U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Send to:

Choose Destination


MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Cell Neoplastic Transformation; Cell Neoplastic Transformations; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic; Cell Transformations, Neoplastic; Neoplastic Cell Transformation; Neoplastic Cell Transformations; Neoplastic Transformation, Cell; Neoplastic Transformations, Cell; Transformation, Cell Neoplastic; Transformation, Neoplastic Cell; Transformation, Tumorigenic; Transformations, Cell Neoplastic; Transformations, Neoplastic Cell; Transformations, Tumorigenic; Tumorigenic Transformation; Tumorigenic Transformations


A pathologic process that involves the transformation of normal cells to a neoplastic state and resulting in polyclonal or monoclonal neoplastic cell proliferation. [from NCI]

Professional guidelines


Castiglione V, Aimo A, Vergaro G, Saccaro L, Passino C, Emdin M
Heart Fail Rev 2022 Mar;27(2):625-643. Epub 2021 Apr 14 doi: 10.1007/s10741-021-10105-w. PMID: 33852110Free PMC Article
Weber DD, Aminzadeh-Gohari S, Tulipan J, Catalano L, Feichtinger RG, Kofler B
Mol Metab 2020 Mar;33:102-121. Epub 2019 Jul 27 doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2019.06.026. PMID: 31399389Free PMC Article
Miranda Furtado CL, Dos Santos Luciano MC, Silva Santos RD, Furtado GP, Moraes MO, Pessoa C
Epigenetics 2019 Dec;14(12):1164-1176. Epub 2019 Jul 13 doi: 10.1080/15592294.2019.1640546. PMID: 31282279Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies


Azzam SK, Alsafar H, Sajini AA
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 30;23(7) doi: 10.3390/ijms23073800. PMID: 35409166Free PMC Article
Cai J, Sun L, Gonzalez FJ
Cell Host Microbe 2022 Mar 9;30(3):289-300. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2022.02.004. PMID: 35271802Free PMC Article
Yang J, Wei H, Zhou Y, Szeto CH, Li C, Lin Y, Coker OO, Lau HCH, Chan AWH, Sung JJY, Yu J
Gastroenterology 2022 Jan;162(1):135-149.e2. Epub 2021 Aug 27 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.08.041. PMID: 34461052
Ocvirk S, O'Keefe SJD
Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Aug;73:347-355. Epub 2020 Oct 16 doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.10.003. PMID: 33069873
Bhardwaj P, Au CC, Benito-Martin A, Ladumor H, Oshchepkova S, Moges R, Brown KA
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 May;189:161-170. Epub 2019 Mar 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.03.002. PMID: 30851382Free PMC Article


Qu R, Zhang Y, Ma Y, Zhou X, Sun L, Jiang C, Zhang Z, Fu W
Adv Sci (Weinh) 2023 Aug;10(23):e2205563. Epub 2023 Jun 1 doi: 10.1002/advs.202205563. PMID: 37263983Free PMC Article
Wong CC, Yu J
Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2023 Jul;20(7):429-452. Epub 2023 May 11 doi: 10.1038/s41571-023-00766-x. PMID: 37169888
Fu Y, Yu J, Li F, Ge S
J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2022 Apr 15;41(1):144. doi: 10.1186/s13046-022-02338-w. PMID: 35428309Free PMC Article
Kamali Zonouzi S, Pezeshki PS, Razi S, Rezaei N
Clin Transl Oncol 2022 May;24(5):757-769. Epub 2021 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s12094-021-02734-2. PMID: 34839457
Sulli G, Lam MTY, Panda S
Trends Cancer 2019 Aug;5(8):475-494. Epub 2019 Aug 3 doi: 10.1016/j.trecan.2019.07.002. PMID: 31421905Free PMC Article


Fassl A, Geng Y, Sicinski P
Science 2022 Jan 14;375(6577):eabc1495. doi: 10.1126/science.abc1495. PMID: 35025636Free PMC Article
Tamura R
Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 29;22(11) doi: 10.3390/ijms22115850. PMID: 34072574Free PMC Article
Carbone A, Roulland S, Gloghini A, Younes A, von Keudell G, López-Guillermo A, Fitzgibbon J
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019 Dec 12;5(1):83. doi: 10.1038/s41572-019-0132-x. PMID: 31831752
Moufarrij S, Dandapani M, Arthofer E, Gomez S, Srivastava A, Lopez-Acevedo M, Villagra A, Chiappinelli KB
Clin Epigenetics 2019 Jan 15;11(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s13148-018-0602-0. PMID: 30646939Free PMC Article
Carballo GB, Honorato JR, de Lopes GPF, Spohr TCLSE
Cell Commun Signal 2018 Mar 20;16(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s12964-018-0220-7. PMID: 29558958Free PMC Article


Huang DQ, El-Serag HB, Loomba R
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr;18(4):223-238. Epub 2020 Dec 21 doi: 10.1038/s41575-020-00381-6. PMID: 33349658Free PMC Article
Almendros I, Martinez-Garcia MA, Farré R, Gozal D
Int J Obes (Lond) 2020 Aug;44(8):1653-1667. Epub 2020 Feb 18 doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-0549-z. PMID: 32071426
Liu T, Zhang X, Du L, Wang Y, Liu X, Tian H, Wang L, Li P, Zhao Y, Duan W, Xie Y, Sun Z, Wang C
Mol Cancer 2019 Mar 19;18(1):43. doi: 10.1186/s12943-019-0981-7. PMID: 30890168Free PMC Article
Torre LA, Trabert B, DeSantis CE, Miller KD, Samimi G, Runowicz CD, Gaudet MM, Jemal A, Siegel RL
CA Cancer J Clin 2018 Jul;68(4):284-296. Epub 2018 May 29 doi: 10.3322/caac.21456. PMID: 29809280Free PMC Article
Ben-Shlomo A, Cooper O
Pituitary 2018 Apr;21(2):183-193. doi: 10.1007/s11102-018-0864-8. PMID: 29344907

Clinical prediction guides

Feng ZH, Liang YP, Cen JJ, Yao HH, Lin HS, Li JY, Liang H, Wang Z, Deng Q, Cao JZ, Huang Y, Wei JH, Luo JH, Chen W, Chen ZH
J Transl Med 2022 Oct 29;20(1):492. doi: 10.1186/s12967-022-03711-1. PMID: 36309694Free PMC Article
Wang X, Ma L, Pei X, Wang H, Tang X, Pei JF, Ding YN, Qu S, Wei ZY, Wang HY, Wang X, Wei GH, Liu DP, Chen HZ
Brief Bioinform 2022 May 13;23(3) doi: 10.1093/bib/bbac118. PMID: 35419596Free PMC Article
Tang B, Yan R, Zhu J, Cheng S, Kong C, Chen W, Fang S, Wang Y, Yang Y, Qiu R, Lu C, Ji J
Int J Biol Sci 2022;18(1):180-198. Epub 2022 Jan 1 doi: 10.7150/ijbs.64654. PMID: 34975326Free PMC Article
Castiglione V, Aimo A, Vergaro G, Saccaro L, Passino C, Emdin M
Heart Fail Rev 2022 Mar;27(2):625-643. Epub 2021 Apr 14 doi: 10.1007/s10741-021-10105-w. PMID: 33852110Free PMC Article
Zhang M, Chen H, Wang M, Bai F, Wu K
Biosci Rep 2020 Feb 28;40(2) doi: 10.1042/BSR20193286. PMID: 32043519Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Terp SK, Stoico MP, Dybkær K, Pedersen IS
Clin Epigenetics 2023 Feb 14;15(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s13148-023-01440-w. PMID: 36788585Free PMC Article
Bouleftour W, Guillot A, Magne N
Mol Cancer Ther 2022 Apr 1;21(4):493-501. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-21-0846. PMID: 35131876
Zhang Y, Qian J, Gu C, Yang Y
Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Feb 24;6(1):78. doi: 10.1038/s41392-021-00486-7. PMID: 33623018Free PMC Article
Li W, He P, Huang Y, Li YF, Lu J, Li M, Kurihara H, Luo Z, Meng T, Onishi M, Ma C, Jiang L, Hu Y, Gong Q, Zhu D, Xu Y, Liu R, Liu L, Yi C, Zhu Y, Ma N, Okamoto K, Xie Z, Liu J, He RR, Feng D
Theranostics 2021;11(1):222-256. Epub 2021 Jan 1 doi: 10.7150/thno.49860. PMID: 33391472Free PMC Article
Braidy N, Liu Y
Exp Gerontol 2020 Apr;132:110831. Epub 2020 Jan 7 doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2020.110831. PMID: 31917996

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...