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MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Allergies; Hypersensitivities; Hypersensitivity
SNOMED CT: Hypersensitivity reaction (421961002)
HPO: HP:0012393
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005271


An allergy is an immune response or reaction to substances that are usually not harmful. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Allergy

Conditions with this feature

Pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A rare pleiotropic auto-inflammatory disorder of childhood, primarily affecting the joints and skin. The first affected family contained ten affected members from three generations and manifested variable expression of a pauciarticular, nonaxial, arthritis that began in childhood; pyoderma gangrenosum; and severe cystic acne in adolescence and beyond. Recurrent sterile arthritis usually occurs after minor trauma, but can also occur spontaneously. PAPA syndrome is a self-limiting disease, but it can lead to severe joint destruction. The gene responsible for the syndrome is the proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1).
Hereditary papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A keratosis of the hands and feet characterized by persistent, asymptomatic, yellowish to white papules and plaques associated with fine-textured scalp hair and an atopic diathesis.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction, and hypogonadism (summary by Beales et al., 1999). Eight proteins implicated in the disorder assemble to form the BBSome, a stable complex involved in signaling receptor trafficking to and from cilia (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome BBS2 (615981) is caused by mutation in a gene on 16q13 (606151); BBS3 (600151), by mutation in the ARL6 gene on 3q11 (608845); BBS4 (615982), by mutation in a gene on 15q22 (600374); BBS5 (615983), by mutation in a gene on 2q31 (603650); BBS6 (605231), by mutation in the MKKS gene on 20p12 (604896); BBS7 (615984), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (607590); BBS8 (615985), by mutation in the TTC8 gene on 14q32 (608132); BBS9 (615986), by mutation in a gene on 7p14 (607968); BBS10 (615987), by mutation in a gene on 12q21 (610148); BBS11 (615988), by mutation in the TRIM32 gene on 9q33 (602290); BBS12 (615989), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (610683); BBS13 (615990), by mutation in the MKS1 gene (609883) on 17q23; BBS14 (615991), by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on 12q21, BBS15 (615992), by mutation in the WDPCP gene (613580) on 2p15; BBS16 (615993), by mutation in the SDCCAG8 gene (613524) on 1q43; BBS17 (615994), by mutation in the LZTFL1 gene (606568) on 3p21; BBS18 (615995), by mutation in the BBIP1 gene (613605) on 10q25; BBS19 (615996), by mutation in the IFT27 gene (615870) on 22q12; BBS20 (619471), by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386) on 9p21; BBS21 (617406), by mutation in the CFAP418 gene (614477) on 8q22; and BBS22 (617119), by mutation in the IFT74 gene (608040) on 9p21. The CCDC28B gene (610162) modifies the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Mutations in MKS1, MKS3 (TMEM67; 609884), and C2ORF86 also modify the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Although BBS had originally been thought to be a recessive disorder, Katsanis et al. (2001) demonstrated that clinical manifestation of some forms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 loci plus an additional mutation in a second locus. While Katsanis et al. (2001) called this 'triallelic inheritance,' Burghes et al. (2001) suggested the term 'recessive inheritance with a modifier of penetrance.' Mykytyn et al. (2002) found no evidence of involvement of the common BBS1 mutation in triallelic inheritance. However, Fan et al. (2004) found heterozygosity in a mutation of the BBS3 gene (608845.0002) as an apparent modifier of the expression of homozygosity of the met390-to-arg mutation in the BBS1 gene (209901.0001). Allelic disorders include nonsyndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa: RP51 (613464), caused by TTC8 mutation, and RP55 (613575), caused by ARL6 mutation.
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome-3 is an autosomal dominant immune disorder characterized by the development of cutaneous urticaria, erythema, and pruritus in response to cold exposure. Affected individuals have variable additional immunologic defects, including antibody deficiency, decreased numbers of B cells, defective B cells, increased susceptibility to infection, and increased risk of autoimmune disorders (summary by Ombrello et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FCAS, see FCAS1 (120100).
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to CTLA4 haploinsuffiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Immune dysregulation with autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferation (IDAIL) is an autosomal dominant complex immune disorder with highly variable presentation and clinical manifestations. Prominent features include recurrent infections often associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, autoimmune features such as autoimmune cytopenias, and abnormal lymphocytic infiltration of nonlymphoid organs, including the lungs, brain, and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteropathy. Laboratory studies often show lymphopenia and abnormal T and B cell subsets. The variable features are a result of impaired function of Treg cells, which play a role in immune homeostasis (summary by Kuehn et al., 2014; Schwab et al., 2018, and Lopez-Nevado et al., 2021). The disorder shows overlapping features with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS); for a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ALPS, see 601859.
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Hatipoglu immunodeficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hatipoglu immunodeficiency syndrome (HATIS) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by childhood onset of failure to thrive, skin manifestations, pancytopenia, and susceptibility to recurrent infections (Harapas et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines


Wise SK, Damask C, Roland LT, Ebert C, Levy JM, Lin S, Luong A, Rodriguez K, Sedaghat AR, Toskala E, Villwock J, Abdullah B, Akdis C, Alt JA, Ansotegui IJ, Azar A, Baroody F, Benninger MS, Bernstein J, Brook C, Campbell R, Casale T, Chaaban MR, Chew FT, Chambliss J, Cianferoni A, Custovic A, Davis EM, DelGaudio JM, Ellis AK, Flanagan C, Fokkens WJ, Franzese C, Greenhawt M, Gill A, Halderman A, Hohlfeld JM, Incorvaia C, Joe SA, Joshi S, Kuruvilla ME, Kim J, Klein AM, Krouse HJ, Kuan EC, Lang D, Larenas-Linnemann D, Laury AM, Lechner M, Lee SE, Lee VS, Loftus P, Marcus S, Marzouk H, Mattos J, McCoul E, Melen E, Mims JW, Mullol J, Nayak JV, Oppenheimer J, Orlandi RR, Phillips K, Platt M, Ramanathan M Jr, Raymond M, Rhee CS, Reitsma S, Ryan M, Sastre J, Schlosser RJ, Schuman TA, Shaker MS, Sheikh A, Smith KA, Soyka MB, Takashima M, Tang M, Tantilipikorn P, Taw MB, Tversky J, Tyler MA, Veling MC, Wallace D, Wang Y, White A, Zhang L
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2023 Apr;13(4):293-859. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1002/alr.23090. PMID: 36878860
Khan DA, Banerji A, Blumenthal KG, Phillips EJ, Solensky R, White AA, Bernstein JA, Chu DK, Ellis AK, Golden DBK, Greenhawt MJ, Horner CC, Ledford D, Lieberman JA, Oppenheimer J, Rank MA, Shaker MS, Stukus DR, Wallace D, Wang J; Chief Editor(s):, Khan DA, Golden DBK, Shaker M, Stukus DR; Workgroup Contributors:, Khan DA, Banerji A, Blumenthal KG, Phillips EJ, Solensky R, White AA; Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters Reviewers:, Bernstein JA, Chu DK, Ellis AK, Golden DBK, Greenhawt MJ, Horner CC, Ledford D, Lieberman JA, Oppenheimer J, Rank MA, Shaker MS, Stukus DR, Wallace D, Wang J
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2022 Dec;150(6):1333-1393. Epub 2022 Sep 17 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.08.028. PMID: 36122788
Wise SK, Lin SY, Toskala E, Orlandi RR, Akdis CA, Alt JA, Azar A, Baroody FM, Bachert C, Canonica GW, Chacko T, Cingi C, Ciprandi G, Corey J, Cox LS, Creticos PS, Custovic A, Damask C, DeConde A, DelGaudio JM, Ebert CS, Eloy JA, Flanagan CE, Fokkens WJ, Franzese C, Gosepath J, Halderman A, Hamilton RG, Hoffman HJ, Hohlfeld JM, Houser SM, Hwang PH, Incorvaia C, Jarvis D, Khalid AN, Kilpeläinen M, Kingdom TT, Krouse H, Larenas-Linnemann D, Laury AM, Lee SE, Levy JM, Luong AU, Marple BF, McCoul ED, McMains KC, Melén E, Mims JW, Moscato G, Mullol J, Nelson HS, Patadia M, Pawankar R, Pfaar O, Platt MP, Reisacher W, Rondón C, Rudmik L, Ryan M, Sastre J, Schlosser RJ, Settipane RA, Sharma HP, Sheikh A, Smith TL, Tantilipikorn P, Tversky JR, Veling MC, Wang Y, Westman M, Wickman M, Zacharek M
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2018 Feb;8(2):108-352. doi: 10.1002/alr.22073. PMID: 29438602Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies


Peters RL, Krawiec M, Koplin JJ, Santos AF
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 May;32(4):647-657. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1111/pai.13443. PMID: 33370488Free PMC Article
Staicu ML, Vyles D, Shenoy ES, Stone CA, Banks T, Alvarez KS, Blumenthal KG
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Oct;8(9):2858-2868.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.059. PMID: 33039010Free PMC Article
Sicherer SH, Warren CM, Dant C, Gupta RS, Nadeau KC
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Jun;8(6):1854-1864. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.02.010. PMID: 32499034Free PMC Article
Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Roberts G, Beyer K, Bindslev-Jensen C, Cardona V, Dubois A, duToit G, Eigenmann P, Fernandez Rivas M, Halken S, Hickstein L, Høst A, Knol E, Lack G, Marchisotto MJ, Niggemann B, Nwaru BI, Papadopoulos NG, Poulsen LK, Santos AF, Skypala I, Schoepfer A, Van Ree R, Venter C, Worm M, Vlieg-Boerstra B, Panesar S, de Silva D, Soares-Weiser K, Sheikh A, Ballmer-Weber BK, Nilsson C, de Jong NW, Akdis CA; EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group
Allergy 2014 Aug;69(8):1008-25. Epub 2014 Jun 9 doi: 10.1111/all.12429. PMID: 24909706
Sicherer SH, Sampson HA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014 Feb;133(2):291-307; quiz 308. Epub 2013 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.020. PMID: 24388012


Tedner SG, Asarnoj A, Thulin H, Westman M, Konradsen JR, Nilsson C
J Intern Med 2022 Mar;291(3):283-302. Epub 2021 Dec 22 doi: 10.1111/joim.13422. PMID: 34875122
Burris AD, Burris J, Järvinen KM
Neoreviews 2020 Dec;21(12):e795-e808. doi: 10.1542/neo.21-12-e795. PMID: 33262206
Sicherer SH, Warren CM, Dant C, Gupta RS, Nadeau KC
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Jun;8(6):1854-1864. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.02.010. PMID: 32499034Free PMC Article
Demoly P, Adkinson NF, Brockow K, Castells M, Chiriac AM, Greenberger PA, Khan DA, Lang DM, Park HS, Pichler W, Sanchez-Borges M, Shiohara T, Thong BY
Allergy 2014 Apr;69(4):420-37. doi: 10.1111/all.12350. PMID: 24697291
Sicherer SH, Sampson HA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014 Feb;133(2):291-307; quiz 308. Epub 2013 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.020. PMID: 24388012


Do TT, Canty EA, Joshi SR
Allergy Asthma Proc 2023 Jan 1;44(1):3-14. doi: 10.2500/aap.2023.44.220093. PMID: 36719690
Kjellberg A, Abdel-Halim L, Hassler A, El Gharbi S, Al-Ezerjawi S, Boström E, Sundberg CJ, Pernow J, Medson K, Kowalski JH, Rodriguez-Wallberg KA, Zheng X, Catrina S, Runold M, Ståhlberg M, Bruchfeld J, Nygren-Bonnier M, Lindholm P
BMJ Open 2022 Nov 2;12(11):e061870. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061870. PMID: 36323462Free PMC Article
Leeds S, Liu EG, Nowak-Wegrzyn A
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 1;21(3):269-277. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000743. PMID: 33840798
Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Randolph C, Oppenheimer J, Bernstein D, Bernstein J, Ellis A, Golden DB, Greenberger P, Kemp S, Khan D, Ledford D, Lieberman J, Metcalfe D, Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Sicherer S, Wallace D, Blessing-Moore J, Lang D, Portnoy JM, Schuller D, Spector S, Tilles SA
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2015 Nov;115(5):341-84. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2015.07.019. PMID: 26505932
Bonilla FA, Khan DA, Ballas ZK, Chinen J, Frank MM, Hsu JT, Keller M, Kobrynski LJ, Komarow HD, Mazer B, Nelson RP Jr, Orange JS, Routes JM, Shearer WT, Sorensen RU, Verbsky JW, Bernstein DI, Blessing-Moore J, Lang D, Nicklas RA, Oppenheimer J, Portnoy JM, Randolph CR, Schuller D, Spector SL, Tilles S, Wallace D; Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015 Nov;136(5):1186-205.e1-78. Epub 2015 Sep 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.04.049. PMID: 26371839


Munblit D, Bobkova P, Spiridonova E, Shikhaleva A, Gamirova A, Blyuss O, Nekliudov N, Bugaeva P, Andreeva M, DunnGalvin A, Comberiati P, Apfelbacher C, Genuneit J, Avdeev S, Kapustina V, Guekht A, Fomin V, Svistunov AA, Timashev P, Subbot VS, Royuk VV, Drake TM, Hanson SW, Merson L, Carson G, Horby P, Sigfrid L, Scott JT, Semple MG, Warner JO, Vos T, Olliaro P, Glybochko P, Butnaru D; Sechenov StopCOVID Research Team
Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Sep;51(9):1107-1120. Epub 2021 Aug 12 doi: 10.1111/cea.13997. PMID: 34351016Free PMC Article
Rudd KE, Johnson SC, Agesa KM, Shackelford KA, Tsoi D, Kievlan DR, Colombara DV, Ikuta KS, Kissoon N, Finfer S, Fleischmann-Struzek C, Machado FR, Reinhart KK, Rowan K, Seymour CW, Watson RS, West TE, Marinho F, Hay SI, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Angus DC, Murray CJL, Naghavi M
Lancet 2020 Jan 18;395(10219):200-211. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32989-7. PMID: 31954465Free PMC Article
Bastidas A, de la Serna J, El Idrissi M, Oostvogels L, Quittet P, López-Jiménez J, Vural F, Pohlreich D, Zuckerman T, Issa NC, Gaidano G, Lee JJ, Abhyankar S, Solano C, Perez de Oteyza J, Satlin MJ, Schwartz S, Campins M, Rocci A, Vallejo Llamas C, Lee DG, Tan SM, Johnston AM, Grigg A, Boeckh MJ, Campora L, Lopez-Fauqued M, Heineman TC, Stadtmauer EA, Sullivan KM; ZOE-HSCT Study Group Collaborators
JAMA 2019 Jul 9;322(2):123-133. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.9053. PMID: 31287523Free PMC Article
Rhee C, Dantes R, Epstein L, Murphy DJ, Seymour CW, Iwashyna TJ, Kadri SS, Angus DC, Danner RL, Fiore AE, Jernigan JA, Martin GS, Septimus E, Warren DK, Karcz A, Chan C, Menchaca JT, Wang R, Gruber S, Klompas M; CDC Prevention Epicenter Program
JAMA 2017 Oct 3;318(13):1241-1249. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.13836. PMID: 28903154Free PMC Article
Turner PJ, Jerschow E, Umasunthar T, Lin R, Campbell DE, Boyle RJ
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 Sep-Oct;5(5):1169-1178. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.06.031. PMID: 28888247Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Moll M, Qiao D, Regan EA, Hunninghake GM, Make BJ, Tal-Singer R, McGeachie MJ, Castaldi PJ, San Jose Estepar R, Washko GR, Wells JM, LaFon D, Strand M, Bowler RP, Han MK, Vestbo J, Celli B, Calverley P, Crapo J, Silverman EK, Hobbs BD, Cho MH
Chest 2020 Sep;158(3):952-964. Epub 2020 Apr 27 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.02.079. PMID: 32353417Free PMC Article
Biagini Myers JM, Schauberger E, He H, Martin LJ, Kroner J, Hill GM, Ryan PH, LeMasters GK, Bernstein DI, Lockey JE, Arshad SH, Kurukulaaratchy R, Khurana Hershey GK
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 May;143(5):1803-1810.e2. Epub 2018 Dec 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.09.037. PMID: 30554722Free PMC Article
Yelehe-Okouma M, Czmil-Garon J, Pape E, Petitpain N, Gillet P
Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jun;32(3):252-260. Epub 2018 Mar 9 doi: 10.1111/fcp.12349. PMID: 29364542
Miloslavsky EM, Naden RP, Bijlsma JW, Brogan PA, Brown ES, Brunetta P, Buttgereit F, Choi HK, DiCaire JF, Gelfand JM, Heaney LG, Lightstone L, Lu N, Murrell DF, Petri M, Rosenbaum JT, Saag KS, Urowitz MB, Winthrop KL, Stone JH
Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Mar;76(3):543-546. Epub 2016 Jul 29 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210002. PMID: 27474764
Antoniou KM, Margaritopoulos GA, Tomassetti S, Bonella F, Costabel U, Poletti V
Eur Respir Rev 2014 Mar 1;23(131):40-54. doi: 10.1183/09059180.00009113. PMID: 24591661Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

de Silva D, Halken S, Singh C, Muraro A, Angier E, Arasi S, Arshad H, Beyer K, Boyle R, du Toit G, Eigenmann P, Grimshaw K, Hoest A, Jones C, Khaleva E, Lack G, Szajewska H, Venter C, Verhasselt V, Roberts G; European Academy of Allergy, Clinical Immunology Food Allergy, Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2020 Oct;31(7):813-826. Epub 2020 Jun 18 doi: 10.1111/pai.13273. PMID: 32396244
Agache I, Beltran J, Akdis C, Akdis M, Canelo-Aybar C, Canonica GW, Casale T, Chivato T, Corren J, Del Giacco S, Eiwegger T, Firinu D, Gern JE, Hamelmann E, Hanania N, Mäkelä M, Hernández-Martín I, Nair P, O'Mahony L, Papadopoulos NG, Papi A, Park HS, Pérez de Llano L, Posso M, Rocha C, Quirce S, Sastre J, Shamji M, Song Y, Steiner C, Schwarze J, Alonso-Coello P, Palomares O, Jutel M
Allergy 2020 May;75(5):1023-1042. Epub 2020 Feb 24 doi: 10.1111/all.14221. PMID: 32034960
Shaker MS, Wallace DV, Golden DBK, Oppenheimer J, Bernstein JA, Campbell RL, Dinakar C, Ellis A, Greenhawt M, Khan DA, Lang DM, Lang ES, Lieberman JA, Portnoy J, Rank MA, Stukus DR, Wang J; Collaborators, Riblet N, Bobrownicki AMP, Bontrager T, Dusin J, Foley J, Frederick B, Fregene E, Hellerstedt S, Hassan F, Hess K, Horner C, Huntington K, Kasireddy P, Keeler D, Kim B, Lieberman P, Lindhorst E, McEnany F, Milbank J, Murphy H, Pando O, Patel AK, Ratliff N, Rhodes R, Robertson K, Scott H, Snell A, Sullivan R, Trivedi V, Wickham A; Chief Editors, Shaker MS, Wallace DV; Workgroup Contributors, Shaker MS, Wallace DV, Bernstein JA, Campbell RL, Dinakar C, Ellis A, Golden DBK, Greenhawt M, Lieberman JA, Rank MA, Stukus DR, Wang J; Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters Reviewers, Shaker MS, Wallace DV, Golden DBK, Bernstein JA, Dinakar C, Ellis A, Greenhawt M, Horner C, Khan DA, Lieberman JA, Oppenheimer J, Rank MA, Shaker MS, Stukus DR, Wang J
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Apr;145(4):1082-1123. Epub 2020 Jan 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.01.017. PMID: 32001253
O'Sullivan JA, Bochner BS
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Feb;141(2):505-517. Epub 2017 Oct 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.09.022. PMID: 29045815Free PMC Article
Nurmatov U, Dhami S, Arasi S, Pajno GB, Fernandez-Rivas M, Muraro A, Roberts G, Akdis C, Alvaro-Lozano M, Beyer K, Bindslev-Jensen C, Burks W, du Toit G, Ebisawa M, Eigenmann P, Knol E, Makela M, Nadeau KC, O'Mahony L, Papadopoulos N, Poulsen LK, Sackesen C, Sampson H, Santos AF, van Ree R, Timmermans F, Sheikh A
Allergy 2017 Aug;72(8):1133-1147. Epub 2017 May 11 doi: 10.1111/all.13124. PMID: 28058751

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