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Keratitis

MedGen UID:
44013
Concept ID:
C0022568
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Keratitides
SNOMED CT: Keratitis (5888003)
 
HPO: HP:0000491
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0003085

Definition

Inflammation of the cornea. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Crouzon syndrome
MedGen UID:
1162
Concept ID:
C0010273
Disease or Syndrome
Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by craniosynostosis causing secondary alterations of the facial bones and facial structure. Common features include hypertelorism, exophthalmos and external strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, short upper lip, hypoplastic maxilla, and a relative mandibular prognathism (Reardon et al., 1994; Glaser et al., 2000).
Hereditary insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis
MedGen UID:
6915
Concept ID:
C0020074
Disease or Syndrome
NTRK1 congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (NTRK1-CIPA) is characterized by insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis (the inability to sweat), and intellectual disability. The ability to sense all pain (including visceral pain) is absent, resulting in repeated injuries including: oral self-mutilation (biting of tongue, lips, and buccal mucosa); biting of fingertips; bruising, scarring, and infection of the skin; multiple bone fractures (many of which fail to heal properly); and recurrent joint dislocations resulting in joint deformity. Sense of touch, vibration, and position are normal. Anhidrosis predisposes to recurrent febrile episodes that are often the initial manifestation of NTRK1-CIPA. Hypothermia in cold environments also occurs. Intellectual disability of varying degree is observed in most affected individuals; hyperactivity and emotional lability are common.
Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome
MedGen UID:
7049
Concept ID:
C0021171
Disease or Syndrome
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, eyes, and central nervous system; it occurs primarily in females and on occasion in males. Characteristic skin lesions evolve through four stages: I. Blistering (birth to age ~4 months). II. Wart-like rash (for several months). III. Swirling macular hyperpigmentation (age ~6 months into adulthood). IV. Linear hypopigmentation. Alopecia, hypodontia, abnormal tooth shape, and dystrophic nails are observed. Neovascularization of the retina, present in some individuals, predisposes to retinal detachment. Neurologic findings including seizures, intellectual disability, and developmental delays are occasionally seen.
DE SANCTIS-CACCHIONE SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
75550
Concept ID:
C0265201
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive inherited syndrome. It is characterized by xeroderma pigmentosum, mental retardation, dwarfism, hypogonadism, and neurologic abnormalities.
Autosomal dominant keratitis-ichthyosis-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
120536
Concept ID:
C0265336
Disease or Syndrome
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, photophobia and corneal vascularization, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, erythrokeratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. A subset of patients with KID may develop multiple cystic pilar tumors, which are prone to malignant transformation and metastasis (Nyquist et al., 2007). Vohwinkel syndrome (124500) is an allelic disorder involving congenital deafness with keratopachydermia and constrictions of fingers and toes. Another similar disorder caused by mutation in GJB2 is palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness (148350). Genetic Heterogeneity of Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of KID syndrome (KIDAR; 242150) is caused by mutation in the AP1B1 gene (600157) on chromosome 22q12.
Xeroderma pigmentosum group A
MedGen UID:
82775
Concept ID:
C0268135
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group D
MedGen UID:
75656
Concept ID:
C0268138
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Keratitis fugax hereditaria
MedGen UID:
372107
Concept ID:
C1835697
Disease or Syndrome
Keratoendotheliitis fugax hereditaria (KEFH) is an autosomal dominant corneal disease that periodically and fleetingly affects the corneal endothelium, stroma, and vision, eventually resulting in central corneal stromal opacities in some patients. The disease is characterized by episodes of unilateral ocular pain, pericorneal injection, and photophobia. The acute symptoms vanish in 1 to 2 days, but vision remains blurry for several weeks. Onset occurs between ages 3 and 12 years, and may involve either eye. Episodes generally decrease in frequency and become more mild with age (summary by Turunen et al., 2018).
Autosomal dominant keratitis
MedGen UID:
332039
Concept ID:
C1835698
Disease or Syndrome
Keratitis is a rare ocular disorder presenting with congenital and progressive features predominantly involving the anterior segment of the eye. The major clinical symptoms are anterior stromal corneal opacification and vascularization of the peripheral cornea. Progression of the opacification and vascularization into the central cornea may occur with corresponding reduction in visual acuity. Other anterior segment features include variable radial defects of the iris stroma and foveal hypoplasia (summary by Mirzayans et al., 1995).
Xeroderma pigmentosum variant type
MedGen UID:
376352
Concept ID:
C1848410
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group E
MedGen UID:
341219
Concept ID:
C1848411
Congenital Abnormality
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Cold-induced sweating syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
338577
Concept ID:
C1848947
Disease or Syndrome
Cold-induced sweating syndrome (CISS) and its infantile presentation, Crisponi syndrome(CS) is characterized by dysmorphic features (distinctive facies, lower facial weakness, flexion deformity at the elbows, camptodactyly with fisted hands, misshapen feet, and overriding toes); intermittent contracture of facial and oropharyngeal muscles when crying or being handled with puckering of lips and drooling of foamy saliva often associated with laryngospasm and respiratory distress; excessive startling and opisthotonus-like posturing with unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli; poor suck reflex and severely impaired swallowing; and a scaly erythematous rash. During the first decade of life, children with CISS/CS develop profuse sweating of the face, arms, and chest with ambient temperatures below 18º to 22º C, and with other stimuli including nervousness or ingestion of sweets. Affected individuals sweat very little in hot environments and may feel overheated. Progressive thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis occurs, requiring intervention in the second decade.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
355927
Concept ID:
C1865181
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder characterized by macroblepharon, ectropion, and facial dysmorphism which includes severe hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, broad nasal bridge, long and smooth philtrum, and macrostomia with thin upper lip vermilion border. Other features may include large fontanelles, prominent metopic ridge, thick eyebrows, mild synophrys, increased density of upper eyelashes, anterverted nares, abnormal dentition and capillary hemangioma.
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
412573
Concept ID:
C2748527
Disease or Syndrome
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by follicular hyperkeratosis, progressive cicatricial alopecia, and photophobia. Most reported cases show X-linked inheritance (KFSDX; 308800) (Castori et al., 2009).
Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 6
MedGen UID:
442478
Concept ID:
C2750448
Disease or Syndrome
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium. Late-onset FECD is marked by thickening of Descemets membrane and excrescences, called guttae, that typically appear in the fourth or fifth decade. Disease progression results in decreased visual acuity as a result of increasing corneal edema, and end-stage disease is marked by painful epithelial bullae (summary by Riazuddin et al., 2013). Patients with keratoconus have been observed (Lechner et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, see FECD1 (136800).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group C
MedGen UID:
416702
Concept ID:
C2752147
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Familial antiphospholipid syndrome
MedGen UID:
419641
Concept ID:
C2930802
Disease or Syndrome
The designation 'antiphospholipid syndrome' was proposed for the association of arterial and venous thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, and immune thrombocytopenia with a spectrum of autoantibodies directed against cellular phospholipid components. Anticardiolipin antibodies may react with cardiolipin and with other negatively charged phospholipids, including beta-2-glycoprotein I (B2GPI, APOH; 138700). The term 'lupus anticoagulant' refers to a heterogeneous group of antibodies, most commonly of the IgG type, that are detected by their inhibitory effect on coagulant-active phospholipid components of in vitro coagulation tests (summary by Matthey et al., 1989). Shoenfeld et al. (2008) noted that antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by up to 30 different autoantibodies, including those against platelets, glycoproteins, coagulation factors, lamins, mitochondrial antigens, and cell surface markers. Some of these may have an additive effect on the prothrombotic tendency of the syndrome. Ruiz-Irastorza et al. (2010) reviewed pathophysiologic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic advances related to the antiphospholipid syndrome. Various autoimmune disorders that cluster in families, including autoimmune thrombocytopenia (188030), are discussed elsewhere (e.g., 109100, 269200).
Ramos-Arroyo syndrome
MedGen UID:
418932
Concept ID:
C2930866
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by corneal anesthesia, retinal abnormalities, bilateral hearing loss, distinct facies, patent ductus arteriosus, Hirschsprung disease, short stature and intellectual disability. The phenotype is variable. Some affected individuals have only mild disease manifestations. The etiology of this syndrome is not yet known. Mutations in an as of yet unidentified gene, involved in autonomic nervous system function, are suspected. Follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, probably with variable expressivity.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5B, with muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
418981
Concept ID:
C2931072
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
MedGen UID:
811223
Concept ID:
C3495801
Disease or Syndrome
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly termed Wegener granulomatosis, is a systemic disease with a complex genetic background. It is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (ANCAs) in patient sera. These ANCAs are antibodies to a defined target antigen, proteinase-3 (PR3, PRTN3; 177020), which is present within primary azurophil granules of neutrophils (PMNs) and lysozymes of monocytes. On cytokine priming of PMNs, PR3 translocates to the cell surface, where PR3-ANCAs can interact with their antigens and activate PMNs. PMNs from patients with active GPA express PR3 on their surface, produce respiratory burst, and release proteolytic enzymes after activation with PR3-ANCAs. The consequence is a self-sustaining inflammatory process (Jagiello et al., 2004).
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, X-linked
MedGen UID:
854384
Concept ID:
C3887525
Congenital Abnormality
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is an uncommon genodermatosis chiefly characterized by widespread keratosis pilaris, progressive cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes, and an excess of affected males. Photophobia, blepharitis/conjunctivitis, and corneal dystrophy are characteristic ancillary findings. It is most often inherited as an X-linked trait (summary by Castori et al., 2009). Autosomal dominant inheritance has also been reported (KFSD; 612843). The term 'cum ophiasi' means 'with ophiasis,' i.e., baldness in 1 or more winding streaks about the head, which comes from the Greek for snake. Decalvans refers to the loss of hair.
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 4, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1673363
Concept ID:
C5193141
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-4B with recurrent infections (HIES4B) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of recurrent infections and skeletal abnormalities, including craniosynostosis and scoliosis. Patients are mainly susceptible to bacterial infections that affect the respiratory tract, skin, and eye. Immunologic workup shows increased serum IgE, intermittent eosinophilia, and impaired IL6 (147620) and IL27 (608273) downstream signaling that affects the development and function of certain B- and T-cell populations, as well as the acute-phase response; IL11 (147681) signaling in fibroblasts is also affected (summary by Shahin et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see HIES1 (147060).
IFAP syndrome 1, with or without BRESHECK syndrome
MedGen UID:
1746744
Concept ID:
C5399971
Disease or Syndrome
The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of IFAP Syndrome IFAP syndrome-2 (IFAP2; 619016) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SREBF1 gene (184756) on chromosome 17p11.
IFAP syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1763502
Concept ID:
C5436607
Disease or Syndrome
Follicular ichthyosis, atrichia, and photophobia syndrome-2 (IFAP2) is characterized by ichthyosis follicularis or follicular hyperkeratosis, sparse to no body hair, and photophobia with corneal lesions. Ultrastructural hair analysis shows trichorrhexis nodosa (Wang et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IFAP syndrome, see IFAP1 (308205).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Sibley D, Larkin DFP
Eye (Lond) 2020 Dec;34(12):2219-2226. Epub 2020 Aug 25 doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-01153-x. PMID: 32843744Free PMC Article
Ross Russell AL, Dryden MS, Pinto AA, Lovett JK
Pract Neurol 2018 Dec;18(6):455-464. Epub 2018 Oct 3 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2018-001998. PMID: 30282764
Thomas PA, Kaliamurthy J
Clin Microbiol Infect 2013 Mar;19(3):210-20. Epub 2013 Feb 9 doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12126. PMID: 23398543

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Maier P, Betancor PK, Reinhard T
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2022 Oct 7;119(40):669-674. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2022.0281. PMID: 35912449Free PMC Article
Mandal N, Yeung SN, Tadrous C, Iovieno A
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022 Jun;260(6):1837-1841. Epub 2022 Mar 12 doi: 10.1007/s00417-022-05617-6. PMID: 35286434
Sibley D, Larkin DFP
Eye (Lond) 2020 Dec;34(12):2219-2226. Epub 2020 Aug 25 doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-01153-x. PMID: 32843744Free PMC Article
Bourcier T, Sauer A, Dory A, Denis J, Sabou M
J Fr Ophtalmol 2017 Nov;40(9):e307-e313. Epub 2017 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2017.08.001. PMID: 28987448
Thomas PA, Kaliamurthy J
Clin Microbiol Infect 2013 Mar;19(3):210-20. Epub 2013 Feb 9 doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12126. PMID: 23398543

Diagnosis

Maier P, Betancor PK, Reinhard T
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2022 Oct 7;119(40):669-674. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2022.0281. PMID: 35912449Free PMC Article
Cabrera-Aguas M, Khoo P, Watson SL
Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022 Jul;50(5):543-562. Epub 2022 Jun 3 doi: 10.1111/ceo.14113. PMID: 35610943Free PMC Article
Sharma N, Bagga B, Singhal D, Nagpal R, Kate A, Saluja G, Maharana PK
Ocul Surf 2022 Apr;24:22-30. Epub 2021 Dec 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2021.12.001. PMID: 34915188
Sibley D, Larkin DFP
Eye (Lond) 2020 Dec;34(12):2219-2226. Epub 2020 Aug 25 doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-01153-x. PMID: 32843744Free PMC Article
Thomas PA, Kaliamurthy J
Clin Microbiol Infect 2013 Mar;19(3):210-20. Epub 2013 Feb 9 doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12126. PMID: 23398543

Therapy

Chen YY, Liu SH, Nurmatov U, van Schayck OC, Kuo IC
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Mar 13;3(3):CD001211. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001211.pub4. PMID: 36912752Free PMC Article
Mandal N, Yeung SN, Tadrous C, Iovieno A
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022 Jun;260(6):1837-1841. Epub 2022 Mar 12 doi: 10.1007/s00417-022-05617-6. PMID: 35286434
Sharma N, Bagga B, Singhal D, Nagpal R, Kate A, Saluja G, Maharana PK
Ocul Surf 2022 Apr;24:22-30. Epub 2021 Dec 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2021.12.001. PMID: 34915188
Akinlade B, Guttman-Yassky E, de Bruin-Weller M, Simpson EL, Blauvelt A, Cork MJ, Prens E, Asbell P, Akpek E, Corren J, Bachert C, Hirano I, Weyne J, Korotzer A, Chen Z, Hultsch T, Zhu X, Davis JD, Mannent L, Hamilton JD, Teper A, Staudinger H, Rizova E, Pirozzi G, Graham NMH, Shumel B, Ardeleanu M, Wollenberg A
Br J Dermatol 2019 Sep;181(3):459-473. Epub 2019 May 7 doi: 10.1111/bjd.17869. PMID: 30851191Free PMC Article
Austin A, Lietman T, Rose-Nussbaumer J
Ophthalmology 2017 Nov;124(11):1678-1689. Epub 2017 Sep 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.05.012. PMID: 28942073Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Bullimore MA, Ritchey ER, Shah S, Leveziel N, Bourne RRA, Flitcroft DI
Ophthalmology 2021 Nov;128(11):1561-1579. Epub 2021 May 4 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.04.032. PMID: 33961969
Acharya M, Farooqui JH, Jain S, Mathur U
Rom J Ophthalmol 2019 Apr-Jun;63(2):119-127. PMID: 31334389Free PMC Article
Grzybowski A, Nita M, Virmond M
Clin Dermatol 2015 Jan-Feb;33(1):79-89. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2014.07.003. PMID: 25432813
Wladis EJ
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 May-Jun;30(3):271-2. doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000000167. PMID: 24777274
Lalitha P
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2009 Jul;20(4):318-23. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e32832c3bcc. PMID: 19387343

Clinical prediction guides

Keenan JD
Cornea 2023 Nov 1;42(11):1333-1339. Epub 2023 Jul 4 doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000003340. PMID: 38112645Free PMC Article
Mabrouk NA, Abdelkader MF, Abdelhakeem MA, Mourad KM, Abdelghany AA
Int Ophthalmol 2022 May;42(5):1401-1407. Epub 2021 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s10792-021-02128-x. PMID: 34839447
Halling AS, Loft N, Silverberg JI, Guttman-Yassky E, Thyssen JP
J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jan;84(1):139-147. Epub 2020 Aug 18 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.051. PMID: 32822798
Słowik M, Biernat MM, Urbaniak-Kujda D, Kapelko-Słowik K, Misiuk-Hojło M
Adv Clin Exp Med 2015 Nov-Dec;24(6):1113-7. doi: 10.17219/acem/50572. PMID: 26771986
Fernandez V, Dursun D, Miller D, Alfonso EC
Am J Ophthalmol 2002 Sep;134(3):435-8. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(02)01576-3. PMID: 12208257

Recent systematic reviews

Chen YY, Liu SH, Nurmatov U, van Schayck OC, Kuo IC
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Mar 13;3(3):CD001211. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001211.pub4. PMID: 36912752Free PMC Article
Dammacco R, Guerriero S, Alessio G, Dammacco F
Int Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;42(2):689-711. Epub 2021 Nov 21 doi: 10.1007/s10792-021-02058-8. PMID: 34802085Free PMC Article
Halling AS, Loft N, Silverberg JI, Guttman-Yassky E, Thyssen JP
J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jan;84(1):139-147. Epub 2020 Aug 18 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.051. PMID: 32822798
Epling J
BMJ Clin Evid 2012 Feb 20;2012 PMID: 22348418Free PMC Article
Epling J
BMJ Clin Evid 2010 Mar 15;2010 PMID: 21718563Free PMC Article

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