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Neoplasm

MedGen UID:
10294
Concept ID:
C0027651
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Neoplasm (disease); Neoplasms
SNOMED CT: Tumor (108369006); Neoplasm (108369006)
 
HPO: HP:0002664
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005070

Definition

An organ or organ-system abnormality that consists of uncontrolled autonomous cell-proliferation which can occur in any part of the body as a benign or malignant neoplasm (tumor). [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNeoplasm

Conditions with this feature

Reticulum cell sarcoma
MedGen UID:
44224
Concept ID:
C0024302
Neoplastic Process
A rare dendritic cell tumor characterized by a neoplasm composed of spindle to ovoid cells with phenotypic features similar to those of interdigitating dendritic cells. Solitary lymph node involvement is common, although extranodal localization (in particular skin and soft tissue) has also been reported. Patients usually present with an asymptomatic mass, sometimes with systemic symptoms such as fatigue, fever, and night sweats. Generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, or hepatomegaly may be seen in rare cases. The clinical course is generally aggressive.
Extramammary Paget disease
MedGen UID:
45280
Concept ID:
C0030186
Neoplastic Process
A rare skin tumor characterized by predominantly intraepithelial growth of an adenocarcinoma which may either arise primarily in the skin (primary extramammary Paget disease) or result from intraepithelial spread of a visceral carcinoma (secondary extramammary Paget disease). The lesion is typically located in the anogenital region, presenting as a scaly, oozing, pruritic or painful erythematous plaque often resembling eczema. It may exhibit an invasive component with a significant risk of lymph node metastasis.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas cause catecholamine excess; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base and neck (referred to as head and neck PGL [HNPGL]) and sometimes in the upper mediastinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically lead to catecholamine excess. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result from either mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for developing metastatic disease is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas.
Androgen resistance syndrome
MedGen UID:
21102
Concept ID:
C0039585
Disease or Syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is typically characterized by evidence of feminization (i.e., undermasculinization) of the external genitalia at birth, abnormal secondary sexual development in puberty, and infertility in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. AIS represents a spectrum of defects in androgen action and can be subdivided into three broad phenotypes: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), with typical female external genitalia. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) with predominantly female, predominantly male, or ambiguous external genitalia. Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) with typical male external genitalia.
Piebaldism
MedGen UID:
36361
Concept ID:
C0080024
Congenital Abnormality
Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant trait characterized by the congenital absence of melanocytes in affected areas of the skin and hair. A white forelock of hair, often triangular in shape, may be the only manifestation, or both the hair and the underlying forehead may be involved. The eyebrows and eyelashes may be affected. Irregularly shaped white patches may be observed on the face, trunk, and extremities, usually in a symmetrical distribution. Typically, islands of hyperpigmentation are present within and at the border of depigmented areas (summary by Thomas et al., 2004).
Xeroderma pigmentosum group B
MedGen UID:
78643
Concept ID:
C0268136
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Adamantinoma
MedGen UID:
83163
Concept ID:
C0334556
Neoplastic Process
A primary low-grade, malignant bone tumor that is predominantly located in the mid-portion of the tibia. Histologically, classic adamantinoma is a biphasic tumor characterized by epithelial and osteofibrous components that may be intermingled with each other in various proportions and differentiating patterns.
OSLAM syndrome
MedGen UID:
331588
Concept ID:
C1833792
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome characterized by the association of osteosarcoma, limb anomalies (clinodactyly with brachymesophalangia, bilateral radioulnar synostosis and absence of one digital ray of the foot) and red cell macrocytosis without anemia. It has been described in three out of nine children from one family.
Myasthenia, limb-girdle, autoimmune
MedGen UID:
331795
Concept ID:
C1834635
Disease or Syndrome
Disorder due cytochrome p450 CYP2D6 variant
MedGen UID:
323088
Concept ID:
C1837154
Disease or Syndrome
Thymoma, familial
MedGen UID:
376447
Concept ID:
C1848814
Neoplastic Process
Thymomas are low-grade epithelial cancers of the thymus. Familial occurrence of thymoma is rare.
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 1
MedGen UID:
347456
Concept ID:
C1857451
Disease or Syndrome
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is an endogenous form of adrenal Cushing syndrome characterized by multiple bilateral adrenocortical nodules that cause a striking enlargement of the adrenal glands. Although some familial cases have been reported, the vast majority of AIMAH cases are sporadic. Patients typically present in the fifth or sixth decade of life, approximately 10 years later than most patients with other causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). Approximately 10 to 15% of adrenal Cushing syndrome is due to primary bilateral ACTH-independent adrenocortical pathology. The 2 main subtypes are AIMAH and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD; see 610489), which is often a component of the Carney complex (160980) and associated with mutations in the PRKAR1A gene (188830). AIMAH is rare, representing less than 1% of endogenous causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). See also ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (615830) due to somatic mutation in the PRKACA gene (601639). Cushing 'disease' (219090) is an ACTH-dependent disorder caused in most cases by pituitary adenomas that secrete excessive ACTH. Genetic Heterogeneity of ACTH-Independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia AIMAH2 (615954) is caused by germline mutation on 1 allele of the ARMC5 gene (615549) coupled with a somatic mutation in the other allele.
Brooke-Spiegler syndrome
MedGen UID:
346703
Concept ID:
C1857941
Disease or Syndrome
CYLD cutaneous syndrome (CCS) typically manifests in the second or third decade with the appearance of multiple skin tumors including cylindromas, spiradenomas, trichoepitheliomas, and rarely, membranous basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland. The first tumor typically develops at puberty and tumors progressively accumulate through adulthood. Females often have more tumors than males. Tumors typically arise on the scalp and face but can also arise on the torso and sun-protected sites, such as the genital and axillary skin. A minority of individuals develop salivary gland tumors. Rarely, pulmonary cylindromas can develop in large airways and compromise breathing. Although the tumors are usually benign, malignant transformation is recognized.
Cancer, familial, with in vitro Radioresistance
MedGen UID:
396248
Concept ID:
C1861915
Neoplastic Process
Premature aging syndrome, Okamoto type
MedGen UID:
356468
Concept ID:
C1866183
Disease or Syndrome
Paragangliomas 2
MedGen UID:
357076
Concept ID:
C1866552
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas cause catecholamine excess; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base and neck (referred to as head and neck PGL [HNPGL]) and sometimes in the upper mediastinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically lead to catecholamine excess. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result from either mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for developing metastatic disease is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
413336
Concept ID:
C2750548
Neoplastic Process
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a multifactorial malignancy associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The cancer arises from the epithelium of the nasopharynx (summary by Tse et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma, see NPCA1 (607107).
N syndrome
MedGen UID:
424834
Concept ID:
C2936859
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome that is characterized by intellectual deficit, deafness, ocular anomalies, T-cell leukemia, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and spasticity. Mutations in DNA polymerase alpha, leading to increased chromosome breakage, may be responsible for the syndrome. X-linked recessive transmission has been proposed.
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 2
MedGen UID:
461704
Concept ID:
C3150354
Disease or Syndrome
Kaposi sarcoma, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
761233
Concept ID:
C3538945
Finding
UV-sensitive syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
764087
Concept ID:
C3551173
Disease or Syndrome
UV-sensitive syndrome-1 (UVSS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and mild freckling, without an increased risk of skin tumors. Patient cells show impaired recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS) after UV irradiation due to defective preferential repair of DNA damage in actively transcribing genes, although unscheduled DNA repair is normal. The cellular findings are consistent with a defect in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) of UV damage (summary by Horibata et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of UV-Sensitive Syndrome See also UVSS2 (614621), caused by mutation in the ERCC8 gene (609412) on chromosome 5q12, and UVSS3 (614640), caused by mutation in the UVSSA gene (614632) on chromosome 4p16.
Cervical cancer
MedGen UID:
890252
Concept ID:
C4048328
Neoplastic Process
A tumor of the uterine cervix.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 1;137(6):e100-e115. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004401. PMID: 34011888
European Study Group on Cystic Tumours of the Pancreas
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Pancreatology 2017 Sep-Oct;17(5):738-753. Epub 2017 Jul 13 doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2017.07.007. PMID: 28735806

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

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