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Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)(PBD1A)

MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: PBD1A; Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1a; Zellweger leukodystrophy
 
Gene (location): PEX1 (7q21.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008953
OMIM®: 214100

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Zellweger Spectrum Disorder
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Steven J Steinberg  |  Gerald V Raymond  |  Nancy E Braverman, et. al.   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
The severe, intermediate, and mild forms of Zellweger spectrum disorder were once thought to be distinct disorders. The severe form was known as Zellweger syndrome, the intermediate form was neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and the mild form was infantile Refsum disease. These conditions were renamed as a single condition when they were found to be part of the same condition spectrum. 

People with intermediate or mild Zellweger spectrum disorder have more variable features that progress more slowly than those with the severe form. Affected children usually do not develop signs and symptoms of the disease until late infancy or early childhood. Children with these intermediate and mild forms often have hypotonia, vision problems, hearing loss, liver dysfunction, developmental delay, and some degree of intellectual disability. Most people with the intermediate form survive into childhood, and those with the mild form may reach adulthood. In rare cases, individuals at the mildest end of the condition spectrum have developmental delay in childhood and hearing loss or vision problems beginning in adulthood and do not develop the other features of this disorder.

Children with severe Zellweger spectrum disorder also develop life-threatening problems in other organs and tissues, such as the liver, heart, and kidneys, and their liver or spleen may be enlarged. They may have skeletal abnormalities, including a large space between the bones of the skull (fontanelles) and characteristic bone spots known as chondrodysplasia punctata that can be seen on x-ray. Affected individuals can have eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts) or involuntary, side-to-side movements of the eyes (nystagmus). Severe Zellweger spectrum disorder involves distinctive facial features, including a flattened face, broad nasal bridge, high forehead, and widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism). Children with severe Zellweger spectrum disorder typically do not survive beyond the first year of life.

Individuals with severe Zellweger spectrum disorder usually have signs and symptoms at birth, which worsen over time. These infants experience weak muscle tone (hypotonia), feeding problems, hearing and vision loss, and seizures. These problems are caused by reduced myelin, which is the covering that protects nerves and promotes the efficient transmission of nerve impulses. The part of the brain and spinal cord that contains myelin is called white matter. Reduced myelin (demyelination) leads to loss of white matter (leukodystrophy). 

Zellweger spectrum disorder is a condition that affects many parts of the body. Cases of Zellweger spectrum disorder are often categorizes as severe, intermediate, or mild.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/zellweger-spectrum-disorder

Clinical features

From HPO
Albuminuria
MedGen UID:
1394
Concept ID:
C0001925
Finding
Increased concentration of albumin in the urine.
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Clitoral hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
57848
Concept ID:
C0156394
Finding
Hypertrophy of the clitoris.
Aminoaciduria
MedGen UID:
116067
Concept ID:
C0238621
Disease or Syndrome
An increased concentration of an amino acid in the urine.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Renal cortical microcysts
MedGen UID:
356391
Concept ID:
C1865877
Finding
Cysts of microscopic size confined to the cortex of the kidney.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Cubitus valgus
MedGen UID:
490152
Concept ID:
C0158465
Acquired Abnormality
Abnormal positioning in which the elbows are turned out.
Congenital vertical talus
MedGen UID:
66821
Concept ID:
C0240912
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital vertical talus (CVT), also known as 'rocker-bottom foot' deformity, is a dislocation of the talonavicular joint characterized by vertical orientation of the talus with a rigid dorsal dislocation of the navicular, equinus deformity of the calcaneus, abduction deformity of the forefoot, and contracture of the soft tissues of the hind- and mid-foot. This condition is usually associated with multiple other congenital deformities and only rarely is an isolated deformity with familial occurrence (summary by Levinsohn et al., 2004). The condition is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and sometimes shows incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. There may be a broad spectrum of deformities, including flatfoot, talipes equinovarus (TEV or clubfoot), cavus foot, metatarsus adductus, and even hypoplasia of the tibia (summary by Dobbs et al., 2006).
Ulnar deviation of the hand
MedGen UID:
66031
Concept ID:
C0241521
Finding
Divergence of the longitudinal axis of the hand at the wrist in a posterior (ulnar) direction (i.e., towards the little finger).
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Ulnar deviation of the hand or of fingers of the hand
MedGen UID:
892857
Concept ID:
C4048199
Finding
Metatarsus adductus
MedGen UID:
898667
Concept ID:
C4082169
Anatomical Abnormality
The metatarsals are deviated medially (tibially), that is, the bones in the front half of the foot bend or turn in toward the body.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Intrahepatic biliary dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
347107
Concept ID:
C1859235
Finding
Prolonged neonatal jaundice
MedGen UID:
347108
Concept ID:
C1859236
Finding
Neonatal jaundice refers to a yellowing of the skin and other tissues of a newborn infant as a result of increased concentrations of bilirubin in the blood. Neonatal jaundice affects over half of all newborns to some extent in the first week of life. Prolonged neonatal jaundice is said to be present if the jaundice persists for longer than 14 days in term infants and 21 days in preterm infants.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Abnormal helix morphology
MedGen UID:
344782
Concept ID:
C1856660
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the helix. The helix is the outer rim of the ear that extends from the insertion of the ear on the scalp (root) to the termination of the cartilage at the earlobe.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Unsteady gait
MedGen UID:
68544
Concept ID:
C0231686
Finding
A shaky or wobbly manner of walking.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Gray matter heterotopia
MedGen UID:
452349
Concept ID:
C0266491
Finding
Heterotopia or neuronal heterotopia are macroscopic clusters of misplaced neurons (gray matter), most often situated along the ventricular walls or within the subcortical white matter.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Subependymal cysts
MedGen UID:
318876
Concept ID:
C1833431
Anatomical Abnormality
Cerebral cysts, usually located in the wall of the caudate nucleus or in the caudothalamic groove. They are found in up to 5.2% of all neonates, using transfontanellar ultrasound in the first days of life.
Loss of ambulation
MedGen UID:
332305
Concept ID:
C1836843
Finding
Inability to walk in a person who previous had the ability to walk.
Intellectual disability, progressive
MedGen UID:
337397
Concept ID:
C1846149
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The term progressive intellectual disability should be used if intelligence decreases/deteriorates over time.
Hypoplastic olfactory lobes
MedGen UID:
395206
Concept ID:
C1859231
Finding
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
354608
Concept ID:
C1861866
Finding
Absence or underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Frequent falls
MedGen UID:
163408
Concept ID:
C0850703
Finding
Flat occiput
MedGen UID:
332439
Concept ID:
C1837402
Finding
Reduced convexity of the occiput (posterior part of skull).
Widely patent fontanelles and sutures
MedGen UID:
336570
Concept ID:
C1849300
Finding
An abnormally increased width of the cranial fontanelles and sutures.
Brachyturricephaly
MedGen UID:
387833
Concept ID:
C1857484
Finding
Abnormal vertical height of the skull and a shortening of its anterior-posterior length, frequently combined with malformations of the occipital region.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Epiphyseal stippling
MedGen UID:
349104
Concept ID:
C1859126
Finding
The presence of abnormal punctate (speckled, dot-like) calcifications in one or more epiphyses.
Bell-shaped thorax
MedGen UID:
351320
Concept ID:
C1865186
Finding
The rib cage has the shape of a wide mouthed bell. That is, the superior portion of the rib cage is constricted, followed by a convex region, and the inferior portion of the rib cage expands again to have a large diameter.
Wide anterior fontanel
MedGen UID:
400926
Concept ID:
C1866134
Finding
Enlargement of the anterior fontanelle with respect to age-dependent norms.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Pulmonary hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
78574
Concept ID:
C0265783
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality in which the lung parenchyma is not fully developed. It may be associated with other congenital abnormalities.
Neonatal respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
924182
Concept ID:
C4281993
Finding
Respiratory difficulty as newborn.
Elevated circulating long chain fatty acid concentration
MedGen UID:
395207
Concept ID:
C1859241
Finding
Increased concentration of long-chain fatty acids in the blood circulation.
Macroglossia
MedGen UID:
44236
Concept ID:
C0024421
Disease or Syndrome
Increased length and width of the tongue.
Round face
MedGen UID:
116087
Concept ID:
C0239479
Finding
The facial appearance is more circular than usual as viewed from the front.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Protruding tongue
MedGen UID:
66831
Concept ID:
C0241442
Finding
Tongue extending beyond the alveolar ridges or teeth at rest.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Redundant neck skin
MedGen UID:
374440
Concept ID:
C1840319
Finding
Excess skin around the neck, often lying in horizontal folds.
Flat face
MedGen UID:
342829
Concept ID:
C1853241
Finding
Absence of concavity or convexity of the face when viewed in profile.
Breech presentation
MedGen UID:
654
Concept ID:
C0006157
Pathologic Function
A position of the fetus at delivery in which the fetus enters the birth canal with the buttocks or feet first.
Adrenal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
337539
Concept ID:
C1846223
Pathologic Function
Developmental hypoplasia of the adrenal glands.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Opacification of the corneal stroma
MedGen UID:
602191
Concept ID:
C0423250
Finding
Reduced transparency of the stroma of cornea.
Abnormal electroretinogram
MedGen UID:
96908
Concept ID:
C0476397
Finding
Any abnormality of the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina as measured by electroretinography.
Optic disc pallor
MedGen UID:
108218
Concept ID:
C0554970
Finding
A pale yellow discoloration of the optic disk (the area of the optic nerve head in the retina). The optic disc normally has a pinkish hue with a central yellowish depression.
Brushfield spots
MedGen UID:
266270
Concept ID:
C1303007
Finding
The presence of whitish spots in a ring-like arrangement at the periphery of the iris.
Pigmentary retinopathy
MedGen UID:
1643295
Concept ID:
C4551715
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the retina characterized by pigment deposition. It is typically associated with migration and proliferation of macrophages or retinal pigment epithelial cells into the retina; melanin from these cells causes the pigmentary changes. Pigmentary retinopathy is a common final pathway of many retinal conditions and is often associated with visual loss.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVPeroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Muto Y, Suzuki M, Takei H, Saito N, Mori J, Sugimoto S, Imagawa K, Nambu R, Oguri S, Itonaga T, Ihara K, Hayashi H, Murayama K, Kakiyama G, Nittono H, Shimizu T
Mol Genet Metab 2023 Sep-Oct;140(1-2):107703. Epub 2023 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2023.107703. PMID: 37802748

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