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Triangular face

MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Synonym: Triangular facies
 
HPO: HP:0000325

Definition

Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVTriangular face

Conditions with this feature

Dubowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
59797
Concept ID:
C0175691
Disease or Syndrome
Dubowitz syndrome (DS) is a rare multiple congenital syndrome characterized primarly by growth retardation, microcephaly, distinctive facial dysmorphism, cutaneous eczema, a mild to severe intellectual deficit and genital abnormalities.
Sotos syndrome
MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures.
KBG syndrome
MedGen UID:
66317
Concept ID:
C0220687
Disease or Syndrome
KBG syndrome is typically characterized by macrodontia (especially of the upper central incisors), characteristic facial features (triangular face, brachycephaly, synophrys, widely spaced eyes, broad or bushy eyebrows, prominent ears, prominent nasal bridge, bulbous nose, anteverted nares, long philtrum, and thin vermilion of the upper lip), short stature, developmental delay / intellectual disability, and behavioral issues. Affected individuals may have feeding difficulties (particularly in infancy), skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, large anterior fontanelle with delayed closure, scoliosis), hearing loss (conductive, mixed, and sensorineural), seizure disorder, and brain malformations. There is significant variability in the clinical findings, even between affected members of the same family.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type III
MedGen UID:
78664
Concept ID:
C0268362
Disease or Syndrome
COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV).
Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome
MedGen UID:
83337
Concept ID:
C0342286
Disease or Syndrome
Virtually all individuals with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) have the endocrine findings of hypogonadism (evident at puberty) and progressive childhood-onset hair thinning that often progresses to alopecia totalis in adulthood. More than half of individuals have the neurologic findings of progressive extrapyramidal movements (dystonic spasms with dystonic posturing with dysarthria and dysphagia), moderate bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss, and mild intellectual disability. To date, more than 40 families (including 33 with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis) with a total of 88 affected individuals have been reported in the literature.
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
Mulibrey nanism syndrome
MedGen UID:
99347
Concept ID:
C0524582
Disease or Syndrome
Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare autosomal recessive growth disorder with prenatal onset, including occasional progressive cardiomyopathy, characteristic facial features, failure of sexual maturation, insulin resistance with type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Hamalainen et al., 2006).
Floating-Harbor syndrome
MedGen UID:
152667
Concept ID:
C0729582
Disease or Syndrome
Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features; low birth weight, normal head circumference, and short stature; bone age delay that normalizes between ages six and 12 years; skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, clubbing, clinodactyly, short thumbs, prominent joints, clavicular abnormalities); severe receptive and expressive language impairment; hypernasality and high-pitched voice; and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Difficulties with temperament and behavior that are present in many children tend to improve in adulthood. Other features can include hyperopia and/or strabismus, conductive hearing loss, seizures, gastroesophageal reflux, renal anomalies (e.g., hydronephrosis / renal pelviectasis, cysts, and/or agenesis), and genital anomalies (e.g., hypospadias and/or undescended testes).
Cockayne syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
Partington syndrome
MedGen UID:
163237
Concept ID:
C0796250
Disease or Syndrome
Partington syndrome (PRTS) is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development and variable movement disturbances. Partington syndrome is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from hydranencephaly and lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (see 308350) to nonsyndromic intellectual disability (300419). Although males with ARX mutations are often more severely affected, female mutation carriers may also be affected (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008).
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
164078
Concept ID:
C0877024
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small ilia with shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae, and small deformed capital femoral epiphyses. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease. The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and an associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with a greater risk of death during childhood to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with likely survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
SHORT syndrome
MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
SHORT syndrome is a mnemonic for short stature, hyperextensibility, ocular depression (deeply set eyes), Rieger anomaly, and teething delay. It is now recognized that the features most consistently observed in SHORT syndrome are mild intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); mild to moderate short stature; partial lipodystrophy (evident in the face, and later in the chest and upper extremities, often sparing the buttocks and legs); and a characteristic facial gestalt. Insulin resistance may be evident in mid-childhood or adolescence, although diabetes mellitus typically does not develop until early adulthood. Other frequent features include Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly or related ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis, delayed dentition and other dental issues, and sensorineural hearing loss.
Deficiency of transaldolase
MedGen UID:
224855
Concept ID:
C1291329
Disease or Syndrome
Transaldolase deficiency (TALDOD) is a rare inborn error of pentose metabolism. Typical features include intrauterine growth restriction, triangular face, loose wrinkly skin at birth, and development of progressive liver failure (summary by Lee-Barber et al., 2019).
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
220983
Concept ID:
C1303073
Disease or Syndrome
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by sparse scalp hair, prominence of the inter-phalangeal joints and distal phalanges due to decreased subcutaneous fat, characteristic coarse facial features, microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay / intellectual disability. Seizures are of various types and can be difficult to manage. Developmental delay / intellectual disability (ID) is severe in nearly a half, moderate in a third, and mild in the remainder. Nearly a third never develop speech or language skills.
Andersen Tawil syndrome
MedGen UID:
327586
Concept ID:
C1563715
Disease or Syndrome
Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by a triad of: episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis); ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval; and anomalies including low-set ears, widely spaced eyes, small mandible, fifth-digit clinodactyly, syndactyly, short stature, and scoliosis. Affected individuals present in the first or second decade with either cardiac symptoms (palpitations and/or syncope) or weakness that occurs spontaneously following prolonged rest or following rest after exertion. Mild permanent weakness is common. Mild learning difficulties and a distinct neurocognitive phenotype (i.e., deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning) have been described.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1
MedGen UID:
318592
Concept ID:
C1720862
Disease or Syndrome
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is usually diagnosed at birth or soon thereafter. Because of the absence of functional adipocytes, lipid is stored in other tissues, including muscle and liver. Affected individuals develop insulin resistance and approximately 25%-35% develop diabetes mellitus between ages 15 and 20 years. Hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur in all affected individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported in 20%-25% of affected individuals and is a significant cause of morbidity from cardiac failure and early mortality.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
MedGen UID:
318593
Concept ID:
C1720863
Congenital Abnormality
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is usually diagnosed at birth or soon thereafter. Because of the absence of functional adipocytes, lipid is stored in other tissues, including muscle and liver. Affected individuals develop insulin resistance and approximately 25%-35% develop diabetes mellitus between ages 15 and 20 years. Hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur in all affected individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported in 20%-25% of affected individuals and is a significant cause of morbidity from cardiac failure and early mortality.
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus-pancreatic and cerebellar agenesis syndrome
MedGen UID:
332288
Concept ID:
C1836780
Disease or Syndrome
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus-pancreatic and cerebellar agenesis syndrome is characterized by neonatal diabetes mellitus associated with cerebellar and/or pancreatic agenesis.
Fanconi anemia complementation group I
MedGen UID:
323016
Concept ID:
C1836861
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Gaucher disease perinatal lethal
MedGen UID:
374996
Concept ID:
C1842704
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Cree intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
335673
Concept ID:
C1847361
Disease or Syndrome
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor I resistance
MedGen UID:
338622
Concept ID:
C1849157
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with mutations in the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I show intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure, resulting in short stature and microcephaly. Other features may include delayed bone age, developmental delay, and dysmorphic features.
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum.
Bartter disease type 2
MedGen UID:
343428
Concept ID:
C1855849
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Autosomal recessive faciodigitogenital syndrome
MedGen UID:
341637
Concept ID:
C1856871
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome including short stature, facial dysmorphism, hand abnormalities and shawl scrotum. It has been observed in 16 subjects from five distantly related sibships of a large Kuwaiti Bedouin tribe. The affected patients had no intellectual deficit. Transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Alagille syndrome due to a NOTCH2 point mutation
MedGen UID:
341844
Concept ID:
C1857761
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur.
Arthrogryposis- oculomotor limitation-electroretinal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
350678
Concept ID:
C1862472
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 5 is distinguished from other forms of DA by the presence of ocular abnormalities, typically ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and/or strabismus, in addition to contractures of the skeletal muscles. Some cases have been reported to have pulmonary hypertension as a result of restrictive lung disease (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). There are 2 syndromes with features overlapping those of DA5 that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 3 (DA3, or Gordon syndrome; 114300) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS; 248700), which are distinguished by the presence of cleft palate and mental retardation, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders might represent variable expressivity of the same condition. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1A (108120). Genetic Heterogeneity of Distal Arthrogryposis 5 A subtype of DA5 due to mutation in the ECEL1 gene (605896) on chromosome 2q36 has been designated DA5D (615065). See NOMENCLATURE.
Alagille syndrome due to a JAG1 point mutation
MedGen UID:
365434
Concept ID:
C1956125
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur.
Mevalonic aciduria
MedGen UID:
368373
Concept ID:
C1959626
Disease or Syndrome
Mevalonic aciduria (MEVA), the first recognized defect in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids, is a consequence of a deficiency of mevalonate kinase (ATP:mevalonate 5-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.36). Mevalonic acid accumulates because of failure of conversion to 5-phosphomevalonic acid, which is catalyzed by mevalonate kinase. Mevalonic acid is synthesized from 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, a reaction catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase (142910). Mevalonic aciduria is characterized by dysmorphology, psychomotor retardation, progressive cerebellar ataxia, and recurrent febrile crises, usually manifesting in early infancy, accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and skin rash. The febrile crises are similar to those observed in hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and to periodic fever syndrome (HIDS; 260920), which is also caused by mutation in the MVK gene (summary by Prietsch et al., 2003).
Legius syndrome
MedGen UID:
370709
Concept ID:
C1969623
Disease or Syndrome
Legius syndrome is characterized by multiple café au lait macules without neurofibromas or other tumor manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Additional clinical manifestations reported commonly include intertriginous freckling, lipomas, macrocephaly, and learning disabilities / attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) / developmental delays. Current knowledge of the natural history of Legius syndrome is based on the clinical manifestations of fewer than 300 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis; better delineation of the clinical manifestations and natural history of Legius syndrome will likely occur as more affected individuals are identified.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity comprises two phenotypes, both characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria. The mild phenotype (~75% of affected males) with onset in the second or third decade of life is typically limited to these biochemical findings, whereas the severe phenotype (~25% of affected males) with onset in the first decade of life has in addition to these biochemical findings variable combinations of developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the mild phenotype, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Multicentric carpo-tarsal osteolysis with or without nephropathy
MedGen UID:
436237
Concept ID:
C2674705
Disease or Syndrome
Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome is a rare skeletal disorder, usually presenting in early childhood with a clinical picture mimicking juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Progressive destruction of the carpal and tarsal bone usually occurs and other bones may also be involved. Chronic renal failure is a frequent component of the syndrome. Mental retardation and minor facial anomalies have been noted in some patients. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been documented in many families (Pai and Macpherson, 1988). See also Torg-Winchester syndrome (259600), an autosomal recessive multicentric osteolysis syndrome.
Distal 10q deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 10q26 deletion syndrome vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Among the more common features associated with this chromosomal change are distinctive facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth problems, and developmental delay. People with 10q26 deletion syndrome often have delayed development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some have limited speech throughout life. Affected individuals may experience seizures, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control (impulsivity), or exhibit autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction.\n\nA range of facial features is seen in people with 10q26 deletion syndrome, but not all affected individuals have these features. Facial features of people with 10q26 deletion syndrome may include a prominent or beaked nose, a broad nasal bridge, a small jaw (micrognathia), malformed ears that are low set, a thin upper lip, and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Many affected individuals have widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism) that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Some people with this condition have a short neck with extra folds of skin (webbed neck).\n\nLess common signs and symptoms can occur in 10q26 deletion syndrome. Skeletal problems include a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis), limited movement in the elbows or other joints, or curved fifth fingers and toes (clinodactyly). Slow growth before and after birth can also occur in affected individuals. Males with this condition may have genital abnormalities, such as a small penis (micropenis), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), or the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). Some people with 10q26 deletion syndrome have kidney abnormalities, heart defects, breathing problems, recurrent infections, or hearing or vision problems.
Chromosome 15q26-qter deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390804
Concept ID:
C2675463
Disease or Syndrome
Distal monosomy 15q is a rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, developmental delay, variable degrees of intellectual disability, hand and foot anomalies (e.g. brachy-/clinodactyly, talipes equinovarus, nail hypoplasia, proximally placed digits) and mild craniofacial dysmorphism (incl. microcephaly, triangular face, broad nasal bridge, micrognathia). Neonatal lymphedema, heart malformations, aplasia cutis congenita, aortic root dilatation, and autistic spectrum disorder have also been reported.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Fontaine progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described.
X-linked intellectual disability-craniofacioskeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
394716
Concept ID:
C2678036
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-craniofacioskeletal syndrome is a rare, hereditary, syndromic intellectual disability characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities in association with mild intellectual disability in females and early postnatal lethality in males. In addition to mild cognitive impairment, females present with microcephaly, short stature, skeletal features and extra temporal lobe gyrus. In males, intrauterine growth impairment, cardiac and urogenital anomalies have been reported.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
3M syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
395592
Concept ID:
C2678312
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2B
MedGen UID:
414526
Concept ID:
C2751987
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotype of autosomal recessive cutis laxa type II (ARCL2) includes cutis laxa of variable severity, abnormal growth, developmental delay, and associated skeletal abnormalities (summary by Morava et al., 2009). No specific clinical features distinguish ARCL2A (219200), which includes a glycosylation defect, and ARCL2B, in which abnormal glycosylation has not been reported (Morava et al., 2009; Guernsey et al., 2009). For a phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
3M syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
414168
Concept ID:
C2752041
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 5
MedGen UID:
419332
Concept ID:
C2931093
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most forms of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in one of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Glorieux et al. (2000) described a novel autosomal dominant form of OI, which they designated OI type V (OI5), in 7 patients. The disorder was similar to OI type IV but had distinctive clinical, histologic, and molecular characteristics. OI type V is characterized by calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation, a subphyseal metaphyseal radiodense line, and hyperplastic callus formation (summary by Cho et al., 2012). OI type V has a variable phenotype. For example, in patients with the more common c.-14C-T variant (614757.0001), distinctive radiographic findings (calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation, a subphyseal metaphyseal radiodense line, and hyperplastic callus formation) are often seen, whereas these findings are not seen in patients with the less common S40L variant (614757.0002).
Potocki-Lupski syndrome
MedGen UID:
444010
Concept ID:
C2931246
Disease or Syndrome
Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and medical manifestations. Cognitively, most individuals present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for moderate intellectual disability. Behaviorally, issues with attention, hyperactivity, withdrawal, and anxiety may be seen. Some individuals meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Medically, hypotonia, oropharyngeal dysphagia leading to failure to thrive, congenital heart disease, hypoglycemia associated with growth hormone deficiency, and mildly dysmorphic facial features are observed. Medical manifestations typically lead to identification of PTLS in infancy; however, those with only behavioral and cognitive manifestations may be identified in later childhood.
Cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
444067
Concept ID:
C2931488
Disease or Syndrome
Zlotogora-Ogur syndrome is an ectodermal dysplasia syndrome with characteristics of hair, skin and teeth anomalies, facial dysmorphism with cleft lip and palate, cutaneous syndactyly and, in some cases, intellectual disability.The prevalence is unknown but to date, less than 50 cases have been described in the literature. Caused by mutations in the gene PVRL1 (11q23-q24) which encodes nectin-1, the principal receptor used by alpha-herpesviruses to mediate entry into human cells. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
CBL-related disorder
MedGen UID:
462153
Concept ID:
C3150803
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder is a developmental disorder resembling Noonan syndrome (NS1; 163950) and characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, and ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies. There is extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity (summary by Martinelli et al., 2010). Patients with heterozygous germline CBL mutations have an increased risk for certain malignancies, particularly juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML; 607785), as also seen in patients with Noonan syndrome (summary by Niemeyer et al., 2010).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
462463
Concept ID:
C3151113
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.\n\nAdditional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems.\n\nMeier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.\n\nSome people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).\n\nMost people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
462476
Concept ID:
C3151126
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.\n\nAdditional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems.\n\nMeier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.\n\nSome people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).\n\nMost people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 10
MedGen UID:
462561
Concept ID:
C3151211
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type X is an autosomal recessive form characterized by multiple bone deformities and fractures, generalized osteopenia, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and blue sclera (Christiansen et al., 2010).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 11
MedGen UID:
462568
Concept ID:
C3151218
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type XI is an autosomal recessive form of OI (summary by Alanay et al., 2010).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481473
Concept ID:
C3279843
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth and variable phenotypic manifestations, such as facial dysmorphism and congenital heart defects, associated with mosaic aneuploidies resulting from defects in cell division (summary by Snape et al., 2011). See also MVA1 (257300), caused by mutation in the BUB1B gene (602860) on chromosome 15q15.
3M syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
481776
Concept ID:
C3280146
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
PYCR1-related de Barsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
482429
Concept ID:
C3280799
Disease or Syndrome
De Barsy syndrome, also known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III (ARCL3), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an aged appearance with distinctive facial features, sparse hair, ophthalmologic abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and cutis laxa (summary by Lin et al., 2011). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of de Barsy syndrome, see 219150. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see 219200.
Chromosome 17q12 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
482767
Concept ID:
C3281137
Disease or Syndrome
The 17q12 recurrent duplication is characterized by intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability and other variable clinical manifestations. Speech delay is common, and most affected individuals have some degree of hypotonia and gross motor delay. Behavioral and psychiatric conditions reported in some affected individuals include autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and behavioral abnormalities (aggression and self-injury). Seizures are present in 75%. Additional common findings include microcephaly, ocular abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities. Short stature and renal and cardiac abnormalities are also reported in some individuals. Penetrance is incomplete and clinical findings are variable.
Fanconi anemia complementation group C
MedGen UID:
483324
Concept ID:
C3468041
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Short stature-onychodysplasia-facial dysmorphism-hypotrichosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
762199
Concept ID:
C3542022
Disease or Syndrome
SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 13
MedGen UID:
766801
Concept ID:
C3553887
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Martinez-Glez et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIII, an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by normal teeth, faint blue sclerae, severe growth deficiency, borderline osteoporosis, and an average of 10 to 15 fractures a year affecting both upper and lower limbs and with severe bone deformity.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 11A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766914
Concept ID:
C3554000
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 13 (CG13, equivalent to CGH) have mutations in the PEX13 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 12A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766916
Concept ID:
C3554002
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 14 (CG14, equivalent to CGJ) have mutations in the PEX19 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 13A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766918
Concept ID:
C3554004
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group K (CGK) have mutations in the PEX14 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Microcephalic primordial dwarfism, Alazami type
MedGen UID:
767353
Concept ID:
C3554439
Disease or Syndrome
Alazami syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe growth restriction present at birth, severely impaired intellectual development, and distinctive facial features. Some patients have been reported with skeletal and behavioral features (summary by Imbert-Bouteille et al., 2019).
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, MKB type
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Partial lipodystrophy, congenital cataracts, and neurodegeneration syndrome
MedGen UID:
813897
Concept ID:
C3807567
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by loss of body fat from various regions and predisposition to metabolic complications of insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities. FPLD7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Additional features, including early-onset cataracts and later onset of spasticity of the lower limbs, have been noted in some patients (summary by Garg et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 1
MedGen UID:
815784
Concept ID:
C3809454
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal cognitive development. Some patients are never learn to sit or walk independently (summary by Al-Sayed et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile Hypotonia with Psychomotor Retardation and Characteristic Facies See also IHPRF2 (616801), caused by mutation in the UNC80 gene (612636) on chromosome 2q34; and IHPRF3 (616900), caused by mutation in the TBCK gene (616899) on chromosome 4q24.
Progeroid features-hepatocellular carcinoma predisposition syndrome
MedGen UID:
863898
Concept ID:
C4015461
Disease or Syndrome
Ruijs et al. (2003) reported a Moroccan boy with a chromosomal breakage who died of hepatocellular carcinoma at age 17 years. The boy was noted to have growth retardation at age 3 years; at age 7 he was found to have thoracic kyphosis, frontal bossing, and a delayed bone age of approximately 3 years. He underwent surgery for severe bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts at age 14. Examination at age 15 showed short stature and low weight, with premature graying of scalp hair, small frontotemporal diameter, small deep-set eyes, bulbous nose with high nasal bridge, small upper lip, and micrognathia. In addition, he had thoracic kyphoscoliosis, sloping shoulders, mild pectus excavatum, moderate bilateral contractures of both elbows, bilateral clinodactyly, and pes planus. At age 17, he developed abdominal pain, and ultrasonography revealed a liver mass; biopsy confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma. Because of the advanced stage, no treatment was possible, and he died 2 months later. Although his parents were not known to be consanguineous, they originated from the same small Moroccan village. Lessel et al. (2014) studied 2 brothers from a nonconsanguineous Australian family of European ancestry who exhibited low body weight, micrognathia, triangular face, muscular atrophy, lipodystrophy, bilateral simian creases, delayed bone age, and mild joint restrictions in the fingers and elbows. In addition, both brothers developed early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma, at ages 16 and 14 years, respectively. The older brother died at age 18 from complications of acute fulminant hepatic failure. Analysis of patient tumor biopsies showed strong focal accumulations of cancer biomarkers as well as a high proliferative index compared to healthy liver or to cells from idiopathic hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 2
MedGen UID:
907651
Concept ID:
C4225203
Disease or Syndrome
UNC80 deficiency is characterized by hypotonia, strabismus, oral motor dysfunction, postnatal growth deficiency, and developmental delay. The majority of individuals do not learn to walk. All individuals lack expressive language; however, many have expressive body language, and a few have used signs to communicate. Seizures may develop during infancy or childhood. Additional features can include nystagmus, extremity hypertonia, a high-pitched cry, repetitive and self-stimulatory behaviors, constipation, clubfeet, joint contractures, and scoliosis. For most individuals the UNC80 deficiency syndrome is not progressive. Individuals have slow acquisition of skills and do not have a loss of skills suggestive of neurodegeneration.
Cardiac anomalies - developmental delay - facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
900924
Concept ID:
C4225208
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired intellectual development and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects (MRFACD) is an autosomal dominant, complex syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech acquisition, distinctive dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge with bulbous tip, and macrostomia. There is variable penetrance of cardiac malformations, ranging from no malformations to patent foramen ovale to septal defects and/or transposition of the great arteries (summary by Adegbola et al., 2015).
PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
894862
Concept ID:
C4225255
Disease or Syndrome
Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. The disorder comprises features of both demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A; 118220), which results from duplication of the PMP22 gene on 17p12, and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; 610883), which results from duplication of a slightly proximal region on 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. These 2 loci are about 2.5 Mb apart. The resultant YUHAL phenotype may be more severe in comparison to the individual contributions of each gene, with particularly early onset of peripheral neuropathy and features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement (summary by Yuan et al., 2015).
Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
899774
Concept ID:
C4225268
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant cutis laxa-3 is characterized by thin skin with visible veins and wrinkles, cataract or corneal clouding, clenched fingers, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and moderate intellectual disability. In addition, patients exhibit a combination of muscular hypotonia with brisk muscle reflexes (Fischer-Zirnsak et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cutis laxa, see ARCL1 (123700).
Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction
MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015).
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
903881
Concept ID:
C4225303
Disease or Syndrome
Any lethal congenital contracture syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ADGRG6 gene.
Silver-Russell syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
894912
Concept ID:
C4225307
Disease or Syndrome
Silver-Russell syndrome-3 (SRS3) is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation with relative macrocephaly, followed by feeding difficulties and postnatal growth restriction. Dysmorphic facial features include triangular face, prominent forehead, and low-set ears. Other variable features include limb defects, genitourinary and cardiovascular anomalies, hearing impairment, and developmental delay (Begemann et al., 2015; Yamoto et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Silver-Russell syndrome, see SRS1 (180860).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 10
MedGen UID:
904191
Concept ID:
C4225332
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-10 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by postnatal progressive microcephaly, severely delayed psychomotor development, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Nakayama et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Cole-Carpenter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
905199
Concept ID:
C4225382
Disease or Syndrome
Cole-Carpenter syndrome-2 (CLCRP2) is a skeletal dysplasia associated with low bone mass or an osteogenesis imperfecta-like syndrome. It is characterized by bone fragility with craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, hydrocephalus, and distinctive facial features such as marked frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, and micrognathia (summary by Takeyari et al., 2018).
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 20
MedGen UID:
909388
Concept ID:
C4275029
Congenital Abnormality
The Mulchandani-Bhoj-Conlin syndrome (MBCS) is characterized by prenatal growth restriction, severe short stature with proportional head circumference, and profound feeding difficulty (Mulchandani et al., 2016).
Hypotonia, ataxia, and delayed development syndrome
MedGen UID:
934585
Concept ID:
C4310618
Disease or Syndrome
EBF3 neurodevelopmental disorder (EBF3-NDD) is associated with developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), speech delay, gait or truncal ataxia, hypotonia, behavioral problems, and facial dysmorphism. Variability between individuals with EBF3-NDD is significant. Although all affected children have DD noted in early infancy, intellect generally ranges from mild to severe ID, with two individuals functioning in the low normal range. Less common issues can include genitourinary abnormalities and gastrointestinal and/or musculoskeletal involvement. To date, 42 symptomatic individuals from 39 families have been reported.
Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
934611
Concept ID:
C4310644
Disease or Syndrome
GDACCF is an intellectual disability syndrome apparent soon after birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and respiratory insufficiency followed by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability with poor speech. Brain imaging shows aplasia or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals have variable dysmorphic facial features, and some may have dysplastic, cystic kidneys or mild cardiac defects (summary by Stevens et al., 2016).
Joubert syndrome 27
MedGen UID:
934673
Concept ID:
C4310706
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Macrocephaly, dysmorphic facies, and psychomotor retardation
MedGen UID:
934733
Concept ID:
C4310766
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly, dysmorphic facies, and psychomotor retardation (MDFPMR) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by large head and somatic overgrowth apparent at birth followed by global developmental delay. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features and persistently large head, but increased birth weight normalizes with age. Additional neurologic features, including seizures, hypotonia, and gait ataxia, may also occur. Patients show severe intellectual impairment (summary by Ortega-Recalde et al., 2015).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart
MedGen UID:
934739
Concept ID:
C4310772
Disease or Syndrome
RERE-related disorders are characterized by neurodevelopmental problems with or without structural anomalies of the eyes, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary tract and mild sensorineural hearing loss. Hypotonia and feeding problems are common among affected individuals. Developmental delay and intellectual disability range from mild to profound. Behavior problems may include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-injurious behavior, and autism spectrum disorder. A variety of eye anomalies (coloboma, optic nerve anomalies, microphthalmia, and/or Peter's anomaly) and vision issues (myopia, anisometropia, astigmatism, exotropia, esotropia) have been reported. Congenital heart defects, most commonly septal defects, have also been described. Genitourinary abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. Sensorineural hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral.
Progeroid and marfanoid aspect-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934763
Concept ID:
C4310796
Disease or Syndrome
The marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MFLS) is characterized by congenital lipodystrophy, premature birth with an accelerated linear growth disproportionate to weight gain, and progeroid appearance with distinct facial features, including proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, and retrognathia. Other characteristic features include arachnodactyly, digital hyperextensibility, myopia, dural ectasia, and normal psychomotor development (Takenouchi et al., 2013). Takenouchi et al. (2013) noted phenotypic overlap with Marfan syndrome (154700) and Shprintzen-Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome (182212).
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C
MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2D
MedGen UID:
1376619
Concept ID:
C4479409
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IID (ARCL2D) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular and neurologic involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Intellectual developmental disorder with neuropsychiatric features
MedGen UID:
1379216
Concept ID:
C4479636
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with neuropsychiatric features is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate intellectual disability, relatively mild seizures, and neuropsychiatric abnormalities, such as anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and autistic features. Mild facial dysmorphic features may also be present (summary by Srour et al., 2017).
Al Kaissi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1611968
Concept ID:
C4540156
Disease or Syndrome
Al Kaissi syndrome (ALKAS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by growth retardation, spine malformation, particularly of the cervical spine, dysmorphic facial features, and delayed psychomotor development with moderate to severe intellectual disability (summary by Windpassinger et al., 2017).
LEOPARD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Noonan syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1638960
Concept ID:
C4551602
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Feingold syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1637716
Concept ID:
C4551774
Disease or Syndrome
Feingold syndrome 1 (referred to as FS1 in this GeneReview) is characterized by digital anomalies (shortening of the 2nd and 5th middle phalanx of the hand, clinodactyly of the 5th finger, syndactyly of toes 2-3 and/or 4-5, thumb hypoplasia), microcephaly, facial dysmorphism (short palpebral fissures and micrognathia), gastrointestinal atresias (primarily esophageal and/or duodenal), and mild-to-moderate learning disability.
3p- syndrome
MedGen UID:
1643555
Concept ID:
C4706503
Disease or Syndrome
Characteristic features of the distal 3p- syndrome include low birth weight, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, hypotonia, psychomotor and growth retardation, ptosis, telecanthus, downslanting palpebral fissures, and micrognathia. Postaxial polydactyly, renal anomalies, cleft palate, congenital heart defects (especially atrioventricular septal defects), preauricular pits, sacral dimple, and gastrointestinal anomalies are variable features. Although intellectual deficits are almost invariably associated with cytogenetically visible 3p deletions, rare patients with a 3p26-p25 deletion and normal intelligence or only mild abnormalities have been described (summary by Shuib et al., 2009).
Alacrima, achalasia, and intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1640947
Concept ID:
C4706563
Disease or Syndrome
Alacrima, achalasia, and impaired intellectual development syndrome (AAMR) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of these 3 main features at birth or in early infancy. More variable features include hypotonia, gait abnormalities, anisocoria, and visual or hearing deficits. The disorder shows similarity to the triple A syndrome (231550), but patients with AAMR do not have adrenal insufficiency (summary by Koehler et al., 2013). See also 300858 for a phenotypically similar disorder that shows X-linked inheritance.
Vertebral anomalies and variable endocrine and T-cell dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1648299
Concept ID:
C4748741
Disease or Syndrome
Vertebral anomalies and variable endocrine and T-cell dysfunction is a syndrome characterized by an overlapping spectrum of features. Skeletal malformations primarily involve the vertebrae, and endocrine abnormalities involving parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450), growth hormone (GH1; 139250), and the thyroid gland have been reported. T-cell abnormalities have been observed, with some patients showing thymus gland aplasia or hypoplasia. Patients have mild craniofacial dysmorphism, and some show developmental delay or behavioral problems. Cardiac defects may be present (Liu et al., 2018).
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683985
Concept ID:
C5193008
Disease or Syndrome
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome (MKMS) is an X-linked recessive disorder with features of microcephaly, microtia, hearing loss, developmental delay, dysmorphic features, congenital heart defect, and digit abnormalities. Females are generally affected more severely than males (Mullegama et al., 2019).
Paganini-Miozzo syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683361
Concept ID:
C5193010
Disease or Syndrome
Paganini-Miozzo syndrome (MRXSPM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, high myopia, and mild dysmorphic facial features (summary by Paganini et al., 2019)
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B1
MedGen UID:
1676961
Concept ID:
C5193014
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by clenched fist, overlapping fingers, camptodactyly, ulnar deviation, and positional foot deformities from birth. It is a disorder of primary limb malformation without primary neurologic or muscle disease. DA1 is not associated with other abnormalities, whereas other forms of DA have additional phenotypic features (Bamshad et al., 1996). The congenital contractures in DA2B (Sheldon-Hall syndrome, SHS) are similar to those observed in DA1, but affected individuals tend to have more prominent nasolabial folds, downslanting palpebral fissures, and a small mouth. DA2B is thought to be the most common of the distal arthrogryposis disorders (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1675627
Concept ID:
C5193024
Disease or Syndrome
IDDCDF is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by globally impaired development with intellectual disability and speech delay, congenital cardiac malformations, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features, such as distal skeletal anomalies, may also be observed (Stephen et al., 2018).
Intellectual developmental disorder with abnormal behavior, microcephaly, and short stature
MedGen UID:
1675423
Concept ID:
C5193039
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis, distal, type 2B2
MedGen UID:
1674500
Concept ID:
C5193097
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B2 (DA2B2) is characterized by congenital contractures of the distal limb joints and facial dysmorphism. Marked inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported (summary by Daly et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see 108120.
Arthrogryposis, distal, type 2B3
MedGen UID:
1676839
Concept ID:
C5193098
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B3 (DA2B3) is characterized by facial dysmorphism and congenital joint contractures with predominantly distal involvement. Some patients exhibit muscle weakness (Tajsharghi et al., 2008). Considerable inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported (Xu et al., 2018).
Myopathy, congenital, progressive, with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1684769
Concept ID:
C5231417
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-19 (CMYP19) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile-onset of progressive muscle weakness and atrophy associated with scoliosis, variably impaired walking, and dysmorphic facial features (Feichtinger et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy, seizures, and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684884
Concept ID:
C5231442
Disease or Syndrome
Halperin-Birk syndrome (HLBKS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural brain defects, spastic quadriplegia with multiple contractures, profound developmental delay, seizures, dysmorphism, cataract, and optic nerve atrophy. Death occurs in early childhood (Halperin et al., 2019).
Silver-Russell syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1718472
Concept ID:
C5393125
Disease or Syndrome
Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) is typically characterized by asymmetric gestational growth restriction resulting in affected individuals being born small for gestational age, with relative macrocephaly at birth (head circumference =1.5 SD above birth weight and/or length), prominent forehead usually with frontal bossing, and frequently body asymmetry. This is followed by postnatal growth failure, and in some cases progressive limb length discrepancy and feeding difficulties. Additional clinical features include triangular facies, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and micrognathia with narrow chin. Except for the limb length asymmetry, the growth failure is proportionate and head growth normal. The average adult height in untreated individuals is ~3.1±1.4 SD below the mean. The Netchine-Harbison Clinical Scoring System (NH-CSS) is a sensitive diagnostic scoring system. Clinical diagnosis can be established in an individual who meets at least four of the NH-CSS clinical criteria – prominent forehead/frontal bossing and relative macrocephaly at birth plus two additional findings – and in whom other disorders have been ruled out.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with relative macrocephaly and with or without cardiac or endocrine anomalies
MedGen UID:
1714169
Concept ID:
C5394221
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 2 (NSDVS2) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from birth and distinctive dysmorphic facial features. Most patients have additional anomalies, including congenital heart defects, sleep disturbances, hypotonia, and variable endocrine abnormalities, such as hypothyroidism (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Nizon-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1715748
Concept ID:
C5394350
Disease or Syndrome
Nizon-Isidor syndrome (NIZIDS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mildly delayed walking, poor speech and language, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some patients may have additional features, including nonspecific facial dysmorphism, gastrointestinal difficulties, distal hand anomalies, and thin corpus callosum on brain imaging (summary by Nizon et al., 2019).
Silver-russell syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1714148
Concept ID:
C5394446
Disease or Syndrome
Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) is typically characterized by asymmetric gestational growth restriction resulting in affected individuals being born small for gestational age, with relative macrocephaly at birth (head circumference =1.5 SD above birth weight and/or length), prominent forehead usually with frontal bossing, and frequently body asymmetry. This is followed by postnatal growth failure, and in some cases progressive limb length discrepancy and feeding difficulties. Additional clinical features include triangular facies, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and micrognathia with narrow chin. Except for the limb length asymmetry, the growth failure is proportionate and head growth normal. The average adult height in untreated individuals is ~3.1±1.4 SD below the mean. The Netchine-Harbison Clinical Scoring System (NH-CSS) is a sensitive diagnostic scoring system. Clinical diagnosis can be established in an individual who meets at least four of the NH-CSS clinical criteria – prominent forehead/frontal bossing and relative macrocephaly at birth plus two additional findings – and in whom other disorders have been ruled out.
Silver-russell syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1712866
Concept ID:
C5394450
Disease or Syndrome
Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) is typically characterized by asymmetric gestational growth restriction resulting in affected individuals being born small for gestational age, with relative macrocephaly at birth (head circumference =1.5 SD above birth weight and/or length), prominent forehead usually with frontal bossing, and frequently body asymmetry. This is followed by postnatal growth failure, and in some cases progressive limb length discrepancy and feeding difficulties. Additional clinical features include triangular facies, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and micrognathia with narrow chin. Except for the limb length asymmetry, the growth failure is proportionate and head growth normal. The average adult height in untreated individuals is ~3.1±1.4 SD below the mean. The Netchine-Harbison Clinical Scoring System (NH-CSS) is a sensitive diagnostic scoring system. Clinical diagnosis can be established in an individual who meets at least four of the NH-CSS clinical criteria – prominent forehead/frontal bossing and relative macrocephaly at birth plus two additional findings – and in whom other disorders have been ruled out.
Silver-Russell syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
1713787
Concept ID:
C5394456
Disease or Syndrome
Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) is typically characterized by asymmetric gestational growth restriction resulting in affected individuals being born small for gestational age, with relative macrocephaly at birth (head circumference =1.5 SD above birth weight and/or length), prominent forehead usually with frontal bossing, and frequently body asymmetry. This is followed by postnatal growth failure, and in some cases progressive limb length discrepancy and feeding difficulties. Additional clinical features include triangular facies, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and micrognathia with narrow chin. Except for the limb length asymmetry, the growth failure is proportionate and head growth normal. The average adult height in untreated individuals is ~3.1±1.4 SD below the mean. The Netchine-Harbison Clinical Scoring System (NH-CSS) is a sensitive diagnostic scoring system. Clinical diagnosis can be established in an individual who meets at least four of the NH-CSS clinical criteria – prominent forehead/frontal bossing and relative macrocephaly at birth plus two additional findings – and in whom other disorders have been ruled out.
Tolchin-Le Caignec syndrome
MedGen UID:
1724999
Concept ID:
C5436509
Disease or Syndrome
Tolchin-Le Caignec syndrome (TOLCAS) is a developmental disorder characterized by mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and behavioral problems, such as autism, ADHD, labile mood, and aggressive episodes. Many patients have bony abnormalities, including osteochondroma, craniosynostosis, dysmorphic facies, arachnodactyly, and large head circumference. Rarely, additional congenital anomalies may also be observed. These additional features and the bony defects are highly variable (summary by Tolchin et al., 2020).
Myopathy, congenital, with diaphragmatic defects, respiratory insufficiency, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1764743
Concept ID:
C5436530
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-17 (CMYP17) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency associated with high diaphragmatic dome on imaging. Other features include poor overall growth, pectus excavatum, dysmorphic facies, and renal anomalies in some. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients may have delayed motor development with mildly decreased endurance, whereas others have more severe hypotonia associated with distal arthrogryposis and lung hypoplasia, resulting in early death (summary by Watson et al., 2016 and Lopes et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1741713
Concept ID:
C5436867
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome (MDPS) is an autosomal recessive severe laminopathy-like disorder characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis, and hypertension (Elouej et al., 2020).
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 2
MedGen UID:
1782253
Concept ID:
C5543057
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies-2 (SSFSC2) is characterized by thin and short long bones, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and dental and skeletal abnormalities, in the absence of developmental delay or intellectual disability. Cardiac anomalies have been reported in some patients (Lin et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SSFSC, see SSFSC1 (617877).
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1787991
Concept ID:
C5543226
Disease or Syndrome
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities (GDSBA) is characterized by developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have mildly delayed fine and motor skills with walking by 3 years of age, mildly impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities, mostly autism and ADHD. Some patients may have additional nonspecific features, such as facial dysmorphism, myopia or strabismus, and skeletal defects, including joint hypermobility, pes planus, or slender fingers (summary by Granadillo et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures
MedGen UID:
1784197
Concept ID:
C5543268
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures (NEDDFAS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in early childhood. Patients have mildly impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay or behavioral abnormalities. Some may have seizures. Most have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Additional findings may include brain imaging abnormalities, mild skeletal defects, and renal abnormalities, although the renal anomalies may be unrelated (summary by Shao et al., 2021).
Marbach-Rustad progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1784907
Concept ID:
C5543388
Disease or Syndrome
Marbach-Rustad progeroid syndrome (MARUPS) is characterized by progeroid appearance with little subcutaneous fat and triangular facies, growth retardation with short stature, hypoplastic mandible crowded with unerupted supernumerary teeth, and cerebellar intention tremor. Psychomotor development is normal. Although features are reminiscent of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS; 176670), MARUPS is less severe, with a relatively good prognosis. Two patients have been reported (Marbach et al., 2019).
DEGCAGS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021).
Short stature, Dauber-Argente type
MedGen UID:
1794178
Concept ID:
C5561968
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature of the Dauber-Argente type (SSDA) is characterized by progressive postnatal growth failure, moderate microcephaly, thin long bones, and mildly decreased bone density. Patients have elevated circulating levels of total IGF1 (147440) due to impaired proteolysis of IGFBP3 (146732) and IGFBP5 (146734), resulting in reduced free IGF1 (Dauber et al., 2016).
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794185
Concept ID:
C5561975
Disease or Syndrome
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome (CAGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay and/or impaired intellectual development, speech delay, facial dysmorphism, and variable other features, including recurrent bacterial infections, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Chopra et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental-craniofacial syndrome with variable renal and cardiac abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794194
Concept ID:
C5561984
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental-craniofacial syndrome with variable renal and cardiac abnormalities (NECRC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic craniofacial features associated with mild developmental delay, mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients have congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and/or congenital cardiac defects, including septal defects (Connaughton et al., 2020).
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794214
Concept ID:
C5562004
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities (DDIB) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a nonspecific phenotype of developmental delay. Additional features may include neonatal feeding problems, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features (Dulovic-Mahlow et al., 2019; van Woerden et al., 2021).
Acromesomelic dysplasia 4
MedGen UID:
1794238
Concept ID:
C5562028
Disease or Syndrome
Acromesomelic dysplasia-4 (AMD4) is characterized by disproportionate short stature due to mesomelic shortening of the limbs. Radiographic hallmarks include mild to moderate platyspondyly, moderate brachydactyly, iliac flaring, and metaphyseal alterations of the long bones that progressively increase with age (Diaz-Gonzalez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, pagnamenta type
MedGen UID:
1794240
Concept ID:
C5562030
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Pagnamenta type (SMDP) is characterized by short stature and mild platyspondyly with no disproportion between the limbs. Mild metaphyseal changes are present (Pagnamenta et al., 2022).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 26
MedGen UID:
1799164
Concept ID:
C5567741
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy with variable spasticity, exercise intolerance, and developmental delay (PNSED) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with highly variable manifestations, even within the same family. Some patients present in infancy with hypotonia and global developmental delay with poor or absent motor skill acquisition and poor growth, whereas others present as young adults with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. All patients have signs of a peripheral neuropathy, usually demyelinating, with distal muscle weakness and atrophy and distal sensory impairment; many become wheelchair-bound. Additional features include spasticity, extensor plantar responses, contractures, cerebellar signs, seizures, short stature, and rare involvement of other organ systems, including the heart, pancreas, and kidney. Biochemical analysis may show deficiencies in mitochondrial respiratory complex enzyme activities in patient tissue, although this is not always apparent. Lactate is frequently increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (Powell et al., 2015; Argente-Escrig et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Liver disease, severe congenital
MedGen UID:
1823968
Concept ID:
C5774195
Disease or Syndrome
Severe congenital liver disease (SCOLIV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of progressive hepatic dysfunction usually in the first years of life. Affected individuals show feeding difficulties with failure to thrive and features such as jaundice, hepatomegaly, and abdominal distension. Laboratory workup is consistent with hepatic insufficiency and may also show coagulation defects, anemia, or metabolic disturbances. Cirrhosis and hypernodularity are commonly observed on liver biopsy. Many patients die of liver failure in early childhood (Moreno Traspas et al., 2022).
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1824015
Concept ID:
C5774242
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies (DIDDF) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurologic deficits and characteristic dysmorphic facial features apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals usually show impaired intellectual development, speech delay, learning difficulties, and/or behavioral problems. Additional features may include hypotonia, hand or foot deformities, and palatal defects (Verberne et al., 2021; Verberne et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824024
Concept ID:
C5774251
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities (NEDGFC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these cardinal features apparent from infancy. There is phenotypic variability both in disease manifestations and severity. More severely affected individuals are unable to walk independently, are nonverbal, and may have other anomalies, including congenital heart defects, feeding difficulties, or skeletal defects, whereas others show mildly delayed motor and speech acquisition with mild or borderline intellectual disability (summary by von Elsner et al., 2022).
Atelis syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1824055
Concept ID:
C5774282
Disease or Syndrome
Atelis syndrome-2 (ATELS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor overall growth with microcephaly and short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and congenital cardiac defects. Additional more variable features may include hematologic abnormalities, variable ocular abnormalities, motor delay, and anxiety. Patient cells exhibit a unique chromosomal instability phenotype consisting of segmented and dicentric chromosomes with mosaic variegated hyperploidy (Grange et al., 2022). See also ATELS1 (620184), caused by mutation in the SLF2 gene (610348). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MVA, see MVA1 (257300).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Martinez-Cayuelas E, Blanco-Kelly F, Lopez-Grondona F, Swafiri ST, Lopez-Rodriguez R, Losada-Del Pozo R, Mahillo-Fernandez I, Moreno B, Rodrigo-Moreno M, Casas-Alba D, Lopez-Gonzalez A, García-Miñaúr S, Ángeles Mori M, Pacio-Minguez M, Rikeros-Orozco E, Santos-Simarro F, Cruz-Rojo J, Quesada-Espinosa JF, Sanchez-Calvin MT, Sanchez-Del Pozo J, Bernado Fonz R, Isidoro-Garcia M, Ruiz-Ayucar I, Alvarez-Mora MI, Blanco-Lago R, De Azua B, Eiris J, Garcia-Peñas JJ, Gil-Fournier B, Gomez-Lado C, Irazabal N, Lopez-Gonzalez V, Madrigal I, Malaga I, Martinez-Menendez B, Ramiro-Leon S, Garcia-Hoyos M, Prieto-Matos P, Lopez-Pison J, Aguilera-Albesa S, Alvarez S, Fernández-Jaén A, Llano-Rivas I, Gener-Querol B, Ayuso C, Arteche-Lopez A, Palomares-Bralo M, Cueto-González A, Valenzuela I, Martinez-Monseny A, Lorda-Sanchez I, Almoguera B
J Med Genet 2023 Jul;60(7):644-654. Epub 2022 Nov 29 doi: 10.1136/jmg-2022-108632. PMID: 36446582
Eggermann T, Begemann M, Binder G, Spengler S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Jun 23;5:19. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-19. PMID: 20573229Free PMC Article
Eggermann T, Gonzalez D, Spengler S, Arslan-Kirchner M, Binder G, Schönherr N
Pediatrics 2009 May;123(5):e929-31. Epub 2009 Apr 13 doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-3228. PMID: 19364767

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chattannavar G, Bansal A, Kekunnaya R
J AAPOS 2024 Feb;28(1):103791. Epub 2023 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2023.08.020. PMID: 37939916
Khachnaoui-Zaafrane K, Ouertani I, Zanati A, Kandara H, Maazoul F, Mrad R
Eur J Med Genet 2022 Mar;65(3):104448. Epub 2022 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104448. PMID: 35150935
Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Marczak-Hałupka A, Kalina MA, Tańska A, Chrzanowska KH
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2015;20(3):101-6. doi: 10.18544/PEDM-20.03.0009. PMID: 26615046
Eggermann T
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2010 Aug 15;154C(3):355-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30274. PMID: 20803658

Diagnosis

Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Binder G, Begemann M, Eggermann T, Kannenberg K
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Feb;25(1):153-60. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.06.005. PMID: 21396582
Wakeling EL
Arch Dis Child 2011 Dec;96(12):1156-61. Epub 2011 Feb 24 doi: 10.1136/adc.2010.190165. PMID: 21349887
Eggermann T
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2010 Aug 15;154C(3):355-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30274. PMID: 20803658
Toydemir RM, Bamshad MJ
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2009 Mar 23;4:11. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-4-11. PMID: 19309503Free PMC Article

Therapy

Wikiera B, Nocoń-Bohusz J, Noczyńska A
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2022;28(4):301-304. doi: 10.5114/pedm.2022.121463. PMID: 36734391Free PMC Article
Lee IK, Lim HH, Kim YM
Yonsei Med J 2020 Nov;61(11):981-985. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2020.61.11.981. PMID: 33107243Free PMC Article
Keskin M, Muratoğlu Şahin N, Kurnaz E, Bayramoğlu E, Savaş Erdeve Ş, Aycan Z, Çetinkaya S
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Mar 1;9(1):91-94. Epub 2016 Oct 31 doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.3238. PMID: 27796265Free PMC Article
Ryan TD, Gupta A, Gupta D, Goldenberg P, Taylor MD, Lorts A, Jefferies JL
Cardiovasc Pathol 2014 Jan-Feb;23(1):21-7. Epub 2013 Sep 24 doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2013.08.004. PMID: 24075556
Yamazawa K, Kagami M, Fukami M, Matsubara K, Ogata T
J Hum Genet 2008;53(10):950-955. Epub 2008 Aug 16 doi: 10.1007/s10038-008-0329-4. PMID: 18709478

Prognosis

Chattannavar G, Bansal A, Kekunnaya R
J AAPOS 2024 Feb;28(1):103791. Epub 2023 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2023.08.020. PMID: 37939916
Chen J, Xia Z, Zhou Y, Ma X, Wang X, Guo Q
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Mar 2;14(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-00920-3. PMID: 33653342Free PMC Article
Gawliński P, Pelc M, Ciara E, Jhangiani S, Jurkiewicz E, Gambin T, Różdżyńska-Świątkowska A, Dawidziuk M, Coban-Akdemir ZH, Guilbride DL, Muzny D, Lupski JR, Krajewska-Walasek M
Clin Genet 2018 Apr;93(4):919-924. doi: 10.1111/cge.13192. PMID: 29226947
Wakeling EL
Arch Dis Child 2011 Dec;96(12):1156-61. Epub 2011 Feb 24 doi: 10.1136/adc.2010.190165. PMID: 21349887
Eggermann T, Begemann M, Binder G, Spengler S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Jun 23;5:19. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-19. PMID: 20573229Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Chattannavar G, Bansal A, Kekunnaya R
J AAPOS 2024 Feb;28(1):103791. Epub 2023 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2023.08.020. PMID: 37939916
Choi Y, Choi J, Do H, Hwang S, Seo GH, Choi IH, Keum C, Choi JH, Kang M, Kim GH, Yoo HW, Lee BH
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Apr;11(4):e2127. Epub 2022 Dec 23 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2127. PMID: 36564961Free PMC Article
Martinez-Cayuelas E, Blanco-Kelly F, Lopez-Grondona F, Swafiri ST, Lopez-Rodriguez R, Losada-Del Pozo R, Mahillo-Fernandez I, Moreno B, Rodrigo-Moreno M, Casas-Alba D, Lopez-Gonzalez A, García-Miñaúr S, Ángeles Mori M, Pacio-Minguez M, Rikeros-Orozco E, Santos-Simarro F, Cruz-Rojo J, Quesada-Espinosa JF, Sanchez-Calvin MT, Sanchez-Del Pozo J, Bernado Fonz R, Isidoro-Garcia M, Ruiz-Ayucar I, Alvarez-Mora MI, Blanco-Lago R, De Azua B, Eiris J, Garcia-Peñas JJ, Gil-Fournier B, Gomez-Lado C, Irazabal N, Lopez-Gonzalez V, Madrigal I, Malaga I, Martinez-Menendez B, Ramiro-Leon S, Garcia-Hoyos M, Prieto-Matos P, Lopez-Pison J, Aguilera-Albesa S, Alvarez S, Fernández-Jaén A, Llano-Rivas I, Gener-Querol B, Ayuso C, Arteche-Lopez A, Palomares-Bralo M, Cueto-González A, Valenzuela I, Martinez-Monseny A, Lorda-Sanchez I, Almoguera B
J Med Genet 2023 Jul;60(7):644-654. Epub 2022 Nov 29 doi: 10.1136/jmg-2022-108632. PMID: 36446582
Binder G, Begemann M, Eggermann T, Kannenberg K
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Feb;25(1):153-60. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.06.005. PMID: 21396582
Eggermann T
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2010 Aug 15;154C(3):355-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30274. PMID: 20803658

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