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Focal-onset seizure

MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Focal seizures
SNOMED CT: Focal seizure (29753000); Partial seizure (29753000); Focal-onset epileptic seizure (29753000); Focal onset epileptic seizure (29753000)
 
HPO: HP:0007359

Definition

A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVFocal-onset seizure

Conditions with this feature

Landau-Kleffner syndrome
MedGen UID:
79465
Concept ID:
C0282512
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2A-related speech disorders and epilepsy are characterized by speech disorders in all affected individuals and a range of epilepsy syndromes present in about 90%. Severe speech disorders observed can include dysarthria and speech dyspraxia, and both receptive and expressive language delay/regression; more mildly affected individuals may display subtly impaired intelligibility of conversational speech. Epilepsy features include seizure onset usually between ages three and six years, focal epilepsy with language and/or global developmental regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) showing continuous spike-and-wave discharges in sleep or very active centrotemporal discharges. Seizure types include seizures associated with aura of perioral paresthesia, focal or focal motor seizures (often evolving to generalized tonic-clonic), and atypical absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (ECSWS), childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), atypical childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (ACECTS), autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia (ADRESD), and infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy.
Amelocerebrohypohidrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98036
Concept ID:
C0406740
Disease or Syndrome
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, spasticity, and amelogenesis imperfecta affecting both primary and secondary teeth and causing yellow or brown discoloration of the teeth. Although the phenotype is consistent, there is variability. Impaired intellectual development is related to the severity of seizures, and the disorder can thus be considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Some infants show normal development until seizure onset, whereas others are delayed from birth. The most severely affected individuals have profound mental retardation, never acquire speech, and become bedridden early in life (summary by Schossig et al., 2012 and Mory et al., 2012). See also Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like (KTZSL; 619229), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SATB1 gene (602075) on chromosome 3p23.
Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy
MedGen UID:
181488
Concept ID:
C0917800
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 1
MedGen UID:
324932
Concept ID:
C1838049
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures, which are often stereotyped and brief (5 seconds to 5 minutes). They vary from simple arousals from sleep to dramatic, often bizarre hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Affected individuals may experience aura. Retained awareness during seizures is common. A minority of individuals experience daytime seizures. Onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. About 80% of individuals develop ADNFLE in the first two decades of life; mean age of onset is ten years. Clinical neurologic examination is normal and intellect is usually preserved, but reduced intellect, psychiatric comorbidity, or cognitive deficits may occur. Within a family, the manifestations of the disorder may vary considerably. ADNFLE is lifelong but not progressive. As an individual reaches middle age, attacks may become milder and less frequent.
Chondrodysplasia-pseudohermaphroditism syndrome
MedGen UID:
333149
Concept ID:
C1838654
Disease or Syndrome
Nivelon-Nivelon-Mabille syndrome (NNMS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, vermis hypoplasia, and skeletal dysplasia. Variable features include infantile-onset seizures, dwarfism, generalized chondrodysplasia, and micromelia (Abdel-Salam et al., 2019).
Rolandic epilepsy, intellectual disability, and speech dyspraxia, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337150
Concept ID:
C1845070
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 9
MedGen UID:
338393
Concept ID:
C1848137
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-9 (DEE9) is an X-linked disorder characterized by seizure onset in infancy and mild to severe intellectual impairment. Autistic and psychiatric features have been reported in some individuals. The disorder affects heterozygous females only; transmitting males are unaffected (summary by Jamal et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2
MedGen UID:
388117
Concept ID:
C1858673
Disease or Syndrome
SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family.
Infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis
MedGen UID:
356123
Concept ID:
C1865926
Disease or Syndrome
PRRT2-associated paroxysmal movement disorders (PRRT2-PxMD) include paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). In addition, PRRT2 pathogenic variants have been identified in other childhood-onset movement disorders and different types of seizures, suggesting that the understanding of the spectrum of PRRT2-PxMD is still evolving. The paroxysmal attacks in PKD are characterized by dystonia, choreoathetosis, and less commonly ballismus. The seizures of BFIE are usually focal with or without generalization. Thirty percent of PRRT2-associated PKD is associated with BFIE and is referred to as PKD/IC.
Benign Rolandic epilepsy
MedGen UID:
432274
Concept ID:
C2363129
Disease or Syndrome
Benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) or sharp waves, also known as rolandic epilepsy, is the most common idiopathic childhood epilepsy syndrome (Neubauer et al., 1998). It is termed 'rolandic' epilepsy because of the characteristic features of partial seizures involving the region around the lower portion of the central gyrus of Rolando. This results in classic focal seizures that affect the vocal tract, beginning with guttural sounds at the larynx and sensorimotor symptoms that progress to the tongue, mouth, and face, resulting in hypersalivation and speech arrest. Seizures most often occur in sleep shortly before awakening. The disorder occurs more often in boys than in girls (3:2). Rolandic epilepsy is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting 0.2% of the population. Affected individuals may have learning disabilities or behavioral problems; however, the seizures and accompanying problems usually remit during adolescence (summary by Strug et al., 2009). See also focal epilepsy and speech disorder (FESD; 245570), which is caused by mutation in the GRIN2A gene (138253) on chromosome 16p13. Some patients with GRIN2A mutations show features consistent with a clinical diagnosis of BECTS. Some patients with DEPDC5 (614191) mutations may show features consistent with rolandic epilepsy (see FFEVF, 604364).
Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 10
MedGen UID:
414062
Concept ID:
C2751603
Finding
Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (EIG) is a broad term that encompasses several common seizure phenotypes, classically including childhood absence epilepsy (CAE, ECA), juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME, EJM) (Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy, 1989). Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) shows phenotypic overlap with IGE, and includes patients with early-onset febrile seizures who later develop various types of febrile and afebrile seizures, such as those observed in EIG (summary by Singh et al., 1999). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EIG, see 600669. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GEFS+, see 604233. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EJM, see 254770.
Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 7
MedGen UID:
416630
Concept ID:
C2751778
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with isolated febrile seizures (FEB3B) usually have onset between ages 5 months to 4 years and show spontaneous remission by age 6 years (summary by Singh et al., 2009), whereas patients with GEFS+ continue to have various types of febrile and afebrile seizures later in life (summary by Singh et al., 1999). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GEFS+, see 604233. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial febrile seizures, see 121210.
Ring chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
419284
Concept ID:
C2930916
Disease or Syndrome
Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures and intellectual disability. Recurrent seizures (epilepsy) develop in infancy or early childhood. In many cases, the seizures are resistant to treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. Most people with ring chromosome 14 syndrome also have some degree of intellectual disability or learning problems. Development may be delayed, particularly the development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking.\n\nAdditional features of ring chromosome 14 syndrome can include slow growth and short stature, a small head (microcephaly), puffy hands and/or feet caused by a buildup of fluid (lymphedema), and subtle differences in facial features. Some affected individuals have problems with their immune system that lead to recurrent infections, especially involving the respiratory system. Abnormalities of the retina, the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color, have also been reported in some people with this condition. These changes typically do not affect vision. Major birth defects are rarely seen with ring chromosome 14 syndrome.
Epilepsy, familial adult myoclonic, 3
MedGen UID:
462210
Concept ID:
C3150860
Disease or Syndrome
Familial adult myoclonic epilepsy-3 (FAME3) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset of cortical tremor, mainly affecting the hands and voice, between 10 and 40 years of age, with adult onset being more common. Most affected individuals develop epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures; some may have partial or absence seizures. The disorder is nonprogressive or slowly progressive, and most patients respond to antiseizure medication (summary by Florian et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial adult myoclonic epilepsy, see FAME1 (601068).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 12
MedGen UID:
462338
Concept ID:
C3150988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-12 (DEE12) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show severe developmental regression and stagnation. Seizure types vary: focal seizures, infantile spasms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur, even within the same patient. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with West syndrome, or a pattern consistent with 'malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy' (MMPSI). Patients have little or no developmental progress: there is absent speech, hypotonia, poor motor skills, peripheral spasticity, and impaired visual fixation (summary by Kurian et al., 2010 and Poduri et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
478062
Concept ID:
C3276432
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of systemic energy metabolism, resulting in weakness, respiratory failure, lack of neurologic development, lactic acidosis, and early death (summary by Seyda et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome See also MMDS2 (614299), caused by mutation in the BOLA3 gene (613183) on chromosome 2p13; MMDS3 (615330), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on chromosome 1q42; MMDS4 (616370), caused by mutation in the ISCA2 gene (615317) on chromosome 14q24; MMDS5 (617613), caused by mutation in the ISCA1 gene (611006) on chromosome 9q21; MMDS6 (617954), caused by mutation in the PMPCB gene (603131) on chromosome 7q22; and MMDS7 (620423), caused by mutation in the GCSH gene (238330) on chromosome 16q23.
Spastic paraplegia 52, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
481373
Concept ID:
C3279743
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482058
Concept ID:
C3280428
Disease or Syndrome
AMACR deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder characterized by adult onset of variable neurodegenerative symptoms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Features may include seizures, visual failure, sensorimotor neuropathy, spasticity, migraine, and white matter hyperintensities on brain imaging. Serum pristanic acid and C27 bile acid intermediates are increased (summary by Smith et al., 2010).
Porencephaly 2
MedGen UID:
482600
Concept ID:
C3280970
Disease or Syndrome
Brain small vessel disease-2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable neurologic impairment resulting from disturbed vascular supply that leads to cerebral degeneration. The disorder is often associated with 'porencephaly' on brain imaging. Affected individuals typically have hemiplegia, seizures, and intellectual disability, although the severity is variable (summary by Yoneda et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brain small vessel disease, see BSVD1 (175780).
Neonatal-onset encephalopathy with rigidity and seizures
MedGen UID:
482659
Concept ID:
C3281029
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome (RMFSL) is a severe autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy characterized by onset of rigidity and intractable seizures at or soon after birth. Affected infants achieve no developmental milestones and die within the first months or years of life (summary by Saitsu et al., 2014).
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
482822
Concept ID:
C3281192
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration (ICRD) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset between ages 2 and 6 months of truncal hypotonia, athetosis, seizures, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, particularly optic atrophy and retinal degeneration. Affected individuals show profound psychomotor retardation, with only some achieving rolling, sitting, or recognition of family. Brain MRI shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar degeneration (summary by Spiegel et al., 2012). A subset of patients may have a milder phenotype with variable features, including ataxia, developmental delay, and behavioral abnormalities (Blackburn et al., 2020). Mutation in the ACO2 gene also causes isolated optic atrophy (OPA9; 616289).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 13
MedGen UID:
482832
Concept ID:
C3281202
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-13 (CDCBM13) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. Brain imaging shows variable neuronal migration defects resulting in cortical malformations, including pachygyria. More variable features include early-onset seizures and dysmorphic features. Some patients may also show signs of peripheral neuropathy, such as abnormal gait, hyporeflexia, and foot deformities (summary by Willemsen et al., 2012 and Poirier et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 1
MedGen UID:
483052
Concept ID:
C3463992
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-1 (DEE1) is a severe form of epilepsy characterized by frequent tonic seizures or spasms beginning in infancy with a specific EEG finding of suppression-burst patterns, characterized by high-voltage bursts alternating with almost flat suppression phases. Approximately 75% of DEE1 patients progress to tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on EEG (Kato et al., 2007). DEE1 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation. Although males with ARX mutations are often more severely affected, female mutation carriers may also be affected (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). Reviews Deprez et al. (2009) reviewed the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Also see DEE2 (300672), caused by mutation in the CDKL5 gene (300203); DEE3 (609304), caused by mutation in the SLC25A22 gene (609302); DEE4 (612164), caused by mutation in the STXBP1 gene (602926); DEE5 (613477), caused by mutation in the SPTAN1 gene (182810); DEE6A (607208), also known as Dravet syndrome, caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389); DEE6B (619317), also caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene; DEE7 (613720), caused by mutation in the KCNQ2 gene (602235); DEE8 (300607), caused by mutation in the ARHGEF9 gene (300429); DEE9 (300088), caused by mutation in the PCDH19 gene (300460); DEE10 (613402), caused by mutation in the PNKP gene (605610); DEE11 (613721), caused by mutation in the SCN2A gene (182390); DEE12 (613722), caused by mutation in the PLCB1 gene (607120); DEE13 (614558), caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702); DEE14 (614959), caused by mutation in the KCNT1 gene (608167); DEE15 (615006), caused by mutation in the ST3GAL3 gene (606494); DEE16 (615338), caused by mutation in the TBC1D24 gene (613577); DEE17 (615473), caused by mutation in the GNAO1 gene (139311); DEE18 (615476), caused by mutation in the SZT2 gene (615463); DEE19 (615744), caused by mutation in the GABRA1 gene (137160); DEE20 (300868), caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770); DEE21 (615833), caused by mutation in the NECAP1 gene (611623); DEE22 (300896), caused by mutation in the SLC35A2 gene (314375); DEE23 (615859), caused by mutation in the DOCK7 gene (615730); DEE24 (615871), caused by mutation in the HCN1 gene (602780); DEE25 (615905), caused by mutation in the SLC13A5 gene (608305); DEE26 (616056), caused by mutation in the KCNB1 gene (600397); DEE27 (616139), caused by mutation in the GRIN2B gene (138252); DEE28 (616211), caused by mutation in the WWOX gene (605131); DEE29 (616339), caused by mutation in the AARS gene (601065); DEE30 (616341), caused by mutation in the SIK1 gene (605705); DEE31A (616346) and DEE31B (620352), caused by mutation in the DNM1 gene (602377); DEE32 (616366), caused by mutation in the KCNA2 gene (176262); DEE33 (616409), caused by mutation in the EEF1A2 gene (602959); DEE34 (616645), caused by mutation in the SLC12A5 gene (606726); DEE35 (616647), caused by mutation in the ITPA gene (147520); DEE36 (300884), caused by mutation in the ALG13 gene (300776); DEE37 (616981), caused by mutation in the FRRS1L gene (604574); DEE38 (617020), caused by mutation in the ARV1 gene (611647); DEE39 (612949), caused by mutation in the SLC25A12 gene (603667); DEE40 (617065), caused by mutation in the GUF1 gene (617064); DEE41 (617105), caused by mutation in the SLC1A2 gene (600300); DEE42 (617106), caused by mutation in the CACNA1A gene (601011); DEE43 (617113), caused by mutation in the GABRB3 gene (137192); DEE44 (617132), caused by mutation in the UBA5 gene (610552); DEE45 (617153), caused by mutation in the GABRB1 gene (137190); DEE46 (617162), caused by mutation in the GRIN2D gene (602717); DEE47 (617166), caused by mutation in the FGF12 gene (601513); DEE48 (617276), caused by mutation in the AP3B2 gene (602166); DEE49 (617281), caused by mutation in the DENND5A gene (617278); DEE50 (616457) caused by mutation in the CAD gene (114010); DEE51 (617339), caused by mutation in the MDH2 gene (154100); DEE52 (617350), caused by mutation in the SCN1B gene (600235); DEE53 (617389), caused by mutation in the SYNJ1 gene (604297); DEE54 (617391), caused by mutation in the HNRNPU gene (602869); DEE55 (617599), caused by mutation in the PIGP gene (605938); DEE56 (617665), caused by mutation in the YWHAG gene (605356); DEE57 (617771), caused by mutation in the KCNT2 gene (610044); DEE58 (617830), caused by mutation in the NTRK2 gene (600456); DEE59 (617904), caused by mutation in the GABBR2 gene (607340); DEE60 (617929), caused by mutation in the CNPY3 gene (610774); DEE61 (617933), caused by mutation in the ADAM22 gene (603709); DEE62 (617938), caused by mutation in the SCN3A gene (182391); DEE63 (617976), caused by mutation in the CPLX1 gene (605032); DEE64 (618004), caused by mutation in the RHOBTB2 gene (607352); DEE65 (618008), caused by mutation in the CYFIP2 gene (606323); DEE66 (618067), caused by mutation in the PACS2 gene (610423); DEE67 (618141), caused by mutation in the CUX2 gene (610648); DEE68 (618201), caused by mutation in the TRAK1 gene (608112); DEE69 (618285), caused by mutation in the CACNA1E gene (601013); DEE70 (618298) caused by mutation in the PHACTR1 gene (608723); DEE71 (618328), caused by mutation in the GLS gene (138280); DEE72 (618374), caused by mutation in the NEUROD2 gene (601725); DEE73 (618379), caused by mutation in the RNF13 gene (609247); DEE74 (618396), caused by mutation in the GABRG2 gene (137164); DEE75 (618437), caused by mutation in the PARS2 gene (612036); DEE76 (618468), caused by mutation in the ACTL6B gene (612458); DEE77 (618548), caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754); DEE78 (618557), caused by mutation in the GABRA2 gene (137140); DEE79 (618559), caused by mutation in the GABRA5 gene (137142); DEE80 (618580), caused by mutation in the PIGB gene (604122); DEE81 (618663), caused by mutation in the DMXL2 gene (612186); DEE82 (618721), caused by mutation in the GOT2 gene (138150); DEE83 (618744), caused by mutation in the UGP2 gene (191760); DEE84 (618792), caused by mutation in the UGDH gene (603370); DEE85 (301044), caused by mutation in the SMC1A gene (300040); DEE86 (618910), caused by mutation in the DALRD3 gene (618904); DEE87 (618916), caused by mutation in the CDK19 gene (614720); DEE88 (618959), caused by mutation in the MDH1 gene (152400); DEE89 (619124), caused by mutation in the GAD1 gene (605363); DEE90 (301058), caused by mutation in the FGF13 gene (300070); DEE91 (617711), caused by mutation in the PPP3CA gene (114105); DEE92 (617829), caused by mutation in the GABRB2 gene (600232); DEE93 (618012), caused by mutation in the ATP6V1A gene (607027); DEE94 (615369), caused by mutation in the CHD2 gene (602119); DEE95 (618143), caused by mutation in the PIGS gene (610271); DEE96 (619340), caused by mutation in the NSF gene (601633); DEE97 (619561), caused by mutation in the iCELF2 gene (602538); DEE98 (619605), caused by mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (182340); DEE99 (619606), caused by mutation in the ATP1A3 gene (182350); DEE100 (619777), caused by mutation in the FBXO28 gene (609100); DEE101 (619814), caused by mutation in the GRIN1 gene (138249); DEE102 (619881), caused by mutation in the SLC38A3 gene (604437); DEE103 (619913), caused by mutation in the KCNC2 gene (176256); DEE104 (619970), caused by mutation in the ATP6V0A1 gene (192130); DEE105 (619983), caused by mutation in the HID1 gene (605752); DEE106 (620028), caused by mutation in the UFSP2 gene (611482); DEE107 (620033), caused by mutation in the NAPB gene (
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 5
MedGen UID:
767220
Concept ID:
C3554306
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures, which are often stereotyped and brief (5 seconds to 5 minutes). They vary from simple arousals from sleep to dramatic, often bizarre hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Affected individuals may experience aura. Retained awareness during seizures is common. A minority of individuals experience daytime seizures. Onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. About 80% of individuals develop ADNFLE in the first two decades of life; mean age of onset is ten years. Clinical neurologic examination is normal and intellect is usually preserved, but reduced intellect, psychiatric comorbidity, or cognitive deficits may occur. Within a family, the manifestations of the disorder may vary considerably. ADNFLE is lifelong but not progressive. As an individual reaches middle age, attacks may become milder and less frequent.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 13
MedGen UID:
811566
Concept ID:
C3715049
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-13 (CLN13) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cognitive decline and motor dysfunction leading to dementia and often early death. Some patients develop seizures. Neurons show abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material (summary by Smith et al., 2013). Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is sometimes referred to as Kufs disease (see 204300). In a review of the classification of CLN disease, Gardner and Mole (2021) noted that the CLN13 phenotype corresponds to 'Kufs type B', which is characterized by dementia and a variety of motor signs (Smith et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN), see CLN1 (256730).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 18
MedGen UID:
815954
Concept ID:
C3809624
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-18 (DEE18) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by lack of psychomotor development apparent from birth, dysmorphic facial features, and early onset of refractory seizures. Brain imaging shows a thick corpus callosum and persistent cavum septum pellucidum on brain imaging (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 24
MedGen UID:
862968
Concept ID:
C4014531
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-24 (DEE24) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in infancy, severely impaired global development, intellectual disability, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have onset of variable types of seizures between 4 and 13 months of age, but earlier onset in the first days of life has also been reported. Seizures are often triggered by fever, at least initially; status epilepticus may occur (summary by Nava et al., 2014 and Marini et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 20
MedGen UID:
863097
Concept ID:
C4014660
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 20 is a rare mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder characterized by variable combination of psychomotor delay, hypotonia, muscle weakness, seizures, microcephaly, cardiomyopathy and mild dysmorphic facial features. Variable types of structural brain anomalies have also been reported. Biochemical studies typically show decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes (mainly complex I).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 44
MedGen UID:
863182
Concept ID:
C4014745
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the METTL23 gene.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
863395
Concept ID:
C4014958
Disease or Syndrome
GPIBD11 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, and variable seizures. Some patients may have dysmorphic features or increased serum alkaline phosphatase. The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis (summary by Hogrebe et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 34
MedGen UID:
899149
Concept ID:
C4225257
Disease or Syndrome
SLC12A5-related epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (SLC12A5-EIMFS), reported to date in nine children, is characterized by onset of seizures before age six months and either developmental delay or developmental regression with seizure onset. Of these nine children, six had severe developmental delay with no progress of abilities and three made notable neurodevelopmental progress. Eight had postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. In most children epilepsy begins as focal motor seizures (typically involving head and eye deviation) that become multifocal and intractable to conventional anti-seizure medication (ASM).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 57
MedGen UID:
934640
Concept ID:
C4310673
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MBOAT7 gene.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 47
MedGen UID:
934652
Concept ID:
C4310685
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-47 (DEE47) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in the first days or weeks of life. EEG shows background slowing and multifocal epileptic spikes, and may show hypsarrhythmia. Most patients have developmental regression after seizure onset and show persistent intellectual disability and neurologic impairment, although the severity is variable. Treatment with phenytoin, a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, may be beneficial (summary by Guella et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Short stature-brachydactyly-obesity-global developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
934656
Concept ID:
C4310689
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by short stature, hand brachydactyly with hypoplastic distal phalanges, global development delay, intellectual disability, and more variably seizures, obesity, and craniofacial dysmorphism that includes microcephaly, high forehead, flat face, hypertelorism, deep set eyes, flat nasal bridge, averted nostrils, long philtrum, thin lip vermilion, and short neck.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 51
MedGen UID:
1372686
Concept ID:
C4479208
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-51 (DEE51) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures and hypotonia in the first days or weeks of life. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development and may show abnormal movements. Brain imaging shows nonspecific abnormalities, such as cerebral atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and delayed myelination. Laboratory studies showed increased lactate, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Ait-El-Mkadem et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, cataracts, feeding difficulties, and delayed brain myelination
MedGen UID:
1377894
Concept ID:
C4479333
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, cataracts, feeding difficulties, and delayed brain myelination is a syndromic form of severe to profound intellectual disability with onset of delayed psychomotor development and seizures in infancy. Affected children have hypotonia, feeding difficulties resulting in failure to thrive, and inability to speak or walk, and they tend to show repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy and delayed myelination (summary by Schoch et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1615361
Concept ID:
C4540493
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and cortical atrophy (NDMSCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with poor motor and intellectual function apparent soon after birth, as well as postnatal progressive microcephaly. Most patients develop early-onset, frequent, and often intractable seizures, compatible with an epileptic encephalopathy. Other features include poor feeding, poor overall growth, absent speech, poor or absent eye contact, inability to achieve walking, hypotonia, and peripheral spasticity. Brain imaging usually shows progressive cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and abnormalities in myelination. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Siekierska et al., 2019).
Benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures 1
MedGen UID:
1638448
Concept ID:
C4551769
Disease or Syndrome
Benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) is a seizure disorder of early childhood with age at onset from 3 months up to 24 months. It is characterized by brief seizures beginning with slow deviation of the head and eyes to 1 side and progressing to generalized motor arrest and hypotonia, apnea and cyanosis, and limb jerks. Seizures usually occur in clusters over a day or several days. The ictal EEG shows focal parietal-temporal activity, whereas the interictal EEG is normal. Concurrent and subsequent psychomotor and neurologic development are normal (Franzoni et al., 2005). See also benign familial neonatal seizures (BFNS1; 121200). Deprez et al. (2009) provided a review of the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life, and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of Benign Familial Infantile Seizures The BFIS1 locus has been mapped to chromosome 19q. BFIS2 (605751) is caused by mutation in the PRRT2 gene on chromosome 16p11. BFIS3 (607745), which is caused by the mutations in the SCN2A gene (182390) on chromosome 2q24, has a slightly earlier age at onset and is sometimes termed benign familial 'neonatal-infantile' seizures. BFIS4 (612627) has been mapped to chromosome 1p. BFIS5 (617080) is caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702) on chromosome 12q13. BFIS6 (see 610353) is caused by mutation in the CHRNA2 gene (118502) on chromosome 8p21.
Brain small vessel disease 1 with or without ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1647320
Concept ID:
C4551998
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract.
Epilepsy, familial focal, with variable foci 4
MedGen UID:
1644614
Concept ID:
C4693694
Disease or Syndrome
SCN3A-related neurodevelopmental disorder (SCN3A-ND) encompasses a spectrum of clinical severity associated with epilepsy and/or brain malformation. Affected individuals may have (a) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (i.e., intractable seizures with developmental delays associated with ongoing epileptiform EEG activity) with or without malformations of cortical development; or (b) malformations of cortical development with or without mild focal epilepsy. Some degree of early childhood developmental delay is seen in all affected individuals; the severity varies widely, ranging from isolated speech delay to severe developmental delay. Infantile hypotonia is common but may be mild or absent in those without DEE. In those with DEE, seizure onset is typically in the first six to 12 months of life. A variety of seizure types have been described. Seizures remain intractable to multiple anti-seizure medications in approximately 50% of individuals with DEE without malformations of cortical development (MCD) and in 90% of individuals with DEE and MCD. Seizures may be absent or infrequent in those without DEE. Brain MRI findings range from normal to showing thinning or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, to various malformations of cortical development. Autonomic dysregulation, oromotor dysfunction leading to the need for gastrostomy tube placement, progressive microcephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and cortical visual impairment can also be seen in those with DEE.
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3
MedGen UID:
1642888
Concept ID:
C4693934
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE93) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, and impaired intellectual development. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: some patients may be nonverbal and nonambulatory with spastic quadriparesis and poor eye contact, whereas others have moderate intellectual disability (summary by Fassio et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 66
MedGen UID:
1648486
Concept ID:
C4748070
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-66 (DEE66) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Most seizures have focal origins; secondary generalization is common. Seizure control is difficult at first, but may become easier with time. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features or ophthalmologic defects. Brain imaging often shows cerebellar dysgenesis. A subset of patients have extraneurologic manifestations, including hematologic and distal limb abnormalities (summary by Olson et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 18
MedGen UID:
1648478
Concept ID:
C4748357
Disease or Syndrome
DEE95 is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by severely impaired global development, hypotonia, weakness, ataxia, coarse facial features, and intractable seizures. More variable features may include abnormalities of the hands and feet, inguinal hernia, and feeding difficulties. The disorder is part of a group of similar neurologic disorders resulting from biochemical defects in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthetic pathway (summary by Nguyen et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1675627
Concept ID:
C5193024
Disease or Syndrome
IDDCDF is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by globally impaired development with intellectual disability and speech delay, congenital cardiac malformations, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features, such as distal skeletal anomalies, may also be observed (Stephen et al., 2018).
Neurodevelopmental disorder and language delay with or without structural brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1677130
Concept ID:
C5193048
Disease or Syndrome
Houge-Janssens syndrome-3 (HJS3) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: patients may have hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and sometimes small brainstem. Many develop seizures, sometimes refractory, and some may have nonspecific dysmorphic features. Intellectual impairment can vary from mild to profound, and some patients may benefit from special education and respond well to speech therapy (summary by Reynhout et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HJS, see HJS1 (616355).
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
1678789
Concept ID:
C5193117
Disease or Syndrome
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, progressive neurologic deterioration, and sclerotic bone dysplasia similar to dysosteosclerosis (DOS). The age at onset is highly variable: some patients may present in infancy with hydrocephalus, global developmental delay, and hypotonia, whereas others may have onset of symptoms in the late teens or early twenties after normal development. Neurologic features include loss of previous motor and language skills, cognitive impairment, spasticity, and focal seizures. Brain imaging shows periventricular white matter abnormalities and calcifications, large cisterna magna or Dandy-Walker malformation, and sometimes agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy, seizures, and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684884
Concept ID:
C5231442
Disease or Syndrome
Halperin-Birk syndrome (HLBKS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural brain defects, spastic quadriplegia with multiple contractures, profound developmental delay, seizures, dysmorphism, cataract, and optic nerve atrophy. Death occurs in early childhood (Halperin et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and autistic features with or without hyperkinetic movements
MedGen UID:
1684874
Concept ID:
C5231491
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and autistic features with or without hyperkinetic movements (NEDHAHM) is characterized by axial hypotonia apparent from birth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent language acquisition, and behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features, poor social interaction, and hang-wringing. Most patients have childhood-onset seizures that are usually responsive to medication, and a subset of patients develop cortical visual impairment and involuntary hyperkinetic movements, including chorea and dystonia. Some of the features are reminiscent of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750) (summary by Salpietro et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Spastic paraplegia 82, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1710411
Concept ID:
C5394037
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-82 (SPG82) is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, significant motor impairment, and progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs. Some patients never achieve walking, whereas others lose the ability to walk or walk with an unsteady gait. Additional features include variably impaired intellectual development with language difficulties, ocular anomalies, such as nystagmus and visual impairment, and seizures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, as well as white matter hyperintensities. Based on the additional abnormalities, the disorder can be classified as a type of complicated SPG (summary by Vaz et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with language impairment and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1708389
Concept ID:
C5394502
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and behavioral abnormalities (NEDLIB) is characterized by impaired intellectual development or developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities including autistic features, and language impairment. Other features include seizures and developmental regression (Salpietro et al., 2019).
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 9
MedGen UID:
1718470
Concept ID:
C5394503
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-9 (PVNH9) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized as a malformation of cortical development. Anterior predominant PVNH, thin corpus callosum, and decreased white matter volume are found on brain imaging, but the clinical effects are variable. Most patients have impaired intellectual development and cognitive defects associated with low IQ (range 50 to 80), learning disabilities, and behavior abnormalities. Some patients develop seizures that tend to have a focal origin. However, some mutation carriers may be less severely affected with borderline or even normal IQ, suggesting incomplete penetrance of the phenotype (summary by Heinzen et al., 2018, Walters et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular nodular heterotopia, see 300049.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
1770258
Concept ID:
C5436514
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1748227
Concept ID:
C5436732
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain atrophy (NEDSEBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder with highly variable manifestations and severity of these core features. The most severely affected individuals develop symptoms in utero, which may lead to spontaneous abortion or planned termination. Those that survive may present with severe seizures at birth, have poor overall growth with small head circumference, achieve no developmental progress, and show significant brain atrophy and other brain abnormalities. Patients at the mildest end of the phenotypic spectrum have onset of seizures later in childhood and show developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development and minimal brain atrophy (summary by Coulter et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1731507
Concept ID:
C5436783
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, language delay, and gait abnormalities (NEDMILG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with variable gait abnormalities, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and progressive microcephaly. More variable features include hypotonia, early-onset seizures, and a peripheral demyelinating or axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. The disease follows a neurodegenerative course in many patients; clinical features suggest involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (Manole et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1764121
Concept ID:
C5436788
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities (NEDMILEG) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with variable gait abnormalities, including ataxia and spasticity, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and progressive microcephaly. Dysmorphic facial features may also be observed. Most patients have early-onset seizures; some may develop a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. The clinical features suggest involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (Manole et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder with paroxysmal dyskinesia or seizures
MedGen UID:
1727046
Concept ID:
C5436894
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with paroxysmal dyskinesia or seizures (IDDPADS) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and language delay. In addition, most patients develop a paroxysmal hyperkinetic movement disorder in the first months or years of life manifest as sudden falls or backward propulsion, eye or head deviation, and dystonic limb posturing followed by chorea and dyskinetic movements. The episodes are pharmacoresistant to anticonvulsant medication. EEG may show interictal abnormalities, but are usually not consistent with epilepsy. However, some patients may also develop epileptic seizures or only have seizures without a movement disorder (summary by Doummar et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without early-onset generalized epilepsy
MedGen UID:
1737097
Concept ID:
C5436914
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without early-onset generalized epilepsy (NEDEGE) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients develop early-onset generalized epilepsy with different seizure types; myoclonic seizures and myoclonic-atonic epilepsy are commonly observed. The seizures may remit with age or remain refractory to treatment. Brain imaging is essentially normal and there are no significant accompanying neurologic or systemic abnormalities (summary by Mulhern et al., 2018).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 90
MedGen UID:
1786502
Concept ID:
C5542345
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-90 (DEE90) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first days or months of life. Although most patients have focal seizures associated with oromotor automatisms and apnea, various seizure types may occur, including epileptic spasms, generalized tonic-clonic, and absence. EEG shows multifocal discharges; hypsarrhythmia, intermittent burst suppression, and slow spike-wave background resembling Lennox-Gastaut syndrome may also be observed. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with variable severity, but it is usually profound or severe. Some are unable to walk or speak, whereas others may achieve some milestones and show autistic features (summary by Fry et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Baralle-Macken syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778777
Concept ID:
C5543241
Disease or Syndrome
Baralle-Macken syndrome (BARMACS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, difficulty walking or inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Affected individuals develop early-onset cataracts; some may have microcephaly. Additional more variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, metabolic abnormalities, spasticity, and lymphopenia (summary by Macken et al., 2021).
KINSSHIP syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 14
MedGen UID:
1778516
Concept ID:
C5543322
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 14 (PCH14) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital onset of progressive microcephaly and poor or absent psychomotor development with severely impaired intellectual development apparent from birth. Other features may include hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia, and early-onset seizures. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, agenesis or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and sometimes a simplified gyral pattern. Early death may occur (summary by et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 15
MedGen UID:
1781311
Concept ID:
C5543326
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 15 (PCH15) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital onset of progressive microcephaly and poor or absent psychomotor development with severely impaired intellectual development apparent from birth. Other features may include spastic quadriplegia, early-onset seizures, and chronic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 6B
MedGen UID:
1779648
Concept ID:
C5543353
Disease or Syndrome
SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with infantile epileptic spasms
MedGen UID:
1781627
Concept ID:
C5543538
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with infantile epileptic spasms (NEDIES) is characterized by onset of severe and frequent epileptic spasms within the first year of life. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with delayed walking and poor or absent speech. More variable features may include poor overall growth, high-arched palate, and delayed myelination on brain imaging (summary by Fatima et al., 2021).
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 6B (Kufs type)
MedGen UID:
1794137
Concept ID:
C5561927
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-6B (CLN6B) is an autosomal recessive form of 'Kufs disease,' which refers in general to adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis without retinal involvement. CLN6B is a neurodegenerative disorder with a mean onset of symptoms at around age 28 years, although onset in the teens and later adulthood may also occur. Patients typically present with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, loss of motor function, dysarthria, progressive dementia, and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Ultrastructural examination typically shows fingerprint profiles and granular osmiophilic deposits in some tissues, including brain samples (summary by Arsov et al., 2011 and Berkovic et al., 2019). However, pathologic findings in peripheral tissues in adults is not as accurate for diagnosis as it is in children with the disease (Cherian et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1794149
Concept ID:
C5561939
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome-4 (RTSC4) is characterized by a constellation of congenital anomalies, including dysmorphic craniofacial features and structural brain anomalies, such as Dandy-Walker malformation (220200), hindbrain malformations, or agenesis of the corpus callosum, associated with global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development. Congenital cardiac defects have been reported in 1 family (summary by Ritscher et al., 1987 and Jeanne et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome, see RTSC1 (220210).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794189
Concept ID:
C5561979
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities (NEDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and onset of seizures in the first months of life associated with structural brain defects on brain imaging. Additional features may include pigmentary retinopathy with poor visual fixation and spasticity (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 98
MedGen UID:
1794227
Concept ID:
C5562017
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-98 (DEE98) is characterized by onset of seizures in the first decade (range infancy to late childhood) associated with variable global developmental delay. Other features may include hypotonia, spasticity, and quadriparesis. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific and variable abnormalities, including polymicrogyria. The severity is variable; some patients may die of refractory status epilepticus (summary by Vetro et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 99
MedGen UID:
1794228
Concept ID:
C5562018
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-99 (DEE99) is characterized by onset of seizures in early childhood associated with global developmental delay and severely impaired intellectual development. Other features may include hypotonia, quadriparesis, nystagmus, and apnea. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific and variable abnormalities, including cerebral atrophy and polymicrogyria. The severity is variable; some patients die of refractory status epilepticus (summary by Vetro et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hearing loss and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1794234
Concept ID:
C5562024
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hearing loss and spasticity (NEDHLS) is characterized by hearing loss, global developmental delay/impaired intellectual development, spastic-dystonic cerebral palsy, focal or generalized epilepsy, and microcephaly. Some children present with hypotonia (Richard et al., 2021).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 55
MedGen UID:
1806598
Concept ID:
C5676915
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-55 (COXPD55) is characterized by global developmental delay, hypotonia, short stature, and impaired intellectual development with speech disabilities in childhood. Indolent progressive external ophthalmoplegia phenotype has been described in 1 patient (summary by Olahova et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 100
MedGen UID:
1809351
Concept ID:
C5676932
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-100 (DEE100) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and onset of variable types of seizures in the first months or years of life. Most patients have refractory seizures and show developmental regression after seizure onset. Affected individuals have ataxic gait or inability to walk and severe to profoundly impaired intellectual development, often with absent speech. Additional more variable features may include axial hypotonia, hyperkinetic movements, dysmorphic facial features, and brain imaging abnormalities (summary by Schneider et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Leukodystrophy, childhood-onset, remitting
MedGen UID:
1804145
Concept ID:
C5676979
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset remitting leukodystrophy (CORLK) is a very rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized in some patients by onset of a metabolic crisis at the end of the first year of life that leads to widespread demyelination and leukodystrophy on brain imaging and a dramatic loss of developmental abilities. Affected children recover over the following several months, regaining normal development accompanied by remyelination. Not all patients have documented acute episodes of metabolic demyelination in infancy, but individuals with the FBP2 mutation show persistent white matter abnormalities on brain imaging that resemble the abnormalities observed in infants with the acute crisis. Other neurologic disturbances that may or may not be related to the FBP2 mutation have been observed, including psychiatric manifestations, seizures, and mild learning difficulties (Gizak et al., 2021).
Epilepsy, X-linked 1, with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders
MedGen UID:
1823951
Concept ID:
C5774177
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked epilepsy-1 with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders (EPILX1) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of complex partial seizures in the first or second decades. The seizures are often triggered by showering or water-related hygiene activities, consistent with reflex bathing epilepsy. Additional spontaneous seizures and secondary generalization may also occur. Most patients have associated developmental defects, including learning disabilities, behavioral problems, or autistic features. The pathophysiology of the reflex seizures is thought to be hyperexcitability of the cortical or subcortical neuronal areas that respond to physiologic stimulus in an exaggerated manner, possibly due to aberrant synaptic maturation (summary by Nguyen et al., 2015; Sirsi et al., 2017; Accogli et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823982
Concept ID:
C5774209
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities (NEDSMBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a core phenotype of moderate to profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, epilepsy, and periventricular calcifications (summary by Rosenhahn et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1823986
Concept ID:
C5774213
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures (NEDHLSS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. Affected individuals show severe hypotonia with delayed walking or inability to walk, poor or absent speech, and impaired intellectual development with behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have early-onset seizures, mild skeletal defects that are usually distal, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. More severely affected individuals have additional congenital abnormalities; however, cardiac involvement is rare (summary by Rodan et al., 2021).
Muscular dystrophy, congenital, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1824047
Concept ID:
C5774274
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy with or without seizures (MYOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe muscle hypotonia apparent from birth, as well as developmental delay. Laboratory studies show increased serum creatine kinase and muscle biopsy shows nonspecific dystrophic features. Most patients develop seizures or have abnormal epileptiform findings on EEG studies; other variable findings may include feeding difficulties, nystagmus, myopathic facies, areflexia, and brain atrophy on MRI (summary by Larson et al., 2018 and Henige et al., 2021).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Developmental delay with hypotonia, myopathy, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1840906
Concept ID:
C5830270
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with hypotonia, myopathy, and brain abnormalities (DEDHMB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and muscle weakness apparent in infancy. Affected individuals show severe motor delay and may not achieve independent walking due to central hypotonia and skeletal muscle myopathy. Some have poor overall growth with microcephaly, subtle dysmorphic features, and delayed language acquisition. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, thinning of the corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (Shamseldin et al., 2016; Kotecha et al., 2021).
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 23
MedGen UID:
1840958
Concept ID:
C5830322
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 23 (MC4DN23) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by infantile-onset encephalopathy (Rius et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency, nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
1841118
Concept ID:
C5830482
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex V deficiency nuclear type 7 (MC5DN7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent soon after birth. More variable features include poor growth, seizures, dystonia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and brain imaging abnormalities. Some affected individuals die in infancy or childhood (Zech et al., 2022, Ganapathi et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex V deficiency, nuclear types, see MC5DN1 (604273).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Shen YW, Wang YY, Zhang MN, Xu Y, Lu Q, He W, Chen HM, Liu LY, Pang LY, Wang QH, Dun S, Li YF, Gao J, Han F, Zou LP
Seizure 2022 Apr;97:23-31. Epub 2022 Mar 8 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2022.03.003. PMID: 35286974
Steinhoff BJ, Rosenfeld WE, Serratosa JM, Brandt C, Klein P, Toledo M, Krauss GL
Epilepsy Behav 2021 Oct;123:108270. Epub 2021 Sep 8 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108270. PMID: 34509033
Väätäinen S, Soini E, Peltola J, Charokopou M, Taiha M, Kälviäinen R
Adv Ther 2020 Jan;37(1):477-500. Epub 2019 Dec 5 doi: 10.1007/s12325-019-01155-6. PMID: 31808053Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Shen YW, Wang YY, Zhang MN, Xu Y, Lu Q, He W, Chen HM, Liu LY, Pang LY, Wang QH, Dun S, Li YF, Gao J, Han F, Zou LP
Seizure 2022 Apr;97:23-31. Epub 2022 Mar 8 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2022.03.003. PMID: 35286974
Chinvarun Y
Epilepsia Open 2022 Mar;7(1):67-74. Epub 2021 Nov 10 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12555. PMID: 34741590Free PMC Article
Laur D, Dozières-Puyravel B, Iléa A, Nava C, Delanoë C, Nasser H, Le Guern E, Auvin S
Epileptic Disord 2021 Jun 1;23(3):459-465. doi: 10.1684/epd.2021.1285. PMID: 34106054
Jha A, Oh C, Hesdorffer D, Diehl B, Devore S, Brodie MJ, Tomson T, Sander JW, Walczak TS, Devinsky O
Neurology 2021 May 25;96(21):e2627-e2638. Epub 2021 Apr 28 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011849. PMID: 33910939Free PMC Article
Trinka E, Tsong W, Toupin S, Patten A, Wilson K, Isojarvi J, James D
Epilepsy Res 2020 Oct;166:106403. Epub 2020 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106403. PMID: 32673969

Diagnosis

Tada Y, Fujihara T, Shimada K, Yamamoto N, Yamazaki H, Izumi Y, Harada M, Kanematsu Y, Takagi Y
J Neurol Sci 2022 May 15;436:120223. Epub 2022 Mar 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120223. PMID: 35279594
Trinka E, Tsong W, Toupin S, Patten A, Wilson K, Isojarvi J, James D
Epilepsy Res 2020 Oct;166:106403. Epub 2020 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106403. PMID: 32673969
Väätäinen S, Soini E, Peltola J, Charokopou M, Taiha M, Kälviäinen R
Adv Ther 2020 Jan;37(1):477-500. Epub 2019 Dec 5 doi: 10.1007/s12325-019-01155-6. PMID: 31808053Free PMC Article
Khan H, Marcuse L, Fields M, Swann K, Yener B
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2018 Sep;65(9):2109-2118. Epub 2017 Dec 25 doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2785401. PMID: 29989952
Anagnostou ME, Ng YS, Taylor RW, McFarland R
Epilepsia 2016 Oct;57(10):1531-1545. Epub 2016 Aug 24 doi: 10.1111/epi.13508. PMID: 27554452

Therapy

Schubert-Bast S, Kaur M, Joeres L, Foskett N, Roebling R, Strzelczyk A
Seizure 2023 Nov;112:88-97. Epub 2023 Sep 27 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2023.09.022. PMID: 37778299
Steinhoff BJ, Rosenfeld WE, Serratosa JM, Brandt C, Klein P, Toledo M, Krauss GL
Epilepsy Behav 2021 Oct;123:108270. Epub 2021 Sep 8 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108270. PMID: 34509033
Trinka E, Tsong W, Toupin S, Patten A, Wilson K, Isojarvi J, James D
Epilepsy Res 2020 Oct;166:106403. Epub 2020 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106403. PMID: 32673969
Tyrlikova I, Brazdil M, Rektor I, Tyrlik M
Expert Rev Neurother 2019 Jan;19(1):5-16. Epub 2018 Dec 18 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2019.1555474. PMID: 30560703
Khan H, Marcuse L, Fields M, Swann K, Yener B
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2018 Sep;65(9):2109-2118. Epub 2017 Dec 25 doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2785401. PMID: 29989952

Prognosis

Reddy DS, Mbilinyi RH, Ramakrishnan S
Exp Neurol 2023 Jan;359:114240. Epub 2022 Oct 7 doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2022.114240. PMID: 36216124
Hsieh TY, Hung PL, Su TY, Peng SJ
Nutrients 2022 Oct 23;14(21) doi: 10.3390/nu14214457. PMID: 36364720Free PMC Article
Jha A, Oh C, Hesdorffer D, Diehl B, Devore S, Brodie MJ, Tomson T, Sander JW, Walczak TS, Devinsky O
Neurology 2021 May 25;96(21):e2627-e2638. Epub 2021 Apr 28 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011849. PMID: 33910939Free PMC Article
Khan H, Marcuse L, Fields M, Swann K, Yener B
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2018 Sep;65(9):2109-2118. Epub 2017 Dec 25 doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2785401. PMID: 29989952
Karthick PA, Tanaka H, Khoo HM, Gotman J
Clin Neurophysiol 2018 May;129(5):1030-1040. Epub 2018 Mar 9 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2018.02.122. PMID: 29571121

Clinical prediction guides

Hsieh TY, Hung PL, Su TY, Peng SJ
Nutrients 2022 Oct 23;14(21) doi: 10.3390/nu14214457. PMID: 36364720Free PMC Article
Chinvarun Y
Epilepsia Open 2022 Mar;7(1):67-74. Epub 2021 Nov 10 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12555. PMID: 34741590Free PMC Article
Jha A, Oh C, Hesdorffer D, Diehl B, Devore S, Brodie MJ, Tomson T, Sander JW, Walczak TS, Devinsky O
Neurology 2021 May 25;96(21):e2627-e2638. Epub 2021 Apr 28 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011849. PMID: 33910939Free PMC Article
Khan H, Marcuse L, Fields M, Swann K, Yener B
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2018 Sep;65(9):2109-2118. Epub 2017 Dec 25 doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2785401. PMID: 29989952
Karthick PA, Tanaka H, Khoo HM, Gotman J
Clin Neurophysiol 2018 May;129(5):1030-1040. Epub 2018 Mar 9 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2018.02.122. PMID: 29571121

Recent systematic reviews

Laur D, Dozières-Puyravel B, Iléa A, Nava C, Delanoë C, Nasser H, Le Guern E, Auvin S
Epileptic Disord 2021 Jun 1;23(3):459-465. doi: 10.1684/epd.2021.1285. PMID: 34106054
Trinka E, Tsong W, Toupin S, Patten A, Wilson K, Isojarvi J, James D
Epilepsy Res 2020 Oct;166:106403. Epub 2020 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106403. PMID: 32673969
Anagnostou ME, Ng YS, Taylor RW, McFarland R
Epilepsia 2016 Oct;57(10):1531-1545. Epub 2016 Aug 24 doi: 10.1111/epi.13508. PMID: 27554452

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