stature syndrome is a rare syndromic microphthalmia disorder characterized by microphthalmia with coloboma (which may involve the iris, cilary body, choroid, retina and/or optic nerve), microcephaly, short stature and intellectual disability. Other eye abnormalities such as pendular nystagmus, esotropia and ptosis may also be present. Additional associated abnormalities include kyphoscoliosis, anteverted pinnae with minimal convolutions, diastema of the incisors and congenital pes varus.
Oculocutaneous albinism type 7
MedGen UID:
815116
Concept ID:
C3808786
Disease or Syndrome
Oculocutaneous albinism type VII (OCA7) is an autosomal recessive hypopigmentation disorder with predominant eye involvement including nystagmus, iris transillumination, and crossed asymmetry of the cortical visual response (Gronskov et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of oculocutaneous albinism, see OCA1 (203100).
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815686
Concept ID:
C3809356
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Chromosome 5q12 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
816612
Concept ID:
C3810282
Disease or Syndrome
PDE4D haploinsufficiency syndrome is a rare syndromic intellectual disability characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, low body mass index, long arms, fingers and toes, prominent nose and small chin.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
854708
Concept ID:
C3888001
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
854728
Concept ID:
C3888026
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Coloboma, ocular, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
860411
Concept ID:
C4011974
Disease or Syndrome
Coloboma is an ocular birth defect resulting from abnormal development of the eye during embryogenesis. It is defined as a congenital defect in any ocular tissue, typically presenting as absent tissue or a gap, at a site consistent with aberrant closure of the optic fissure. Failure of fusion can lead to coloboma of 1 or multiple regions of the inferior portion of the eye affecting any part of the globe traversed by the fissure, from the iris to the optic nerve, including the ciliary body, retina, and choroid. Coloboma is also frequently associated with small (microphthalmic) or absent (anophthalmic) eyes as part of an interrelated spectrum of developmental eye anomalies, and can affect either one or both eyes (summary by Kelberman et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ocular coloboma, see 120200.
AHDC1-related intellectual disability - obstructive sleep apnea - mild dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
862856
Concept ID:
C4014419
Disease or Syndrome
The main features of Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS), present in a majority of affected individuals, include delayed motor milestones, speech delay with severely limited or absent speech, moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, hypotonia, structural brain anomalies, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. Other features may include sleep apnea, movement disorders (ataxia, tremors, and bradykinesias) that often become apparent in childhood or adolescence, short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, behavioral concerns, autism spectrum disorder, scoliosis, and laryngomalacia.
Cataract-growth hormone deficiency-sensory neuropathy-sensorineural hearing loss-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
CAGSSS, which comprises cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum. Not all of these features are always present, and almost all the features may present at different times and/or become more apparent with age. The skeletal features are consistent with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) (summary by Vona et al., 2018). One family had a distinctive presentation with infantile-onset intractable seizures and cortical abnormalities reminiscent of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). The correlation between genotype and phenotype remains unclear, but since the IARS2 gene is involved in mitochondrial function, heterogeneous manifestations can be expected (Takezawa et al., 2018).
PURA-related severe neonatal hypotonia-seizures-encephalopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
863794
Concept ID:
C4015357
Disease or Syndrome
PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders include PURA syndrome, caused by a heterozygous pathogenic sequence variant in PURA, and 5q31.3 deletion syndrome, caused by a genomic 5q31.3 deletion encompassing all or part of PURA. PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by moderate-to-severe neurodevelopmental delay with absence of speech in most and lack of independent ambulation in many. Early-onset problems can include hypotonia, hypothermia, hypersomnolence, feeding difficulties, excessive hiccups, recurrent central and obstructive apneas, epileptic seizures, abnormal nonepileptic movements (dystonia, dyskinesia, and dysconjugate eye movements), and abnormal vision. Congenital heart defects, urogenital malformations, skeletal abnormalities, and endocrine disorders occur, but are less common.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 18
MedGen UID:
863942
Concept ID:
C4015505
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-18 is a neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, severely impaired gait due to cerebellar ataxia, ocular movement abnormalities, and intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebellar atrophy (summary by Hills et al., 2013).
MEND syndrome
MedGen UID:
905986
Concept ID:
C4085243
Disease or Syndrome
Male EBP disorder with neurologic defects (MEND) is an X-linked recessive disorder representing a continuous phenotypic spectrum with variable manifestations associated with a defect in sterol biosynthesis. Features include intellectual disability, short stature, scoliosis, digital abnormalities, cataracts, and dermatologic abnormalities. Not all patients show all features, and the severity is highly variable. Molecular studies indicate that affected males are hemizygous for a nonmosaic hypomorphic EBP allele. Carrier females are generally clinically asymptomatic, but may show biochemical abnormalities (summary by Arnold et al., 2012 and Barboza-Cerda et al., 2014).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 1
MedGen UID:
897191
Concept ID:
C4225153
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Cerebellar atrophy, visual impairment, and psychomotor retardation;
MedGen UID:
905041
Concept ID:
C4225172
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 2
MedGen UID:
907651
Concept ID:
C4225203
Disease or Syndrome
UNC80 deficiency is characterized by hypotonia, strabismus, oral motor dysfunction, postnatal growth deficiency, and developmental delay. The majority of individuals do not learn to walk. All individuals lack expressive language; however, many have expressive body language, and a few have used signs to communicate. Seizures may develop during infancy or childhood. Additional features can include nystagmus, extremity hypertonia, a high-pitched cry, repetitive and self-stimulatory behaviors, constipation, clubfeet, joint contractures, and scoliosis. For most individuals the UNC80 deficiency syndrome is not progressive. Individuals have slow acquisition of skills and do not have a loss of skills suggestive of neurodegeneration.
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
907234
Concept ID:
C4225398
Disease or Syndrome
CLIFAHDD is a congenital disorder characterized by congenital contractures of the limbs and face, resulting in characteristic facial features, hypotonia, and variable degrees of developmental delay. All reported cases have occurred de novo (summary by Chong et al., 2015).
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity
MedGen UID:
924883
Concept ID:
C4284592
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity (SINO) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by rapid growth in infancy, global developmental delay, spastic paraplegia, variable ophthalmologic defects, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Josifova et al., 2016).
X-linked intellectual disability, van Esch type
MedGen UID:
930741
Concept ID:
C4305072
Disease or Syndrome
Van Esch-O'Driscoll syndrome (VEODS) is characterized by varying degrees of intellectual disability, moderate to severe short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and variable congenital malformations (Van Esch et al., 2019).
Harel-Yoon syndrome
MedGen UID:
934644
Concept ID:
C4310677
Disease or Syndrome
Harel-Yoon syndrome is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, truncal hypotonia, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy. Other more variable features such as optic atrophy may also occur. Laboratory studies in some patients show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Harel et al., 2016).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 42
MedGen UID:
934683
Concept ID:
C4310716
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-42 (DEE42) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first hours or days of life, although rare patients may have onset in the first weeks of life. The seizures tend to be refractory and associated with EEG abnormalities, including multifocal spikes and generalized spike-wave complexes. Affected infants show global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development. Other features may include axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia with hyperreflexia, tremor, ataxia, and abnormal eye movements (summary by the Epi4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Trichothiodystrophy 6, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
934752
Concept ID:
C4310785
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.\n\nAbout half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.\n\nIntellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.\n\nMothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. \n\nThe signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.\n\nIn people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."\n\nTrichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken. 
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
934777
Concept ID:
C4310810
Disease or Syndrome
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis is an X-linked recessive disorder with onset of features in early childhood. Anemia is sometimes present. Some patients may show mild early motor or speech delay, but cognition is normal (summary by Andreoletti et al., 2017).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 1, neurogenic, with myelin defect
MedGen UID:
1373185
Concept ID:
C4479539
Disease or Syndrome
AMC1 is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder with onset in utero. Most affected individuals die in utero or are subject to pregnancy termination because of lack of fetal movements and prenatal evidence of contractures of virtually all joints. Those who survive have generalized contractures and hypotonia. The disorder is caused by a neurogenic defect and poor or absent myelin formation around peripheral nerves rather than by a muscular defect (summary by Xue et al., 2017). <Genetic Heterogeneity of Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita Also see AMC2 (208100), caused by mutation in the ERGIC1 gene (617946); AMC3 (618484), caused by mutation in the SYNE1 gene (608441); AMC4 (618776), caused by mutation in the SCYL2 gene (616365); AMC5 (618947), caused by mutation in the TOR1A gene (605204), and AMC6 (619334), caused by mutation in the NEB gene (161650)
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 2, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1625619
Concept ID:
C4538784
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities of the brain, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 11
MedGen UID:
1627627
Concept ID:
C4540164
Congenital Abnormality
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 11 (PCH11) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired intellectual development and poor speech, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and pontocerebellar hypoplasia on brain imaging. Additional features are more variable (summary by Marin-Valencia et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 54
MedGen UID:
1614787
Concept ID:
C4540484
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Adams-Oliver syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1635567
Concept ID:
C4551482
Disease or Syndrome
Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). ACC lesions usually occur in the midline of the parietal or occipital regions, but can also occur on the abdomen or limbs. At birth, an ACC lesion may already have the appearance of a healed scar. ACC lesions less than 5 cm often involve only the skin and almost always heal over a period of months; larger lesions are more likely to involve the skull and possibly the dura, and are at greater risk for complications, which can include infection, hemorrhage, or thrombosis, and can result in death. The limb defects range from mild (unilateral or bilateral short distal phalanges) to severe (complete absence of all toes or fingers, feet or hands, or more, often resembling an amputation). The lower extremities are almost always more severely affected than the upper extremities. Additional major features frequently include cardiovascular malformations/dysfunction (23%), brain anomalies, and less frequently renal, liver, and eye anomalies.
Sclerosteosis 1
MedGen UID:
1642815
Concept ID:
C4551483
Disease or Syndrome
SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasias include sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease, both disorders of progressive bone overgrowth due to increased bone formation. The major clinical features of sclerosteosis are progressive skeletal overgrowth, most pronounced in the skull and mandible, and variable syndactyly, usually of the second (index) and third (middle) fingers. Affected individuals appear normal at birth except for syndactyly. Facial distortion due to bossing of the forehead and mandibular overgrowth is seen in nearly all individuals and becomes apparent in early childhood with progression into adulthood. Hyperostosis of the skull results in narrowing of the foramina, causing entrapment of the seventh cranial nerve (leading to facial palsy) with other, less common nerve entrapment syndromes including visual loss (2nd cranial nerve), neuralgia or anosmia (5th cranial nerve), and sensory hearing loss (8th cranial nerve). In sclerosteosis, hyperostosis of the calvarium reduces intracranial volume, increasing the risk for potentially lethal elevation of intracranial pressure. Survival of individuals with sclerosteosis into old age is unusual, but not unprecedented. The manifestations of van Buchem disease are generally milder than sclerosteosis and syndactyly is absent; life span appears to be normal.
Gaze palsy, familial horizontal, with progressive scoliosis 1
MedGen UID:
1647423
Concept ID:
C4551964
Disease or Syndrome
HGPPS is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by eye movement abnormalities apparent from birth and childhood-onset progressive scoliosis. These features are associated with a developmental malformation of the brainstem including hypoplasia of the pons and cerebellar peduncles and defective decussation of certain neuronal systems. Cognitive function is normal (summary by Bosley et al., 2005). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Horizontal Gaze Palsy With Progressive Scoliosis See also HGPPS2 (617542), caused by mutation in the DCC gene (120470) on chromosome 18q21.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with movement abnormalities, abnormal gait, and autistic features
MedGen UID:
1647077
Concept ID:
C4693405
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with movement abnormalities, abnormal gait, and autistic features (NEDMAGA) is characterized by infantile-onset global developmental delay with severe to profound intellectual disability, mildly delayed walking with broad-based and unsteady gait, and absence of meaningful language. Patients have features of autism, with repetitive behaviors and poor communication, but usually are socially reactive and have a happy demeanor. More variable neurologic features include mild seizures, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy (summary by Palmer et al., 2017).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 35
MedGen UID:
1639653
Concept ID:
C4693466
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-35 (COXPD35) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by global developmental delay with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and early-onset myoclonic and other types of seizures. Affected individuals have variable deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes resulting from a defect in mitochondrial metabolism (summary by Kernohan et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Intellectual developmental disorder with or without epilepsy or cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
1648354
Concept ID:
C4748041
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1D
MedGen UID:
1648387
Concept ID:
C4748058
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1D (PCH1D) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and a motor neuronopathy apparent at birth or in infancy. Patients have respiratory insufficiency, feeding difficulties, and severely delayed or minimal gross motor development. Other features may include eye movement abnormalities, poor overall growth, contractures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebellar atrophy with relative sparing of the brainstem (summary by Burns et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth
MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth (NEDSG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly (Nahorski et al., 2018).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with regression, abnormal movements, loss of speech, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1648345
Concept ID:
C4748127
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability-strabismus syndrome
MedGen UID:
1665943
Concept ID:
C4750838
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain abnormalities, poor growth, and dysmorphic facies (NEDBGF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with delayed walking, impaired intellectual development, and speech delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often with microcephaly and strabismus, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. More variable features may include teeth anomalies, distal joint contractures, spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, and behavioral problems (summary by Sharkia et al., 2019).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10
MedGen UID:
1676575
Concept ID:
C5190575
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including brain atrophy and delayed myelination. Some patients have dysmorphic features and an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (summary by Karaca et al., 2014 and Schaffer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 72
MedGen UID:
1681879
Concept ID:
C5193063
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-72 (DEE72) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms around 5 months of age. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills. Additional more variable features include hyperkinetic movements and cortical visual impairment (summary by Sega et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with coarse facies and mild distal skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1682403
Concept ID:
C5193134
Disease or Syndrome
Stolerman neurodevelopmental syndrome (NEDSST) is a highly variable disorder characterized by developmental delay, often with motor and speech delay, mildly impaired intellectual development (in most patients), learning difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder. Psychosis is observed in a small percentage of individuals over the age of 12 years. Most individuals have nonspecific and mild dysmorphic facial features without a common gestalt. A subset of patients may have involvement of other organ systems, including gastrointestinal with poor early feeding or gastroesophageal reflux, distal skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Most mutations occur de novo, but rare autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance has been observed (Stolerman et al., 2019; Rots et al., 2023).
Noonan syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1684730
Concept ID:
C5231432
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia
MedGen UID:
1684663
Concept ID:
C5231471
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia (NEDBASH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired intellectual and motor development, axial and peripheral hypotonia usually with inability to walk, and significant behavioral abnormalities consistent with autism spectrum disorder and reminiscent of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), such as poor communication, stereotypic or repetitive behaviors, hand-wringing, bruxism, and sleep disturbances. Other features include poor overall growth, and joint hypermobility. Rare features include seizures, dystonia, spasticity, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (summary by Abu-Libdeh et al., 2019 and Dias et al., 2019).
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome
MedGen UID:
1763263
Concept ID:
C5436525
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome (LIGOWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with language delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Affected individuals may have behavioral abnormalities and difficulties with numbers and understanding certain concepts, such as money. Some patients have seizures. Brain imaging often shows enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and gray matter nodular heterotopia, suggesting abnormal cortical brain development. More variable additional features may be present (summary by Li et al., 2020).
Myopathy, congenital, with diaphragmatic defects, respiratory insufficiency, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1764743
Concept ID:
C5436530
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-17 (CMYP17) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency associated with high diaphragmatic dome on imaging. Other features include poor overall growth, pectus excavatum, dysmorphic facies, and renal anomalies in some. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients may have delayed motor development with mildly decreased endurance, whereas others have more severe hypotonia associated with distal arthrogryposis and lung hypoplasia, resulting in early death (summary by Watson et al., 2016 and Lopes et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Deeah syndrome
MedGen UID:
1756624
Concept ID:
C5436579
Disease or Syndrome
DEEAH syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with onset in early infancy. Affected individuals usually present in the perinatal period with respiratory insufficiency, apneic episodes, and generalized hypotonia. The patients have failure to thrive and severely impaired global development with poor acquisition of motor, cognitive, and language skills. Other common features include endocrine, pancreatic exocrine, and autonomic dysfunction, as well as hematologic disturbances, mainly low hemoglobin. Patients also have dysmorphic and myopathic facial features. Additional more variable features include seizures, undescended testes, and distal skeletal anomalies. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1736667
Concept ID:
C5436628
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities (NEDSWMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development apparent in infancy. Affected individuals show poor overall growth, progressive microcephaly, and axial hypotonia, with later onset of spasticity. The disorder is progressive. Some patients show normal early development, but later have regression of motor, cognitive, and language skills. More variable features include seizures, joint contractures, ocular disturbances, episodic respiratory failure, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. The intellectual impairment is variable, ranging from poor visual contact with inability to walk or speak to milder intellectual disability with the ability to say some words. Brain imaging shows variable white matter abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum and poor myelination (summary by Husain et al., 2020).
Buratti-Harel syndrome
MedGen UID:
1788293
Concept ID:
C5543351
Disease or Syndrome
Buratti-Harel syndrome (BURHAS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, global developmental delay, mild motor and speech delay, and mild to moderately impaired intellectual development. Some patients are able to attend special schools and show learning difficulties, whereas others are more severely affected. Patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features, including hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, strabismus, and small low-set ears. Additional features may include laryngomalacia with feeding difficulties and distal skeletal anomalies (summary by Buratti et al., 2021).
Ataxia, intention tremor, and hypotonia syndrome, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
1787902
Concept ID:
C5543478
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset ataxia, intention tremor, and hypotonia syndrome (ATITHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed walking due to ataxia, intention tremor, and hypotonia apparent from early childhood. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development and speech delay or learning disabilities. Eye movement abnormalities may also be present. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy in some patients (summary by Webb et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with infantile epileptic spasms
MedGen UID:
1781627
Concept ID:
C5543538
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with infantile epileptic spasms (NEDIES) is characterized by onset of severe and frequent epileptic spasms within the first year of life. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with delayed walking and poor or absent speech. More variable features may include poor overall growth, high-arched palate, and delayed myelination on brain imaging (summary by Fatima et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1780615
Concept ID:
C5543591
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities (NEDHFBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, hypotonia and muscle weakness, often resulting in the inability to walk or sit, and characteristic coarse facial features. Additional features include feeding difficulties, respiratory distress, scoliosis, poor visual function, and rotary nystagmus. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, decreased white matter volume, white matter changes, thin corpus callosum, and cerebellar hypoplasia (summary by Loddo et al., 2020).
Usmani-Riazuddin syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1794162
Concept ID:
C5561952
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Usmani-Riazzudin syndrome (USRISD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, hypotonia, and behavioral abnormalities, most commonly aggressive behavior. More variable additional features may include seizures and distal limb anomalies (summary by Usmani et al., 2021).
Joubert syndrome 38
MedGen UID:
1794168
Concept ID:
C5561958
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-38 (JBTS38) is characterized by hypotonia, global developmental delay, oculomotor apraxia, and breathing abnormalities, with a 'molar tooth sign' on brain MRI. Patients also exhibit pituitary abnormalities with growth hormone deficiency (Stephen et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794187
Concept ID:
C5561977
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities (NEDHYBA) is characterized by impaired development of motor skills, cognitive function, and speech acquisition beginning in infancy or early childhood. Some affected individuals may have feeding difficulties, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including corpus callosum defects, cerebellar defects, and decreased white matter volume. There is significant phenotypic variability (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Cerebellar ataxia, brain abnormalities, and cardiac conduction defects
MedGen UID:
1794215
Concept ID:
C5562005
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia, brain abnormalities, and cardiac conduction defects (CABAC) is an autosomal recessive primarily neurologic disorder with variable manifestations. Common features included infantile-onset hypotonia, poor motor development, poor feeding and overall growth, and ataxic gait due to cerebellar ataxia. Other features include dysarthria, nystagmus, variable ocular anomalies, spasticity, hyperreflexia, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. Most, but not all, patients have global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay. Brain imaging shows cerebellar hypoplasia, often with brainstem hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, delayed myelination, and thin corpus callosum. A significant number of patients develop cardiac conduction defects in childhood or adolescence, often requiring pacemaker placement (summary by Slavotinek et al., 2020).
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794260
Concept ID:
C5562050
Disease or Syndrome
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrom (MASNS) is characterized by global developmental delay with speech delay and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Affected individuals also show movement disorders, such as dyspraxia and apraxia. More variable features include high pain tolerance, sleep disturbances, and variable nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Marbach et al., 2021).
Schaaf-Yang syndrome
MedGen UID:
1807366
Concept ID:
C5575066
Disease or Syndrome
Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that shares multiple clinical features with the genetically related Prader-Willi syndrome. It usually manifests at birth with muscular hypotonia in all and distal joint contractures in a majority of affected individuals. Gastrointestinal/feeding problems are particularly pronounced in infancy and childhood, but can transition to hyperphagia and obesity in adulthood. Respiratory distress is present in many individuals at birth, with approximately half requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, and approximately 20% requiring tracheostomy. Skeletal manifestations such as joint contractures, scoliosis, and decreased bone mineral density are frequently observed. All affected individuals show developmental delay, resulting in intellectual disability of variable degree, from low-normal intelligence to severe intellectual disability. Other findings may include short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, and hypogonadism.
Intellectual disability and myopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1808193
Concept ID:
C5676904
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability and myopathy syndrome (IDMYS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, muscle weakness and fatigue, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. Variable additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, dysmorphic facies, and progressive heart disease (summary by Smeland et al., 2019).
Tessadori-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1803228
Concept ID:
C5676923
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (TEBIVANED2) is characterized by poor overall growth, profound global developmental delay with absent speech, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features, including hypertelorism, abnormal nose, and wide mouth (Tessadori et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 100
MedGen UID:
1809351
Concept ID:
C5676932
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-100 (DEE100) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and onset of variable types of seizures in the first months or years of life. Most patients have refractory seizures and show developmental regression after seizure onset. Affected individuals have ataxic gait or inability to walk and severe to profoundly impaired intellectual development, often with absent speech. Additional more variable features may include axial hypotonia, hyperkinetic movements, dysmorphic facial features, and brain imaging abnormalities (summary by Schneider et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 75, with neuropsychiatric features and variant lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
1808159
Concept ID:
C5676961
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-75 with neuropsychiatric features and variant lissencephaly (MRT75) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood and moderate to profoundly impaired intellectual development. Most affected individuals have behavioral abnormalities, including aggression and ADHD; a few have psychiatric manifestations, including psychosis. More variable additional features include well-controlled seizures and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging often shows frontal predominant pachygyria or other gyri/sulci abnormalities, consistent with a variant of lissencephaly and a malformation of cortical development (MCD) (summary by Zaki et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1804653
Concept ID:
C5676990
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and skeletal anomalies (NEDGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have hypotonia, delayed walking, poor or absent speech, and variable skeletal anomalies. More variable features include seizures, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor apraxia, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities (Iqbal et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 106
MedGen UID:
1823985
Concept ID:
C5774212
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-106 (DEE106) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of various types of frequent, often refractory, seizures within the first year of life. Affected individuals demonstrate profound global developmental delay with limited ability to move and severely impaired intellectual development with absent speech. Nonspecific brain abnormalities may be observed on MRI (Ni et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with eye movement abnormalities and ataxia
MedGen UID:
1824014
Concept ID:
C5774241
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with eye movement abnormalities and ataxia (NEDEMA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. Affected individuals show delayed walking with an unsteady gait, variably impaired intellectual development, learning disabilities, and speech difficulties. Abnormal eye movements, which are often noted in early childhood, include opsoclonus, nystagmus, and strabismus. Some patients have seizures, which may be refractory (Lu et al., 2022).
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824060
Concept ID:
C5774287
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-3 (LADD3) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by aplasia, atresia or hypoplasia of the lacrimal and salivary systems, cup-shaped ears, hearing loss, and dental and digital anomalies (summary by Milunsky et al., 2006).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and movement abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841260
Concept ID:
C5830624
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and movement abnormalities (NEDMIM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and delayed walking with an abnormal gait. Affected individuals may show hypotonia or hypertonia with spasticity, ataxia, and choreoathetoid movements. Most patients have microcephaly and short stature. Ophthalmic features, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic features are commonly observed. Additional more variable features include seizures, brain imaging abnormalities, and skeletal defects (Serey-Gaut et al., 2023).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Holmes JM
J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2022 Oct-Dec;72(4):230-233. PMID: 36279481Free PMC Article
Hug D
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2015 Jul;26(5):371-4. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000190. PMID: 26247135
Wright KW
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1994 Oct;5(5):25-9. PMID: 10150811

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Nouraeinejad A
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2023 Dec;261(12):3347-3354. Epub 2023 May 5 doi: 10.1007/s00417-023-06092-3. PMID: 37145335Free PMC Article
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Semin Ophthalmol 2023 Jan;38(1):52-56. Epub 2022 Nov 29 doi: 10.1080/08820538.2022.2152701. PMID: 36447371
Voide N, Robert MP
Eye (Lond) 2018 Jul;32(7):1197-1200. Epub 2018 Mar 2 doi: 10.1038/s41433-018-0060-0. PMID: 29497134Free PMC Article
Thomas AH
J AAPOS 2000 Dec;4(6):359-61. doi: 10.1067/mpa.2000.111783. PMID: 11124671
Havertape SA, Whitfill CR, Cruz OA
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1999 Mar-Apr;36(2):69-73. doi: 10.3928/0191-3913-19990301-05. PMID: 10204132

Diagnosis

Goseki T
Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul;65(4):448-453. Epub 2021 May 20 doi: 10.1007/s10384-021-00839-3. PMID: 34014448
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Thomas AH
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Therapy

Bort-Martí AR, Rowe FJ, Ruiz Sifre L, Ng SM, Bort-Martí S, Ruiz Garcia V
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Mar 14;3(3):CD006499. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006499.pub5. PMID: 36916692Free PMC Article
Cibis GW
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1998 Oct;9(5):15-9. doi: 10.1097/00055735-199810000-00004. PMID: 10387475
Wright KW
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1994 Oct;5(5):25-9. PMID: 10150811
Hiatt RL
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Nelson LB, Wagner RS, Simon JW, Harley RD
Surv Ophthalmol 1987 May-Jun;31(6):363-83. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(87)90030-0. PMID: 3303394

Prognosis

Yulek F, Yuzbasioglu S, Eyidogan D
Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Mar-Apr;84(2):128-132. doi: 10.5935/0004-2749.20210020. PMID: 33567009
Yang Y, Wang C, Gan Y, Jiang H, Fu W, Cao S, Lu Z
Acta Ophthalmol 2019 Jun;97(4):353-363. Epub 2018 Nov 6 doi: 10.1111/aos.13953. PMID: 30402966
de Decker W, de Decker Dannheim E, Backheuer U
Strabismus 2008;16(4):145-8. doi: 10.1080/09273970802450895. PMID: 19089759
Havertape SA, Whitfill CR, Cruz OA
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1999 Mar-Apr;36(2):69-73. doi: 10.3928/0191-3913-19990301-05. PMID: 10204132
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J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1981 Jan-Feb;18(1):58-64. doi: 10.3928/0191-3913-19810101-17. PMID: 7241299

Clinical prediction guides

Fong JW, Chacko JG
J AAPOS 2023 Jun;27(3):145.e1-145.e3. Epub 2023 May 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2023.04.004. PMID: 37182653
Bort-Martí AR, Rowe FJ, Ruiz Sifre L, Ng SM, Bort-Martí S, Ruiz Garcia V
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Mar 14;3(3):CD006499. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006499.pub5. PMID: 36916692Free PMC Article
Sharma P
J AAPOS 2018 Feb;22(1):2.e1-2.e5. Epub 2017 Dec 30 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.10.009. PMID: 29292047
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Carruthers J
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1996 Oct;7(5):3-7. doi: 10.1097/00055735-199610000-00002. PMID: 10165105

Recent systematic reviews

Bort-Martí AR, Rowe FJ, Ruiz Sifre L, Ng SM, Bort-Martí S, Ruiz Garcia V
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Mar 14;3(3):CD006499. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006499.pub5. PMID: 36916692Free PMC Article
Mehner L, Ng SM, Singh J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Jan 16;1(1):CD004917. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004917.pub4. PMID: 36645238Free PMC Article
Akowuah PK, Adade S, Nartey A, Owusu E, Donkor R, Ankamah-Lomotey S, Frimpong AA, Adjei-Anang J, Kobia-Acquah E
Strabismus 2023 Mar;31(1):31-44. Epub 2022 Dec 28 doi: 10.1080/09273972.2022.2157023. PMID: 36576233
Hashemi H, Pakzad R, Heydarian S, Yekta A, Aghamirsalim M, Shokrollahzadeh F, Khoshhal F, Pakbin M, Ramin S, Khabazkhoob M
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Tang SM, Chan RY, Bin Lin S, Rong SS, Lau HH, Lau WW, Yip WW, Chen LJ, Ko ST, Yam JC
Sci Rep 2016 Oct 12;6:35177. doi: 10.1038/srep35177. PMID: 27731389Free PMC Article

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