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Colon cancer

MedGen UID:
2839
Concept ID:
C0007102
Neoplastic Process
Synonym: Malignant tumor of colon
SNOMED CT: CA - Cancer of colon (363406005); Cancer of colon (363406005); Malignant neoplasm of colon (363406005); Malignant tumor of colon (363406005)
 
HPO: HP:0003003
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0021063
OMIM®: 114500; 191170

Definition

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm that affects the colon. Representative examples include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Juvenile polyposis syndrome
MedGen UID:
87518
Concept ID:
C0345893
Neoplastic Process
Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is characterized by predisposition to hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The term "juvenile" refers to the type of polyp rather than to the age of onset of polyps. Most individuals with JPS have some polyps by age 20 years; some may have only four or five polyps over their lifetime, whereas others in the same family may have more than 100. If the polyps are left untreated, they may cause bleeding and anemia. Most juvenile polyps are benign; however, malignant transformation can occur. Risk for GI cancers ranges from 11% to 86%. Most of this increased risk is attributed to colon cancer, but cancers of the stomach, upper GI tract, and pancreas have also been reported. A combined syndrome of JPS and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is present in most individuals with an SMAD4 pathogenic variant.
Muir-Torré syndrome
MedGen UID:
231157
Concept ID:
C1321489
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis, type 2
MedGen UID:
232603
Concept ID:
C1333991
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
322656
Concept ID:
C1835398
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with high risks for a diverse spectrum of childhood- and adult-onset malignancies. The lifetime risk of cancer in individuals with LFS is =70% for men and =90% for women. Five cancer types account for the majority of LFS tumors: adrenocortical carcinomas, breast cancer, central nervous system tumors, osteosarcomas, and soft-tissue sarcomas. LFS is associated with an increased risk of several additional cancers including leukemia, lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of head and neck, kidney, larynx, lung, skin (e.g., melanoma), ovary, pancreas, prostate, testis, and thyroid. Individuals with LFS are at increased risk for cancer in childhood and young adulthood; survivors are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers.
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome
MedGen UID:
324868
Concept ID:
C1837750
Neoplastic Process
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome is a rare, genetic, odontologic disease characterized by congenital absence of six or more permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) in association with an increased risk for malignancies, ranging from gastrointestinal polyposis to early-onset colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. Ectodermal dysplasia (manifesting with sparse hair and/or eyebrows) may also be associated.
Desmoid disease, hereditary
MedGen UID:
338210
Concept ID:
C1851124
Disease or Syndrome
APC-associated polyposis conditions include (classic or attenuated) familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). FAP is a colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition syndrome that can manifest in either classic or attenuated form. Classic FAP is characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomatous colonic polyps, beginning on average at age 16 years (range 7-36 years). For those with the classic form of FAP, 95% of individuals have polyps by age 35 years; CRC is inevitable without colectomy. The mean age of CRC diagnosis in untreated individuals is 39 years (range 34-43 years). The attenuated form is characterized by multiple colonic polyps (average of 30), more proximally located polyps, and a diagnosis of CRC at a later age than in classic FAP. For those with an attenuated form, there is a 70% lifetime risk of CRC and the mean age of diagnosis is 50-55 years. Extracolonic manifestations are variably present and include polyps of the stomach and duodenum, osteomas, dental abnormalities, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), benign cutaneous lesions, desmoid tumors, adrenal masses, and other associated cancers. GAPPS is characterized by proximal gastric polyposis, increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, and no duodenal or colonic involvement in most individuals reported.
Leukemia, acute myelocytic, with polyposis coli and colon cancer
MedGen UID:
383699
Concept ID:
C1855505
Neoplastic Process
Polyposis syndrome, hereditary mixed, 2
MedGen UID:
350500
Concept ID:
C1864730
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome-2 (HMPS2) is characterized by colonic polyps of mixed hyperplastic, adenomatous, and occasional juvenile types. Polyposis eventually progresses to colorectal cancer (Cao et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HMPS, see HMPS1 (601228).
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1
MedGen UID:
390966
Concept ID:
C2676137
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, 3
MedGen UID:
436866
Concept ID:
C2677123
Finding
Any colorectal cancer in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SMAD7 gene.
Familial adenomatous polyposis 1
MedGen UID:
398651
Concept ID:
C2713442
Disease or Syndrome
APC-associated polyposis conditions include (classic or attenuated) familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). FAP is a colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition syndrome that can manifest in either classic or attenuated form. Classic FAP is characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomatous colonic polyps, beginning on average at age 16 years (range 7-36 years). For those with the classic form of FAP, 95% of individuals have polyps by age 35 years; CRC is inevitable without colectomy. The mean age of CRC diagnosis in untreated individuals is 39 years (range 34-43 years). The attenuated form is characterized by multiple colonic polyps (average of 30), more proximally located polyps, and a diagnosis of CRC at a later age than in classic FAP. For those with an attenuated form, there is a 70% lifetime risk of CRC and the mean age of diagnosis is 50-55 years. Extracolonic manifestations are variably present and include polyps of the stomach and duodenum, osteomas, dental abnormalities, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), benign cutaneous lesions, desmoid tumors, adrenal masses, and other associated cancers. GAPPS is characterized by proximal gastric polyposis, increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, and no duodenal or colonic involvement in most individuals reported.
Lynch syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
412966
Concept ID:
C2750471
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Lynch syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
423615
Concept ID:
C2936783
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Familial adenomatous polyposis 2
MedGen UID:
474474
Concept ID:
C3272841
Neoplastic Process
MUTYH polyposis (also referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis, or MAP) is characterized by a greatly increased lifetime risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although typically associated with ten to a few hundred colonic adenomatous polyps, CRC develops in some individuals in the absence of polyposis. Serrated adenomas, hyperplastic/sessile serrated polyps, and mixed (hyperplastic and adenomatous) polyps can also occur. Duodenal adenomas are common, with an increased risk of duodenal cancer. The risk for malignancies of the ovary and bladder is also increased, and there is some evidence of an increased risk for breast and endometrial cancer. Additional reported features include thyroid nodules, benign adrenal lesions, jawbone cysts, and congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Familial adenomatous polyposis 3
MedGen UID:
902388
Concept ID:
C4225157
Disease or Syndrome
NTHL1 tumor syndrome is characterized by an increased lifetime risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, and colorectal polyposis. Colorectal polyps can be adenomatous, hyperplastic, and/or sessile serrated. Duodenal polyposis has also been reported. Additional cancers reported in individuals with NTHL1 tumor syndrome include endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, meningiomas, unspecified brain tumors, basal cell carcinomas, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, and hematologic malignancies. The cumulative lifetime risk of developing extracolonic cancer by age 60 years has been estimated at 35% to 78%.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, periodontal type 2
MedGen UID:
934648
Concept ID:
C4310681
Disease or Syndrome
Periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (pEDS) is characterized by distinct oral manifestations. Periodontal tissue breakdown beginning in the teens results in premature loss of teeth. Lack of attached gingiva and thin and fragile gums lead to gingival recession. Connective tissue abnormalities of pEDS typically include easy bruising, pretibial plaques, distal joint hypermobility, hoarse voice, and less commonly manifestations such as organ or vessel rupture. Since the first descriptions of pEDS in the 1970s, 148 individuals have been reported in the literature; however, future in-depth descriptions of non-oral manifestations in newly diagnosed individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of pEDS will be important to further define the clinical features.
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1750327
Concept ID:
C5436806
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-2 (MMRCS2) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by hematologic malignancy, brain tumors, and gastrointestinal tumors. Multiple cafe-au-lait spots reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200) may be present. Microsatellite instability may be detected in tumor samples (Muller et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS), see MMRCS1 (276300).
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1733656
Concept ID:
C5436807
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-3 (MMRCS3) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by brain tumors, hematologic malignancy, and gastrointestinal tumors. Multiple cafe-au-lait spots, axillary freckling, and, rarely, Lisch nodules reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200) may be present (Hegde et al., 2005, Ostergaard et al., 2005). Microsatellite instability may be detected in tumor samples (Hegde et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300).
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1745382
Concept ID:
C5436817
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-4 (MMRCS4) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by early-onset leukemia/lymphoma, brain tumors, colorectal/gastrointestinal cancers, and other rare malignancies, including rhabdomyosarcoma (summary by Li et al., 2015). Cafe-au-lait spots are usually present (De Vos et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300).
Tumor predisposition syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1823959
Concept ID:
C5774186
Disease or Syndrome
Tumor predisposition syndrome-2 (TPDS2) is an autosomal recessive cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by the onset of various types of tumors or malignancies in young adulthood. The most common clinical manifestations include acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome, colorectal adenomatous polyposis and carcinoma, and uveal melanoma, although other tumors and malignancies have been reported (summary by Palles et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of TPDS, see TPDS1 (614327).
Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1051978
Concept ID:
CN375946
Disease or Syndrome
Any Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the FLCN gene.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Vogel JD, Felder SI, Bhama AR, Hawkins AT, Langenfeld SJ, Shaffer VO, Thorsen AJ, Weiser MR, Chang GJ, Lightner AL, Feingold DL, Paquette IM
Dis Colon Rectum 2022 Feb 1;65(2):148-177. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000002323. PMID: 34775402
Daly MB, Pal T, Berry MP, Buys SS, Dickson P, Domchek SM, Elkhanany A, Friedman S, Goggins M, Hutton ML; CGC, Karlan BY, Khan S, Klein C, Kohlmann W; CGC, Kurian AW, Laronga C, Litton JK, Mak JS; LCGC, Menendez CS, Merajver SD, Norquist BS, Offit K, Pederson HJ, Reiser G; CGC, Senter-Jamieson L; CGC, Shannon KM, Shatsky R, Visvanathan K, Weitzel JN, Wick MJ, Wisinski KB, Yurgelun MB, Darlow SD, Dwyer MA
J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Jan 6;19(1):77-102. doi: 10.6004/jnccn.2021.0001. PMID: 33406487
Cappell MS
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2008 Mar;37(1):1-24, v. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2007.12.002. PMID: 18313537

Curated

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) Colon Cancer, 2023

American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Family History ACT Sheet, Colon Cancer (Asymptomatic), 2012

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Fabregas JC, Ramnaraign B, George TJ
Clin Colorectal Cancer 2022 Sep;21(3):198-203. Epub 2022 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.clcc.2022.05.006. PMID: 35729033
Su Y, Tian X, Gao R, Guo W, Chen C, Chen C, Jia D, Li H, Lv X
Comput Biol Med 2022 Jun;145:105409. Epub 2022 Mar 19 doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105409. PMID: 35339846
Benson AB, Venook AP, Al-Hawary MM, Cederquist L, Chen YJ, Ciombor KK, Cohen S, Cooper HS, Deming D, Engstrom PF, Garrido-Laguna I, Grem JL, Grothey A, Hochster HS, Hoffe S, Hunt S, Kamel A, Kirilcuk N, Krishnamurthi S, Messersmith WA, Meyerhardt J, Miller ED, Mulcahy MF, Murphy JD, Nurkin S, Saltz L, Sharma S, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Sofocleous CT, Stoffel EM, Stotsky-Himelfarb E, Willett CG, Wuthrick E, Gregory KM, Freedman-Cass DA
J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018 Apr;16(4):359-369. doi: 10.6004/jnccn.2018.0021. PMID: 29632055Free PMC Article
Cappell MS
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2008 Mar;37(1):1-24, v. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2007.12.002. PMID: 18313537
Giovannucci E
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2002 Dec;31(4):925-43. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8553(02)00057-2. PMID: 12489270

Diagnosis

Hou W, Yi C, Zhu H
Front Immunol 2022;13:1032314. Epub 2022 Nov 22 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1032314. PMID: 36483562Free PMC Article
Fabregas JC, Ramnaraign B, George TJ
Clin Colorectal Cancer 2022 Sep;21(3):198-203. Epub 2022 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.clcc.2022.05.006. PMID: 35729033
Jia SN, Han YB, Yang R, Yang ZC
Semin Cancer Biol 2022 Nov;86(Pt 3):400-407. Epub 2022 Feb 7 doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2022.02.007. PMID: 35183412
Benson AB, Venook AP, Al-Hawary MM, Cederquist L, Chen YJ, Ciombor KK, Cohen S, Cooper HS, Deming D, Engstrom PF, Garrido-Laguna I, Grem JL, Grothey A, Hochster HS, Hoffe S, Hunt S, Kamel A, Kirilcuk N, Krishnamurthi S, Messersmith WA, Meyerhardt J, Miller ED, Mulcahy MF, Murphy JD, Nurkin S, Saltz L, Sharma S, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Sofocleous CT, Stoffel EM, Stotsky-Himelfarb E, Willett CG, Wuthrick E, Gregory KM, Freedman-Cass DA
J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018 Apr;16(4):359-369. doi: 10.6004/jnccn.2018.0021. PMID: 29632055Free PMC Article
Cappell MS
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2008 Mar;37(1):1-24, v. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2007.12.002. PMID: 18313537

Therapy

Gosavi R, Chia C, Michael M, Heriot AG, Warrier SK, Kong JC
Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Oct;36(10):2063-2070. Epub 2021 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s00384-021-03945-3. PMID: 33945007
Grothey A, Sobrero AF, Shields AF, Yoshino T, Paul J, Taieb J, Souglakos J, Shi Q, Kerr R, Labianca R, Meyerhardt JA, Vernerey D, Yamanaka T, Boukovinas I, Meyers JP, Renfro LA, Niedzwiecki D, Watanabe T, Torri V, Saunders M, Sargent DJ, Andre T, Iveson T
N Engl J Med 2018 Mar 29;378(13):1177-1188. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1713709. PMID: 29590544Free PMC Article
Iqbal A, George TJ
Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):689-704. Epub 2017 Aug 18 doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2017.05.008. PMID: 28923225
Ursem C, Van Loon K, Venook A
Cancer J 2016 May-Jun;22(3):196-8. doi: 10.1097/PPO.0000000000000188. PMID: 27341598Free PMC Article
Giovannucci E
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2002 Dec;31(4):925-43. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8553(02)00057-2. PMID: 12489270

Prognosis

Xu L, Su X, He Z, Zhang C, Lu J, Zhang G, Sun Y, Du X, Chi P, Wang Z, Zhong M, Wu A, Zhu A, Li F, Xu J, Kang L, Suo J, Deng H, Ye Y, Ding K, Xu T, Zhang Z, Zheng M, Xiao Y; RELARC Study Group
Lancet Oncol 2021 Mar;22(3):391-401. Epub 2021 Feb 12 doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30685-9. PMID: 33587893
Chen H, Luo J, Guo J
BMC Cancer 2020 May 6;20(1):395. doi: 10.1186/s12885-020-06799-0. PMID: 32375704Free PMC Article
Celis-Morales CA, Welsh P, Lyall DM, Steell L, Petermann F, Anderson J, Iliodromiti S, Sillars A, Graham N, Mackay DF, Pell JP, Gill JMR, Sattar N, Gray SR
BMJ 2018 May 8;361:k1651. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k1651. PMID: 29739772Free PMC Article
Brenner H, Kloor M, Pox CP
Lancet 2014 Apr 26;383(9927):1490-1502. Epub 2013 Nov 11 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61649-9. PMID: 24225001
Sorosky JI
Obstet Gynecol 2008 Feb;111(2 Pt 1):436-47. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318162f690. PMID: 18238985

Clinical prediction guides

Guo JN, Chen D, Deng SH, Huang JR, Song JX, Li XY, Cui BB, Liu YL
Cancer Immunol Immunother 2022 Jun;71(6):1313-1330. Epub 2021 Oct 16 doi: 10.1007/s00262-021-03076-2. PMID: 34657172Free PMC Article
Yurgelun MB, Allen B, Kaldate RR, Bowles KR, Judkins T, Kaushik P, Roa BB, Wenstrup RJ, Hartman AR, Syngal S
Gastroenterology 2015 Sep;149(3):604-13.e20. Epub 2015 May 14 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.05.006. PMID: 25980754Free PMC Article
Kim SE, Paik HY, Yoon H, Lee JE, Kim N, Sung MK
World J Gastroenterol 2015 May 7;21(17):5167-75. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i17.5167. PMID: 25954090Free PMC Article
Kim JH
World J Gastroenterol 2015 May 7;21(17):5158-66. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i17.5158. PMID: 25954089Free PMC Article
Marisa L, de Reyniès A, Duval A, Selves J, Gaub MP, Vescovo L, Etienne-Grimaldi MC, Schiappa R, Guenot D, Ayadi M, Kirzin S, Chazal M, Fléjou JF, Benchimol D, Berger A, Lagarde A, Pencreach E, Piard F, Elias D, Parc Y, Olschwang S, Milano G, Laurent-Puig P, Boige V
PLoS Med 2013;10(5):e1001453. Epub 2013 May 21 doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001453. PMID: 23700391Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

O'Sullivan DE, Sutherland RL, Town S, Chow K, Fan J, Forbes N, Heitman SJ, Hilsden RJ, Brenner DR
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Jun;20(6):1229-1240.e5. Epub 2021 Jan 29 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2021.01.037. PMID: 33524598
Farvid MS, Sidahmed E, Spence ND, Mante Angua K, Rosner BA, Barnett JB
Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Sep;36(9):937-951. Epub 2021 Aug 29 doi: 10.1007/s10654-021-00741-9. PMID: 34455534
Gosavi R, Chia C, Michael M, Heriot AG, Warrier SK, Kong JC
Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Oct;36(10):2063-2070. Epub 2021 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s00384-021-03945-3. PMID: 33945007
Turner ND, Lloyd SK
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2017 Apr;242(8):813-839. Epub 2017 Jan 1 doi: 10.1177/1535370217693117. PMID: 28205448Free PMC Article
Kyu HH, Bachman VF, Alexander LT, Mumford JE, Afshin A, Estep K, Veerman JL, Delwiche K, Iannarone ML, Moyer ML, Cercy K, Vos T, Murray CJ, Forouzanfar MH
BMJ 2016 Aug 9;354:i3857. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i3857. PMID: 27510511Free PMC Article

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    Curated

    • NCCN, 2023
      NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) Colon Cancer, 2023
    • ACMG ACT, 2012
      American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Family History ACT Sheet, Colon Cancer (Asymptomatic), 2012

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